A New Juvenile Justice System

Total Reform for a Broken System
Author: Nancy E. Dowd
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479898805
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 3715

A New Juvenile Justice System aims at nothing less than a complete reform of the existing system: not minor change or even significant overhaul, but the replacement of the existing system with a different vision. The authors in this volume—academics, activists, researchers, and those who serve in the existing system—all respond in this collection to the question of what the system should be. Uniformly, they agree that an ideal system should be centered around the principle of child well-being and the goal of helping kids to achieve productive lives as citizens and members of their communities. Rather than the existing system, with its punitive, destructive, undermining effect and uneven application by race and gender, these authors envision a system responsive to the needs of youth as well as to the community’s legitimate need for public safety. How, they ask, can the ideals of equality, freedom, liberty, and self-determination transform the system? How can we improve the odds that children who have been labeled as “delinquent” can make successful transitions to adulthood? And how can we create a system that relies on proven, family-focused interventions and creates opportunities for positive youth development? Drawing upon interdisciplinary work as well as on-the-ground programs and experience, the authors sketch out the broad parameters of such a system. Providing the principles, goals, and concrete means to achieve them, this volume imagines using our resources wisely and well to invest in all children and their potential to contribute and thrive in our society.

Justice for Kids

Keeping Kids Out of the Juvenile Justice System
Author: Nancy E. Dowd
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479832952
Category: Law
Page: 323
View: 4991

Children and youth become involved with the juvenile justice system at a significant rate. While some children move just as quickly out of the system and go on to live productive lives as adults, other children become enmeshed in the system, developing deeper problems and at times introduced into the adult criminal justice system. Justice for Kids is a volume edited by leading academics and activists that focuses on ways to intervene at the earliest possible point to rehabilitate and redirect—to keep kids out of the system—rather than to punish and drive kids deeper. Nancy Dowd is Director of the Center for Children and Families at the University of Florida Fredric G. Levin College of Law and holds the David H. Levin Chair in Family Law. She is the author of several books, most recently The Man Question: Male Subordination and Privilege (NYU Press).

Rethinking Juvenile Justice


Author: Elizabeth S Scott,Laurence D Steinberg
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674030862
Category: Law
Page: 370
View: 3820

What should we do with teenagers who commit crimes? In this book, two leading scholars in law and adolescent development argue that juvenile justice should be grounded in the best available psychological science, which shows that adolescence is a distinctive state of cognitive and emotional development. Although adolescents are not children, they are also not fully responsible adults.

Burning Down the House

The End of Juvenile Prison
Author: Nell Bernstein
Publisher: New Press, The
ISBN: 1595589562
Category: Law
Page: 384
View: 7734

When teenagers scuffle during a basketball game, they are typically benched. But when Will got into it on the court, he and his rival were sprayed in the face at close range by a chemical similar to Mace, denied a shower for twenty-four hours, and then locked in solitary confinement for a month. One in three American children will be arrested by the time they are twenty-three, and many will spend time locked inside horrific detention centers that defy everything we know about how to rehabilitate young offenders. In a clear-eyed indictment of the juvenile justice system run amok, award-winning journalist Nell Bernstein shows that there is no right way to lock up a child. The very act of isolation denies delinquent children the thing that is most essential to their growth and rehabilitation: positive relationships with caring adults. Bernstein introduces us to youth across the nation who have suffered violence and psychological torture at the hands of the state. She presents these youths all as fully realized people, not victims. As they describe in their own voices their fight to maintain their humanity and protect their individuality in environments that would deny both, these young people offer a hopeful alternative to the doomed effort to reform a system that should only be dismantled. Burning Down the House is a clarion call to shut down our nation’s brutal and counterproductive juvenile prisons and bring our children home.

The War on Kids

How American Juvenile Justice Lost Its Way
Author: Cara H. Drinan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190605553
Category: Law
Page: 232
View: 5492

In 2003, when Terrence Graham was sixteen, he and three other teens attempted to rob a barbeque restaurant in Jacksonville, Florida. Though they left with no money, and no one was seriously injured, Terrence was sentenced to die in prison for his involvement in that crime. As shocking as Terrence's sentence sounds, it is merely a symptom of contemporary American juvenile justice practices. In the United States, adolescents are routinely transferred out of juvenile court and into adult criminal court without any judicial oversight. Once in adult court, children can be sentenced without regard for their youth. Juveniles are housed in adult correctional facilities, they may be held in solitary confinement, and they experience the highest rates of sexual and physical assault among inmates. Until 2005, children convicted in America's courts were subject to the death penalty; today, they still may be sentenced to die in prison-no matter what efforts they make to rehabilitate themselves. America has waged a war on kids. In The War on Kids, Cara Drinan reveals how the United States went from being a pioneer to an international pariah in its juvenile sentencing practices. Academics and journalists have long recognized the failings of juvenile justice practices in this country and have called for change. Despite the uncertain political climate, there is hope that recent Supreme Court decisions may finally make those calls a reality. The War on Kids seizes upon this moment of judicial and political recognition that children are different in the eyes of the law. Drinan chronicles the shortcomings of juvenile justice by drawing upon social science, legal decisions, and first-hand correspondence with Terrence and others like him-individuals whose adolescent errors have cost them their lives. At the same time, The War on Kids maps out concrete steps that states can take to correct the course of American juvenile justice.

Juvenile Justice in Global Perspective


Author: Franklin E. Zimring,Maximo Langer,David S. Tanenhaus
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479890448
Category: Social Science
Page: 416
View: 8430

An unprecedented comparison of juvenile justice systems across the globe, Juvenile Justice in Global Perspective brings together original contributions from some of the world's leading voices. While American scholars may have extensive knowledge about other justice systems around the world and how adults are treated, juvenile justice systems and the plight of youth who break the law throughout the world is less often studied. This important volume fills a large gap in the study of juvenile justice by providing an unprecedented comparison of criminal justice and juvenile justice systems across the world, looking for points of comparison and policy variance that can lead to positive change in the United States. Distinguished criminology scholars Franklin Zimring, Máximo Langer, and David Tanenhaus, and the contributors cover countries from Western Europe to rising powers like China, India, and countries in Latin America. The book discusses important issues such as the relationship between political change and juvenile justice, the common labels used to unify juvenile systems in different regions and in different forms of government, the types of juvenile systems that exist and how they differ, and more. Furthermore, the book uses its data on criminal versus juvenile justice in a wide variety of nations to create a new explanation of why separate juvenile and criminal courts are felt to be necessary.

The Evolution of the Juvenile Court

Race, Politics, and the Criminalizing of Juvenile Justice
Author: Barry C. Feld
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479895695
Category: Law
Page: 392
View: 6741

A major statement on the juvenile justice system by one of America’s leading experts The juvenile court lies at the intersection of youth policy and crime policy. Its institutional practices reflect our changing ideas about children and crime control. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court provides a sweeping overview of the American juvenile justice system’s development and change over the past century. Noted law professor and criminologist Barry C. Feld places special emphasis on changes over the last 25 years—the ascendance of get tough crime policies and the more recent Supreme Court recognition that “children are different.” Feld’s comprehensive historical analyses trace juvenile courts’ evolution though four periods—the original Progressive Era, the Due Process Revolution in the 1960s, the Get Tough Era of the 1980s and 1990s, and today’s Kids Are Different era. In each period, changes in the economy, cities, families, race and ethnicity, and politics have shaped juvenile courts’ policies and practices. Changes in juvenile courts’ ends and means—substance and procedure—reflect shifting notions of children’s culpability and competence. The Evolution of the Juvenile Court examines how conservative politicians used coded racial appeals to advocate get tough policies that equated children with adults and more recent Supreme Court decisions that draw on developmental psychology and neuroscience research to bolster its conclusions about youths’ reduced criminal responsibility and diminished competence. Feld draws on lessons from the past to envision a new, developmentally appropriate justice system for children. Ultimately, providing justice for children requires structural changes to reduce social and economic inequality—concentrated poverty in segregated urban areas—that disproportionately expose children of color to juvenile courts’ punitive policies. Historical, prescriptive, and analytical, The Evolution of the Juvenile Court evaluates the author’s past recommendations to abolish juvenile courts in light of this new evidence, and concludes that separate, but reformed, juvenile courts are necessary to protect children who commit crimes and facilitate their successful transition to adulthood.

Juvenile Law Violators, Human Rights, and the Development of New Juvenile Justice Systems


Author: Eric L. Jensen,Jørgen Jepsen
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847312853
Category: Law
Page: 496
View: 2546

This volume brings together scholars and practitioners specialising in juvenile justice from the US, Europe, alongside scholars from Africa and Asia who are working on human rights issues in developing countries or countries in transition. The book thus presents two types of papers, the first being descriptive and analytical academic papers on whole systems of juvenile justice or certain parts thereof (e.g., aftercare, restorative justice, etc.). These topics are presented as essential for the development of new juvenile justice systems. The second group of papers deal with efforts to promote reform through international activity (PRI, DCI, DIHR), and through efforts to utilise modern theory in national reforms in developing countries (Malawi, Nepal, and Serbia) or in countries experiencing current or recent political and systemic changes or developments (South Africa, Germany, and Poland). The volume is also intended to throw light on recent trends in juvenile crime in various countries, the relationship between actual developments and popular and political perceptions and reactions to such developments, including the efforts to locate effective alternatives to the incarceration of young offenders. At the same time as the search for such alternatives is being intensified through international exchange and experimentation, the amelioration of harsh measures against juvenile law violators is often countered by political and public outcries for security and demonstrative public intervention against misbehavior. A streak of new moralism is clearly discernable as a counteracting force against more humane reform efforts. The volume throws light on developments in the actual parameters of juvenile offending, public and political demands for security and public intervention, and measures to provide interventions which are at the same time compatible with international human rights instruments.

Juvenile Justice Systems

International Perspectives
Author: John Winterdyk
Publisher: Canadian Scholars’ Press
ISBN: 9781551302027
Category: Social Science
Page: 556
View: 7197

By the year 2000 more than 50% of the world population will be under the age of 15 (9th UN Congress, 1995). Youth crime is increasing around the world (9th UN Congress, 1995). In September 1997, Canadian Justice Minister, Anne McLellan, declared youth justice as a top priority. These and similar facts speak to the urgency for society to study youth crime and examine youth justice systems from a comparative perspective. As our world gets smaller, we discover the urgency and importance of sharing and learning at a global level. This collection offers a unique opportunity to examine six different juvenile justice systems and youth crime around the world. All eleven articles are original contributions from a distinguished set of experts on juvenile justice in their respective countries. Each contribution examines a set of common elements: defining delinquency, describing the nature and extent of youth crime, examining the administration of youth justice, and discussing issues confronting youth crime. This groundbreaking book will be of interest to students, criminologists, and criminal justice policy-makers who are interested in improving the intervention, treatment, and prevention of youth crime, and the administration of youth justice.

States of Delinquency

Race and Science in the Making of California's Juvenile Justice System
Author: Miroslava Chavez-Garcia
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520951557
Category: History
Page: 314
View: 6755

This unique analysis of the rise of the juvenile justice system from the nineteenth to twentieth centuries uses one of the harshest states—California—as a case study for examining racism in the treatment of incarcerated young people of color. Using rich new untapped archives, States of Delinquency is the first book to explore the experiences of young Mexican Americans, African Americans, and ethnic Euro-Americans in California correctional facilities including Whittier State School for Boys and the Preston School of Industry. Miroslava Chávez-García examines the ideologies and practices used by state institutions as they began to replace families and communities in punishing youth, and explores the application of science and pseudo-scientific research in the disproportionate classification of youths of color as degenerate. She also shows how these boys and girls, and their families, resisted increasingly harsh treatment and various kinds of abuse, including sterilization.

A Handbook for Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Systems


Author: James C. Howell,Mark W. Lipsey,John J. Wilson
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739187090
Category: Social Science
Page: 210
View: 8828

A Handbook for Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Systems promotes a comprehensive strategy for reducing criminal careers of serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders, including gang members, in an approach that is supported by current research. A step-by-step blueprint is provided for interrupting these offender’s criminal careers with a combination of effective intervention programs and graduated sanctions in a research-based, data-driven, and outcome-focused approach./span

Juvenile Justice

An Introduction
Author: John T. Whitehead,Steven P. Lab
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317534581
Category: Social Science
Page: 496
View: 5141

Juvenile Justice: An Introduction, 8th edition, presents a comprehensive picture of juvenile offending, delinquency theories, and how juvenile justice actors and agencies react to delinquency. It covers the history and development of the juvenile justice system and the unique issues related to juveniles, offering evidence-based suggestions for successful interventions and treatment and examining the new balance model of juvenile court. This new edition not only includes the latest available statistics on juvenile crime and victimization, drug use, court processing, and corrections, but provides insightful analysis of recent developments, such as those related to the use of probation supervision fees; responses to gangs and cyber bullying; implementing the deterrence model (Project Hope); the possible impact of drug legalization; the school-to-prison pipeline; the extent of victimization and mental illness in institutions; and implications of major court decisions regarding juveniles, such as Life Without Parole (LWOP) for juveniles. Each chapter enhances student understanding with Key Terms, a "What You Need to Know" section highlighting important points, and Discussion Questions. Links at key points in the text show students where they can go to get the latest information, and a comprehensive glossary aids comprehension.

Juvenile Justice

A Text/Reader
Author: Richard Lawrence,Craig Hemmens
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412950368
Category: Law
Page: 604
View: 3395

Juvenile Justice: A Text/Reader offers a unique new spin on the core textbook format. Organized like a more traditional juvenile justice text, this text/reader is divided into eight sections that contain all the usual topics taught in a juvenile justice course. After a comprehensive overview, each section has an introductory “mini-chapter” that provides engaging coverage of key concepts, developments, controversial issues, and research in the field. These authored introductions are followed by carefully selected and edited original research articles. The readings, from prominent scholarly journals, were written by juvenile justice experts and often have a policy orientation that will help address student interest in the “so what?” application of theory. Key Features and Benefits Boasts extensive and unique coverage of the juvenile justice system, focusing on law enforcement, the court system, correctional responses to juvenile offending, and an overview of the causes of delinquency Features a unique “How to Read a Research Article”—tied to the first reading in the book—to give students a guide to understand and learn from the edited articles that appear throughout the text. Provides an introduction to each reading to give students an overview of the purpose, main points, and conclusions of each article. Utilizes photographs, boxes, and suggested Web resources to enhance the book’s presentation and engage student interest. Offers a clear and concise summary of key terms and concepts in each section and discussion questions that enhance student comprehension Ancillaries A Student study site at www.sagepub.com/lawrencestudy provides self-quizzes, e-flashcards, additional readings, and more. Instructor Resource on CD include test questions for both the text and readings, PowerPoint slides, teaching tips, and other resources. Qualified instructors can request a copy by contacting Customer Care at 1-800-818-SAGE (7243), 6AM-5PM, Pacific Time. Intended Audience This Text/Reader is designed to serve as a replacement for a core text, or a supplement text for upper-level undergraduate Juvenile Justice courses in departments of criminal justice, criminology, sociology and related disciplines. Interested in a text/ reader for another criminology or criminal justice here? Explore other titles in the series.

Cops and Kids

Policing Juvenile Delinquency in Urban America, 1890-1940
Author: David B. Wolcott
Publisher: Ohio State University Press
ISBN: 0814210023
Category: Political Science
Page: 264
View: 6400



Juvenile Justice

Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice
Author: Francine Sherman,Francine Jacobs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118105850
Category: Political Science
Page: 569
View: 4575

"The lessons in this book remind us that we can—and that we must—do better, for the sake of our children, their futures, and the sake of our nation. . . . This volume is a call to action, and I encourage everyone who reads it to take steps to ensure that all America's children are given an equal chance to succeed. We must all work together to replace the cradle-to-prison pipeline with a pipeline to responsible, productive adulthood." —From the Foreword by Marian Wright Edelman, JD, President and founder, Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC "Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice appears at a critical time, when promising juvenile justice reforms are underway in so many jurisdictions across the United States. Sherman and Jacobs, and their impressive array of expert authors, fill a significant gap in the literature, making the current body of juvenile justice research and experience accessible to policy makers, researchers, and funders, and doing so through a practical and positive lens." —Patrick McCarthy, President and Chief Executive Officer, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD "Most people have narrow views of what it means to be a delinquent youth. In Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice, Sherman and Jacobs have diligently collected essays from the top experts in the juvenile justice field who tell an empirically based and powerful narrative of who is really in the delinquency system. As this book makes clear, until we ask and answer the right questions, we will remain unable to help the youth most in need." —Alexander Busansky, President, The National Council on Crime and Delinquency, Oakland, CA A comprehensive reference presenting a rehabilitative, youth- and community-centered vision of juvenile justice Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice brings together experts in juvenile justice, child development, and public health to explore the intersections between juvenile justice and needed development of programs and policies that look out for the health and well-being of the youth who enter this system. This timely book provides a usable framework for imagining juvenile justice systems that emphasize the welfare of juveniles, achieved primarily through connections within their communities. A must-read for professionals working in juvenile courts and within juvenile justice agencies, Juvenile Justice: Advancing Research, Policy, and Practice reflects both the considerable advances and the challenges currently evident in the juvenile justice system, with an emphasis on the development and implementation of policies that can succeed in building a new generation of educated young people able to embrace their potential and build successful futures.

Judging Children as Children

A Proposal for a Juvenile Justice System
Author: Michael A. Corriero
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 9781592137848
Category: Law
Page: 234
View: 4019

At a time when America's court system increasingly tries juvenile offenders as adults, the author draws directly from his experience as the founding judge of a special juvenile court to propose a new approach to dealing with youthful offenders. Its guiding principles, clearly laid out in this book, are that children are developmentally different from adults and that a judge can be a formidable force in shaping the lives of children who appear in court. This book makes a compelling argument for a better system of justice that recognizes the mental, emotional, and physical abilities of young people and provides them with an opportunity to be rehabilitated as productive members of society instead of being locked up in prisons.

Reimagining Equality

A New Deal for Children of Color
Author: Nancy E. Dowd
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479893358
Category: Law
Page: 256
View: 4553

A comprehensive examination of developmental inequality among children Developmental equality–whether every child has an equal opportunity to reach their fullest potential–is essential for children’s future growth and access to opportunity. In the United States, however, children of color are disproportionately affected by poverty, poor educational outcomes, and structural discrimination, limiting their potential. In Reimagining Equality, Nancy E. Dowd sets out to examine the roots of these inequalities by tracing the life course of black boys from birth to age 18 in an effort to create an affirmative system of rights and support for all children. Drawing on interdisciplinary research, the book demonstrates that black boys encounter challenges and barriers that funnel them toward failure rather than developmental success. Their example exposes a broader reality of hierarchies among children, linked to government policies, practices, structures, and institutions. Dowd argues for a new legal model of developmental equality, grounded in the real challenges that children face on the basis of race, gender, and class. Concluding with a “New Deal” for all children, Reimagining Equality provides a comprehensive set of policies that enables our political and legal systems to dismantle what harms and discriminates children, and maximize their development.

The Juvenile Justice System

Delinquency, Processing, and the Law , Student Value Edition
Author: Alida V. Merlo,Peter J. Benekos,Dean J. Champion
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780134099798
Category: Law
Page: 456
View: 6831

For courses in juvenile justice An In-depth Introduction to Juvenile Justice The Juvenile Justice System: Delinquency, Processing, and the Law is a comprehensive study of the juvenile justice system that examines how juvenile defenders are defined and classified and utilizes the current literature to illustrate the significant stages of juvenile processing and recent changes and developments in the field. This edition puts an increased focus on evidence-based programs that are effective in preventing and treating juvenile offenders. In addition to discussing policies and practices in the US system, examples of comparative foreign juvenile justice practice are also presented. The Juvenile Justice System, Eighth Edition makes the connection between theory and practice through numerous real world examples and connects new students to the many exciting career paths in the field.

Reforming Juvenile Justice

A Developmental Approach
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309278937
Category: Law
Page: 462
View: 3223

Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.

Redefining Fatherhood


Author: Nancy E. Dowd
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814719252
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 278
View: 5751

Most fathers parent less than most mothers. Those fathers who do parent equally or more so than mothers are poorly supported by our society. For children this means a loss of adult care, as well as an ongoing and sharply defined differentiation between fathers and mothers. Fathers are not present in children's lives to a significant degree, if at all, or when they are present, they are often rendered socially invisible. For many men, their parenthood is defined as biological or economic, while a minority of men struggle against the presumption that they are not caregivers. In Redefining Fatherhood, Nancy Dowd argues that this skewed social pattern is mirrored and supported by law. Dowd makes the case for reenvisioning fatherhood away from genes and dollars, and toward nurture. Integrating economic, social and legal aspects of fathering, she makes the case for focusing on social, nurturing behavior as the core meaning of fatherhood. In this nuanced and complex analysis, she explores the barriers to redefinition, including concepts of masculinity, the interconnections between fathers and mothers, male violence and homophobia. Redefining Fatherhood offers a progressive view on how men, and society at large, can change understandings and practices of fatherhood.