Electrical issues in European cars can be intimidating. The Hack Mechanic Guide to European Automotive Electrical Systems shows you how to think about electricity in your car and then take on real-world electrical problems. The principles discussed can be applied to most conventional internal-combustion-engined vehicles, with a focus on European cars spanning the past six decades.Drawing on The Hack Mechanic's wisdom and experience, the 38 chapters cover key electrical topics such as battery, starter, alternator, ignition, circuits, and relays. Through a practical and informal approach featuring hundreds of full-color illustrations, author Rob Siegel takes the fear-factor out of projects like making wire repairs, measuring voltage drops, or figuring out if you have a bad fuel pump relay. Essential tools such as multimeters (DVOM), oscillosopes, and scan tools are discussed, with special attention given to the automotive multimeter needed to troubleshoot many modern sensors. You'll get step-by-step troubleshooting procedures ranging from safely jump starting a battery to diagnosing parasitic current drain and vehicle energy diagnosis. And you'll find detailed testing procedures for most problematic electrical components on your European car such as oxygen sensors, crankshaft and camshaft sensors, wheel speed sensors, fuel pumps, solenoids, and actuators. Reading wiring diagrams and decoding the German DIN standard are also covered.Whether you are a DIY mechanic or a professional technician, The Hack Mechanic Guide to European Automotive Electrical Systems will increase your confidence in tackling automotive electrical problem-solving.This book applies to gasoline and diesel powered internal combustion engine vehicles. Not intended for hybrid or electric vehicles.