A World History of War Crimes

From Antiquity to the Present
Author: Michael Bryant
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472505026
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 2784
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A World History of War Crimes provides a truly global history of war crimes and the involvement of the legal systems faced with these acts. Documenting the long historical arc traced by human efforts to limit warfare, from codes of war in antiquity designed to maintain a religiously conceived cosmic order to the gradual use in the modern age of the criminal trial as a means of enforcing universal norms, this book provides a comprehensive one-volume account of war and the laws that have governed conflict since the dawn of world civilizations. Throughout his narrative, Michael Bryant locates the origin and evolution of the law of war in the interplay between different cultures. While showing that no single philosophical idea underlay the law of war in world history, this volume also proves that war in global civilization has rarely been an anarchic free-for-all. Rather, from its beginnings warfare has been subject to certain constraints defined by the unique needs and cosmological understandings of the cultures that produce them. Only in late modernity has law assumed its current international humanitarian form. The criminalization of war crimes in international courts today is only the most recent development of the ancient theme of constraining when and how war may be fought.

The Laws of War

Constraints on Warfare in the Western World
Author: Michael Howard,George J. Andreopoulos,Mark R. Shulman
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300070620
Category: History
Page: 311
View: 9668
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This book explores not only the formal constraints on the conduct of war throughout Western history but also the unwritten conventions about what is permissible in the course of military operations. Ranging from classical antiquity to the present, eminent historians discuss the legal and cultural regulation of violence in such areas as belligerent rights, the treatment of prisoners and civilians, the observing of truces and immunities, the use of particular weapons, siege warfare, codes of honor, and war crimes. The book begins with a general overview of the subject by Michael Howard. The contributors then discuss the formal and informal constraints on conducting war as they existed in classical antiquity, the age of chivalry, early modern Europe, colonial America, and the age of Napoleon. They also examine how these constraints have been applied to wars at sea, on land, and in the air, planning for nuclear war, and national liberation struggles, in which one of the participants is not an organized state. The book concludes with reflections by Paul Kennedy and George Andreopoulos on the main challenges facing the quest for humanitarian norms in warfare in the future.

Die Nürnberger Interviews

Gespräche mit Angeklagten und Zeugen
Author: Leon Goldensohn
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783538072176
Category: Nuremberg Trial of Major German War Criminals, Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946
Page: 457
View: 2744
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Blood and Soil


Author: Ben Kiernan
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300137931
Category: Political Science
Page: 735
View: 2077
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For thirty years Ben Kiernan has been deeply involved in the study of genocide and crimes against humanity. He has played a key role in unearthing confidential documentation of the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. His writings have transformed our understanding not only of twentieth-century Cambodia but also of the historical phenomenon of genocide. This new bookthe first global history of genocide and extermination from ancient timesis among his most important achievements. Kiernan examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalins mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides. He identifies connections, patterns, and features that in nearly every case gave early warning of the catastrophe to come: racism or religious prejudice, territorial expansionism, and cults of antiquity and agrarianism. The ideologies that have motivated perpetrators of mass killings in the past persist in our new century, says Kiernan. He urges that we heed the rich historical evidence with its telltale signs for predicting and preventing future genocides.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit


Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Category: History
Page: 528
View: 5457
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Crimes of State Past and Present

Government-Sponsored Atrocities and International Legal Responses
Author: David M. Crowe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317986822
Category: History
Page: 211
View: 5128
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War Crimes and acts of genocide are as old as history itself, but particularly during the 20th century. Yet what are war crimes and acts of genocide? And why did it take the world so long to define these crimes and develop legal institutions to bring to justice individuals and nations responsible such crimes? Part of the answer lies in the nature of the major wars fought in the 20th century and in the changing nature of warfare itself. This study looks at war crimes committed during the Second World War in the USSR, Yugoslavia, Germany, and efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice. This led to successful postwar efforts to define and outlaw such crimes and, more recently, the creation of two international courts to bring war criminals to justice. This did not prevent the commitment of war crimes and acts of genocide throughout the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. And while efforts to bring war criminals to justice has been enhanced by the work of these courts, the problems associated with civil wars, command responsibility, and other issues have created new challenges for the international legal community in terms of the successful adjudication of such crimes. This book was based on a special issue of Nationalities Papers.

Political Trials in History

From Antiquity to the Present
Author: Ron Christenson
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412831253
Category: Law
Page: 528
View: 7005
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Prepared in dictionary format, this volume reexamines the uses of political trials. Through the conduct and context of key trials throughout history, the reader is made to understand an aspect of public life too easily misconstrued, although never neglected: the political side of litigation. Most of the trials in this volume were significant enough to continue to shape our interpretation of the law long after the court made its judgment and all appeals were completed. The dialogue they initiated may last for decades, even for centuries. Such trials provide us with an insight into the vital aspects of our public life, the civilizing capacity of politics.

Gewalt

Eine neue Geschichte der Menschheit
Author: Steven Pinker
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 310401616X
Category: History
Page: 1216
View: 1251
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Die Geschichte der Menschheit – eine ewige Abfolge von Krieg, Genozid, Mord, Folter und Vergewaltigung. Und es wird immer schlimmer. Aber ist das richtig? In einem wahren Opus Magnum, einer groß angelegten Gesamtgeschichte unserer Zivilisation, untersucht der weltbekannte Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker die Entwicklung der Gewalt von der Urzeit bis heute und in allen ihren individuellen und kollektiven Formen, vom Verprügeln der Ehefrau bis zum geplanten Völkermord. Unter Rückgriff auf eine Fülle von wissenschaftlichen Belegen aus den unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen beweist er zunächst, dass die Gewalt im Laufe der Geschichte stetig abgenommen hat und wir heute in der friedlichsten Epoche der Menschheit leben. Diese verblüffende Tatsache verlangt nach einer Erklärung: Pinker schält in seiner Analyse sechs Entwicklungen heraus, die diesen Trend begünstigt haben, untersucht die Psychologie der Gewalt auf fünf innere Dämonen, die Gewaltausübung begünstigen, benennt vier Eigenschaften des Menschen, die den inneren Dämonen entgegenarbeiten und isoliert schließlich fünf historische Kräfte, die uns heute in der friedlichsten Zeit seit jeher leben lassen. Pinkers Darstellung revolutioniert den Blick auf die Welt und uns Menschen. Und sie macht Hoffnung und Mut. »Pinkers Studie ist eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum verbreiteten Kulturpessimismus und dem Gefühl des moralischen Untergangs der Moderne.« Der Spiegel »Steven Pinker ist ein Top-Autor und verdient all die Superlative, mit denen man ihn überhäuft« New York Times» Die Argumente von Steven Pinker haben Gewicht [...]. Die Chance, heute Opfer von Gewalt zu werden, ist viel geringer als zu jeder anderen Zeit. Das ist eine spannende Nachricht, die konträr zur öffentlichen Wahrnehmung ist." Deutschlandfunk »Steven Pinker ist ein intellektueller Rockstar« The Guardian »Der Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker gilt als wichtigster Intellektueller« Süddeutsche Zeitung »Verflucht überzeugend« Hamburger Abendblatt

Women on War

An International Anthology of Women's Writings from Antiquity to the Present
Author: Daniela Gioseffi
Publisher: Feminist Press at CUNY
ISBN: 9781558614093
Category: History
Page: 375
View: 9299
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Presents an anthology of writings by over 150 women on the subject of war and peace.

The Cambridge History of Magic and Witchcraft in the West

From Antiquity to the Present
Author: David J. Collins, S. J.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316239497
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 5475
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This book presents twenty chapters by experts in their fields, providing a thorough and interdisciplinary overview of the theory and practice of magic in the West. Its chronological scope extends from the Ancient Near East to twenty-first-century North America; its objects of analysis range from Persian curse tablets to US neo-paganism. For comparative purposes, the volume includes chapters on developments in the Jewish and Muslim worlds, evaluated not simply for what they contributed at various points to European notions of magic, but also as models of alternative development in ancient Mediterranean legacy. Similarly, the volume highlights the transformative and challenging encounters of Europeans with non-Europeans, regarding the practice of magic in both early modern colonization and more recent decolonization.

What is a Fair International Society?

International Law Between Development and Recognition
Author: Emmanuelle Tourme Jouannet
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1782252770
Category: Law
Page: 252
View: 4156
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Today's world is post-colonial and post-Cold War. These twin characteristics explain why international society is also riddled with the two major forms of injustice which Nancy Fraser identified as afflicting national societies. First, the economic and social disparities between states caused outcry in the 1950s when the first steps were taken towards decolonisation. These inequalities, to which a number of emerging states now contribute, are still glaring and still pose the problem of the gap between formal equality and true equality. Second, international society is increasingly confronted with culture- and identity-related claims, stretching the dividing line between equality and difference. The less-favoured states, those that feel stigmatised, but also native peoples, ethnic groups, minorities and women now aspire to both legal recognition of their equal dignity and the protection of their identities and cultures. Some even seek reparation for injustices arising from the past violation of their identities and the confiscation of their property or land. In answer to these two forms of claim, the subjects of international society have come up with two types of remedy encapsulated in legal rules: the law of development and the law of recognition. These two sets of rights are neither wholly autonomous and individualised branches of law nor formalised sets of rules. They are imperfect and have their dark side. Yet they can be seen as the first milestones towards what might become a fairer international society; one that is both equitable (as an answer to socio-economic injustice) and decent (as an answer to cultural injustice). This book explores this evolution in international society, setting it in historical perspective and examining its presuppositions and implications.

Genozid im Völkerrecht


Author: William A. Schabas
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783930908882
Category: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
Page: 792
View: 6803
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Essays in World History from Antiquity to the Present

The Collected Works of Paul Harrison Silfen
Author: Paul Harrison Silfen
Publisher: Hicksville, N.Y. : Exposition Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 473
View: 7884
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International Law and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts


Author: Chile Eboe-Osuji
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004202625
Category: Law
Page: 354
View: 4013
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Beginning with an attempt at understanding evil doing during armed conflicts, from both the general perspective and the particular angle of sexual violence itself, this book explores ways of shoring up international legal protection of women from sexual violence in armed conflicts.

The Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803


Author: Great Britain. Parliament
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Great Britain
Page: N.A
View: 3120
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The Parliamentary History of England, from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803

From which Last-mentioned Epoch it is Continued Downwards in the Work Entitled "Hansard's Parliamentary Debates".
Author: William Cobbett
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Great Britain
Page: N.A
View: 4008
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The Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803

From which Last-mentioned Epoch it is Continued Downwards in the Work Entitled "Hansard's Parliamentary Debates."
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Great Britain
Page: N.A
View: 4664
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Includes information from the Norman conquest through the 1st session of the 2d Parliament.

The Magnitude of Genocide


Author: Colin Tatz,Winton Higgins
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440831610
Category: Political Science
Page: 296
View: 308
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This book defines genocide, distinguishing it from mass murder, war crimes, and other atrocities; allows readers to grasp the magnitude of the crime of genocide across time and throughout human civilization; and facilitates an understanding of new and potential cases of genocide as they occur. • Illustrates the myriad problems inherent in genocide prevention and in the punishment of perpetrators • Analyzes why the nation-states that have the capacity to prevent or intervene against a genocide typically avoid doing so • Discusses the nature of and reasons underlying genocide denial • Examines the different kinds and scales of the impact of genocide on victim groups and on the perpetrators

Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England

From the Norman Conquest, in 1066 to the Year 1803. Comprising the period from the thirteenth of December 1792, to the tenth of March 1794
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: 16
View: 7403
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Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England

From the Norman Conquest, in 1066. To the Year, 1803. From which Last-mentioned Epoch it is Continued Downwards in the Work Entitled, "Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates" ...
Author: William Cobbett
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Great Britain
Page: N.A
View: 6742
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