Rethinking Civilization offers an alternative view of human civilization in a globalizing age. Majid Tehranian analyses the transition from nomadic, to agrarian, commercial, industrial, and digital civilizations and argues that the growing gaps among the five major civilizations have led to terror operating as a form of global communication. This new book explores the uneven pace of development of human societies, particularly in the last two centuries, and argues that this is leading to a global civil war. Taking a long-term historical perspective, and developing a model that explains how empires, resistance, and civilizations have evolved alongside major technological breakthroughs in history, Tehranian offers a multi-cultural and multi-disciplinary analysis of the phenomenon. Seeking to counter the current rhetorical trends, Tehranian reconceptualizes "civilization" to make it a useful analytical rather than ideological category. defines the varieties of terrorism, including structural, nuclear, state, opposition, messianic, and anomic. addresses the contemporary problems of global governance and the evolution of international relations. traces the evolution of global communication from orality to literacy, print, electronic, and digital modes. forecasts the emerging problems of encounters among the five civilizations. This unique and original volume will be of great interest to students and researchers of globalization, international relations, peace studies and sociology.