A Culture of Fact

England, 1550-1720
Author: Barbara J. Shapiro
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801488498
Category: History
Page: 296
View: 2565
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Barbara J. Shapiro traces the surprising genesis of the "fact," a modern concept that, she convincingly demonstrates, originated not in natural science but in legal discourse. She follows the concept's evolution and diffusion across a variety of disciplines in early modern England, examining how the emerging "culture of fact" shaped the epistemological assumptions of each intellectual enterprise.Drawing on an astonishing breadth of research, Shapiro probes the fact's changing identity from an alleged human action to a proven natural or human happening. The crucial first step in this transition occurred in the sixteenth century when English common law established a definition of fact which relied on eyewitnesses and testimony. The concept widened to cover natural as well as human events as a result of developments in news reportage and travel writing. Only then, Shapiro discovers, did scientific philosophy adopt the category "fact." With Francis Bacon advocating more stringent criteria, the witness became a vital component in scientific observation and experimentation. Shapiro also recounts how England's preoccupation with the fact influenced historiography, religion, and literature—which saw the creation of a fact-oriented fictional genre, the novel.

Laws of Men and Laws of Nature

The History of Scientific Expert Testimony in England and America
Author: Tal GOLAN,Tal Golan
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674037693
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 8074
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Books of Secrets

Natural Philosophy in England, 1550-1600
Author: Allison Kavey
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252091590
Category: History
Page: 216
View: 1370
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How cultural categories shaped--and were shaped by--new ideas about controlling nature Ranging from alchemy to necromancy, "books of secrets" offered medieval readers an affordable and accessible collection of knowledge about the natural world. Allison Kavey's study traces the cultural relevance of these books and also charts their influence on the people who read them. Citing the importance of printers in choosing the books' contents, she points out how these books legitimized manipulating nature, thereby expanding cultural categories, such as masculinity, femininity, gentleman, lady, and midwife, to include the willful command of the natural world.

Portuguese Humanism and the Republic of Letters


Author: Maria Berbara,Karl A. E.. Enenkel
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004217215
Category: History
Page: 476
View: 7376
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This volume focuses on the interdisciplinary investigation of Portuguese humanism, especially as a noteworthy player in the international network of early modern scholarship, literature and visual arts.

Political Communication and Political Culture in England, 1558-1688


Author: Barbara J. Shapiro
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804784582
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 5408
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This book surveys the channels through which political ideas and knowledge were conveyed to the English people from the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth I to the Revolution of 1688. Shapiro argues that an assessment of English political culture requires an examination of all means by which this culture was expressed and communicated. While the discussion focuses primarily on genres such as the sermon, newsbook, poetry, and drama, it also considers the role of events and institutions. Shapiro is the first to explore and elucidate the entire web of communication in early modern English political life.

Trying Leviathan

The Nineteenth-Century New York Court Case That Put the Whale on Trial and Challenged the Order of Nature
Author: D. Graham Burnett
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691146157
Category: History
Page: 266
View: 1146
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Recounts the 1818 trial Maurice v. Judd in which the new science of taxonomy was pitted against a dispute over the regulation of whale oil and the then-popular view that the whale was a fish.

Two Nations in Your Womb

Perceptions of Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Author: Israel Jacob Yuval
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520217669
Category: History
Page: 313
View: 2325
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Offers a provocative look at the relationship between Judaism and Christianity, arguing that the inter-religous polemic between the two religions served as a substantial component in the formation of each and that the impact of Christianity on Talmudic and medieval Judaism was much stronger than previously assumed.

Retrying Galileo, 1633–1992


Author: Maurice A. Finocchiaro
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520253876
Category: Religion
Page: 485
View: 1463
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"This is must reading for historians of science and a delight for the interested public. From his access to many primary sources in the Vatican Library and from his broad knowledge of the history of the 17th century, Finocchiaro acquaints readers in an interesting manner with the historical facts of Galileo's trial, its aftermath, and its repercussions. Unlike many other works which present predetermined and, at times, prejudiced judgments, this work provides exhaustive evidence to allow readers to develop their own informed opinion on the subject.”—George V. Coyne, Director, Vatican Astronomical Observatory “The tragic condemnation of Galileo by the Roman Catholic Church in 1633 has become the single most potent symbol of authoritarian opposition to new ideas. Pioneering in its scope, Finocchiaro's book provides a fascinating account of how the trial and its cultural significance have been freshly reconstructed by scholars and polemicists down the ages. With a philosopher's eye for fine distinctions, the author has written an exciting commentary on the successive appearance of new primary sources and their exploitation for apologetic and secular purposes.”—John Hedley Brooke, author of Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives "If good history begins with good facts, then Retrying Galileo should be the starting point for all future discussions of the post-trial phase of the Galileo affair. Maurice Finocchiaro's myth-busting documentary history is not only a repository of little-known sources but a pleasure to read as well.”—Ronald L. Numbers, co-editor of When Christianity and Science Meet “Retrying Galileo tells the less well-known half of the Galileo affair: its long and complex history after 1633. Finocchiaro has performed an invaluable service in writing a book that explores how the trial and condemnation of Galileo has been received, debated, and reinterpreted for over three and a half centuries. We are not yet done with this contentious story.”—Paula E. Findlen, Ubaldo Pierotti Professor of Italian History and Director of the Science, Technology and Society Program, Stanford University

Forensic Medicine and Death Investigation in Medieval England


Author: Sara M. Butler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317610253
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 1178
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England has traditionally been understood as a latecomer to the use of forensic medicine in death investigation, lagging nearly two-hundred years behind other European authorities. Using the coroner's inquest as a lens, this book hopes to offer a fresh perspective on the process of death investigation in medieval England. The central premise of this book is that medical practitioners did participate in death investigation – although not in every inquest, or even most, and not necessarily in those investigations where we today would deem their advice most pertinent. The medieval relationship with death and disease, in particular, shaped coroners' and their jurors' understanding of the inquest's medical needs and led them to conclusions that can only be understood in context of the medieval world's holistic approach to health and medicine. Moreover, while the English resisted Southern Europe's penchant for autopsies, at times their findings reveal a solid understanding of internal medicine. By studying cause of death in the coroners' reports, this study sheds new light on subjects such as abortion by assault, bubonic plague, cruentation, epilepsy, insanity, senescence, and unnatural death.

Marks of an Absolute Witch

Evidentiary Dilemmas in Early Modern England
Author: Orna Alyagon Darr
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409430243
Category: History
Page: 326
View: 5002
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Exploring the crime of witchcraft in early modern England, this book focuses on legal questions of proof. As a capital crime - yet one that was uniquely difficult to prove - witchcraft investigations and trials offer a fascinating lens through which to observe social and judicial attitudes towards crime, punishment and evidentiary standards. The witchcraft debate took place within the formative era of modern evidence law, and the book highlights the mutual influences between the witch trials and major legal developments.

Criminal Law and the Modernist Novel

Experience on Trial
Author: Rex Ferguson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110701297X
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 212
View: 1454
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This book offers an interdisciplinary account of the relationship between criminal trials and novels in the modernist period.

Law, Crime and English Society, 1660–1830


Author: Norma Landau
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139433266
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 8494
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This book examines how the law was made, defined, administered, and used in eighteenth-century England. A team of leading international historians explore the ways in which legal concerns and procedures came to permeate society and reflect on eighteenth-century concepts of corruption, oppression, and institutional efficiency. These themes are pursued throughout in a broad range of contributions which include studies of magistrates and courts; the forcible enlistment of soldiers and sailors; the eighteenth-century 'bloody code'; the making of law basic to nineteenth-century social reform; the populace's extension of law's arena to newspapers; theologians' use of assumptions basic to English law; Lord Chief Justice Mansfield's concept of the liberty intrinsic to England; and Blackstone's concept of the framework of English law. The result is an invaluable account of the legal bases of eighteenth-century society which is essential reading for historians at all levels.

Dress, Law and Naked Truth

A Cultural Study of Fashion and Form
Author: Gary Watt
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1472500458
Category: Social Science
Page: 166
View: 6811
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Why are civil authorities in so-called liberal democracies affronted by public nudity and the Islamic full-face 'veil'? Why is law and civil order so closely associated with robes, gowns, suits, wigs and uniforms? Why is law so concerned with the 'evident' and the need for justice to be 'seen' to be done? Why do we dress and obey dress codes at all? In this, the first ever study devoted to the many deep cultural connections between dress and law, the author addresses these questions and more. His responses flow from the radical thesis that 'law is dress and dress is law'. Engaging with sources from The Epic of Gilgamesh to Shakespeare, Carlyle, Dickens and Damien Hirst, Professor Watt draws a revealing history of dress and civil order and offers challenging conclusions about the nature of truth and the potential for individuals to fit within the forms of civil life.

Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England


Author: Garthine Walker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139435116
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 2009
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An extended study of gender and crime in early modern England. It considers the ways in which criminal behaviour and perceptions of criminality were informed by ideas about gender and order, and explores their practical consequences for the men and women who were brought before the criminal courts. Dr Walker's innovative approach demonstrates that, contrary to received opinion, the law was often structured so as to make the treatment of women and men before the courts incommensurable. For the first time, early modern criminality is explored in terms of masculinity as well as femininity. Illuminating the interactions between gender and other categories such as class and civil war have implications not merely for the historiography of crime but for the social history of early modern England as a whole. This study therefore goes beyond conventional studies, and challenges hitherto accepted views of social interaction in the period.

Fear, Exclusion and Revolution

Roger Morrice and Britain in the 1680s
Author: Jason McElligott
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 9780754656821
Category: History
Page: 228
View: 325
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Between the years 1677 and 1691 the puritan minister Roger Morrice compiled an astonishingly detailed record of the day-to-day public affairs in Britain. His 'Entering Book' provides a unique record of late seventeenth-century political and religious hist

True Relations

Reading, Literature, and Evidence in Seventeenth-Century England
Author: Frances E. Dolan
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812207793
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 344
View: 3387
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In the motley ranks of seventeenth-century print, one often comes upon the title True Relation. Purportedly true relations describe monsters, miracles, disasters, crimes, trials, and apparitions. They also convey discoveries achieved through exploration or experiment. Contemporaries relied on such accounts for access to information even as they distrusted them; scholars today share both their dependency and their doubt. What we take as evidence, Frances E. Dolan argues, often raises more questions than it answers. Although historians have tracked dramatic changes in evidentiary standards and practices in the period, these changes did not solve the problem of how to interpret true relations or ease the reliance on them. The burden remains on readers. Dolan connects early modern debates about textual evidence to recent discussions of the value of seventeenth-century texts as historical evidence. Then as now, she contends, literary techniques of analysis have proven central to staking and assessing truth claims. She addresses the kinds of texts that circulated about three traumatic events—the Gunpowder Plot, witchcraft prosecutions, and the London Fire—and looks at legal depositions, advice literature, and plays as genres of evidence that hover in a space between fact and fiction. Even as doubts linger about their documentary and literary value, scholars rely heavily on them. Confronting and exploring these doubts, Dolan makes a case for owning up to our agency in crafting true relations among the textual fragments that survive.

A Philosophy of Evidence Law

Justice in the Search for Truth
Author: H. L. Ho
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199228302
Category: Law
Page: 347
View: 4739
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This book examines the legal and moral theory behind the law of evidence and proof, arguing that only by exploring the nature of responsibility in fact-finding can the role and purpose of much of the law be fully understood. Ho argues that the court must not only find the truth to do justice, it must do justice in finding the truth.

John Dee's Conversations with Angels

Cabala, Alchemy, and the End of Nature
Author: Deborah E. Harkness
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521622288
Category: History
Page: 252
View: 2212
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This book is about Elizabethan England's most famous 'scientist' or natural philosopher John Dee and his 'conversations with angels'.

News in Early Modern Europe

Currents and Connections
Author: Simon Davies,Puck Fletcher
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004276866
Category: History
Page: 284
View: 2408
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News in Early Modern Europe presents new research on the nature, production, and dissemination of a variety of forms of news writing from across Europe during the early modern period.