A World History of War Crimes

From Antiquity to the Present
Author: Michael Bryant
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472505026
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 1995
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A World History of War Crimes provides a truly global history of war crimes and the involvement of the legal systems faced with these acts. Documenting the long historical arc traced by human efforts to limit warfare, from codes of war in antiquity designed to maintain a religiously conceived cosmic order to the gradual use in the modern age of the criminal trial as a means of enforcing universal norms, this book provides a comprehensive one-volume account of war and the laws that have governed conflict since the dawn of world civilizations. Throughout his narrative, Michael Bryant locates the origin and evolution of the law of war in the interplay between different cultures. While showing that no single philosophical idea underlay the law of war in world history, this volume also proves that war in global civilization has rarely been an anarchic free-for-all. Rather, from its beginnings warfare has been subject to certain constraints defined by the unique needs and cosmological understandings of the cultures that produce them. Only in late modernity has law assumed its current international humanitarian form. The criminalization of war crimes in international courts today is only the most recent development of the ancient theme of constraining when and how war may be fought.

War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice

A Global History
Author: D. Crowe
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137037016
Category: Political Science
Page: 501
View: 8573
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In this sweeping, definitive work, historian David Crowe offers an unflinching account of the long and troubled history of genocide and war crimes. From ancient atrocities to more recent horrors, he traces their disturbing consistency but also the heroic efforts made to break seemingly intractable patterns of violence and retribution.

Law, War and Crime

War Crimes, Trials and the Reinvention of International Law
Author: Gerry J. Simpson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745657311
Category: Law
Page: 240
View: 6466
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From events at Nuremberg and Tokyo after World War II, to the recent trials of Slobodan Milošević and Saddam Hussein, war crimes trials are an increasingly pervasive feature of the aftermath of conflict. In his new book, Law, War and Crime, Gerry Simpson explores the meaning and effect of such trials, and places them in their broader political and cultural contexts. The book traces the development of the war crimes field from its origins in the outlawing of piracy to its contemporary manifestation in the establishment of the International Criminal Court in The Hague. Simpson argues that the field of war crimes is constituted by a number of tensions between, for example, politics and law, local justice and cosmopolitan reckoning, collective guilt and individual responsibility, and between the instinct that war, at worst, is an error and the conviction that war is a crime. Written in the wake of an extraordinary period in the life of the law, the book asks a number of critical questions. What does it mean to talk about war in the language of the criminal law? What are the consequences of seeking to criminalise the conduct of one's enemies? How did this relatively new phenomenon of putting on trial perpetrators of mass atrocity and defeated enemies come into existence? This book seeks to answer these important questions whilst shedding new light on the complex relationship between law, war and crime.

Blood and Soil


Author: Ben Kiernan
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300137931
Category: Political Science
Page: 735
View: 9086
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For thirty years Ben Kiernan has been deeply involved in the study of genocide and crimes against humanity. He has played a key role in unearthing confidential documentation of the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. His writings have transformed our understanding not only of twentieth-century Cambodia but also of the historical phenomenon of genocide. This new bookthe first global history of genocide and extermination from ancient timesis among his most important achievements. Kiernan examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalins mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides. He identifies connections, patterns, and features that in nearly every case gave early warning of the catastrophe to come: racism or religious prejudice, territorial expansionism, and cults of antiquity and agrarianism. The ideologies that have motivated perpetrators of mass killings in the past persist in our new century, says Kiernan. He urges that we heed the rich historical evidence with its telltale signs for predicting and preventing future genocides.

Yamashita's Ghost

War Crimes, MacArthur's Justice, and Command Accountability
Author: Allan A. Ryan
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780700620142
Category: History
Page: 380
View: 3495
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The dramatic story of the 1945 war crimes trial of General Tomoyuki Yamashita, who was charged with atrocities he neither committed nor ordered and of which he likely had no knowledge. Even so, he was convicted and, following a Supreme Court review, executed for having failed to control his troops."

Tides of War

A Novel of Alcibiades and the Peloponnesian War
Author: Steven Pressfield
Publisher: Bantam Dell Publishing Group
ISBN: 0553381393
Category: Fiction
Page: 426
View: 1213
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Presents the story of the great Athenian warrior and general Alcibiades, from his great victories on behalf of Athens to his later alliances with Sparta and Persia and his role in the eventual downfall of Athens.

Eyewitness to Genocide

The Operation Reinhard Death Camp Trials, 1955-1966
Author: Michael Bryant
Publisher: Univ. of Tennessee Press
ISBN: 1621900703
Category: History
Page: 360
View: 9530
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One of the deadliest phases of the Holocaust, the Nazi regime’s “Operation Reinhard” produced three major death camps—Belzec, Treblinka, and Sobibor—which claimed the lives of 1.8 million Jews. In the 1960s, a small measure of justice came for those victims when a score of defendants who had been officers and guards at the camps were convicted of war crimes in West German courts. The conviction rates varied, however. While all but one of fourteen Treblinka defendants were convicted, half of the twelve Sobibor defendants escaped punishment, and only one of eight Belzec defendants was convicted. Also, despite the enormity of the crimes, the sentences were light in many cases, amounting to only a few years in prison. In this meticulous history of the Operation Reinhard trials, Michael S. Bryant examines a disturbing question: Did compromised jurists engineer acquittals or lenient punishments for proven killers? Drawing on rarely studied archival sources, Bryant concludes that the trial judges acted in good faith within the bounds of West German law. The key to successful prosecutions was eyewitness testimony. At Belzec, the near-total efficiency of the Nazi death machine meant that only one survivor could be found to testify. At Treblinka and Sobibor, however, prisoner revolts had resulted in a number of survivors who could give firsthand accounts of specific atrocities and identify participants. The courts, Bryant finds, treated these witnesses with respect and even made allowances for conflicting testimony. And when handing down sentences, the judges acted in accordance with strict legal definitions of perpetration, complicity, and action under duress. Yet, despite these findings, Bryant also shows that West German legal culture was hardly blameless during the postwar era. Though ready to convict the mostly workingclass personnel of the death camps, the Federal Republic followed policies that insulated the judicial elite from accountability for its own role in the Final Solution. While trial records show that the “bias” of West German jurists was neither direct nor personal, the structure of the system ensured that lawyers and judges themselves avoided judgment.

The History of Loot and Stolen Art

from Antiquity until the Present Day
Author: Ivan Lindsay
Publisher: Andrews UK Limited
ISBN: 1906509565
Category: Art
Page: 665
View: 6850
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The author of this enthralling book aims to present a well-illustrated and documented alternative history of the Western World through graphic accounts of looting and art theft from the time of Sargon, ruler of Syria in 721 BC, to the present day. Almost all the principal players included appear on the stage of World history and many of them are known as conquerors, confiscators (the old-fashioned word for looters) and ruthless administrators of the regions they created as a result of their conquests. Featured here are emperors, kings, queens, popes, adventurers, explorers and those whose energies and expertise supported the greed and acquisitive ambitions of their masters. The different motivation of the greatest looters in history is a recurrent theme which is examined throughout.

The Laws of War

Constraints on Warfare in the Western World
Author: Michael Howard,George J. Andreopoulos,Mark R. Shulman
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300070620
Category: History
Page: 311
View: 9824
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This book explores not only the formal constraints on the conduct of war throughout Western history but also the unwritten conventions about what is permissible in the course of military operations. Ranging from classical antiquity to the present, eminent historians discuss the legal and cultural regulation of violence in such areas as belligerent rights, the treatment of prisoners and civilians, the observing of truces and immunities, the use of particular weapons, siege warfare, codes of honor, and war crimes. The book begins with a general overview of the subject by Michael Howard. The contributors then discuss the formal and informal constraints on conducting war as they existed in classical antiquity, the age of chivalry, early modern Europe, colonial America, and the age of Napoleon. They also examine how these constraints have been applied to wars at sea, on land, and in the air, planning for nuclear war, and national liberation struggles, in which one of the participants is not an organized state. The book concludes with reflections by Paul Kennedy and George Andreopoulos on the main challenges facing the quest for humanitarian norms in warfare in the future.

Plundering Beauty

A History of Art Crime During War
Author: Arthur Tompkins
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781848222199
Category:
Page: 192
View: 8614
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The roll-call of mankind's wars down the centuries is paralleled by an equally extensive catalogue of the theft, destruction, plundering, displacement and concealing of some of the greatest works of art. From the many wars of Classical Antiquity, through the military turning points and detours of the Fourth Crusade, the Thirty Years' War, Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, World Wars I and II, and then onwards to the ongoing contemporary conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Libya, the history of art crime in times of war contains myriad fascinating and often little-known stories of the fate of humankind's greatest works of art. Plundering Beauty: A History of Art Crime During War charts the crucial milestones of art crimes spanning two thousand years. The works of art involved have fascinating stories to tell, as civilization moves from a simple and brutal 'winner takes it all' attitude to the spoils of war, to contemporary understanding, and commitment to, the idea that a society's artistic heritage truly belongs to all humankind.

The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, 1945-46

A Documentary History
Author: Michael R. Marrus
Publisher: Macmillan Higher Education
ISBN: 1319104673
Category: History
Page: 208
View: 6514
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Between November 1945 and October 1946, 22 high-ranking Nazi officials defended themselves before the International Military Tribunal. Reproducing significant sections of the trial record, this volume also outlines the background to the trial, traces the preparations made by the principle actors in the courtroom, and considers how the prosecution, defense, and tribunal dealt with the counts against the accused.

History of Western Philosophy

Collectors Edition
Author: Bertrand Russell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135692912
Category: Philosophy
Page: 728
View: 2644
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Now in a special gift edition, and featuring a brand new foreword by Anthony Gottlieb, this is a dazzlingly unique exploration of the works of significant philosophers throughout the ages and a definitive must-have title that deserves a revered place on every bookshelf.

Chasing Aphrodite

The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World's Richest Museum
Author: Jason Felch,Ralph Frammolino
Publisher: HMH
ISBN: 0547538022
Category: Art
Page: 384
View: 4327
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A “thrilling, well-researched” account of years of scandal at the prestigious Getty Museum (Ulrich Boser, author of The Gardner Heist). In recent years, several of America’s leading art museums have voluntarily given up their finest pieces of classical art to the governments of Italy and Greece. Why would they be moved to such unheard-of generosity? The answer lies at the Getty, one of the world’s richest and most troubled museums, and scandalous revelations that it had been buying looted antiquities for decades. Drawing on a trove of confidential museum records and candid interviews, these two journalists give us a fly-on-the-wall account of the inner workings of a world-class museum, and tell a story of outlandish characters and bad behavior that could come straight from the pages of a thriller. “In an authoritative account, two reporters who led a Los Angeles Times investigation reveal the details of the Getty Museum’s illicit purchases, from smugglers and fences, of looted Greek and Roman antiquities. . . . The authors offer an excellent recap of the museum’s misdeeds, brimming with tasty details of the scandal that motivated several of America’s leading art museums to voluntarily return to Italy and Greece some 100 classical antiquities worth more than half a billion dollars.” —Publishers Weekly, starred review “An astonishing and penetrating look into a veiled world where beauty and art are in constant competition with greed and hypocrisy. This engaging book will cast a fresh light on many of those gleaming objects you see in art museums.” —Jonathan Harr, author of The Lost Painting

Holocaust, Genocide, and the Law

A Quest for Justice in a Post-Holocaust World
Author: Michael Bazyler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190664037
Category: Law
Page: 394
View: 1583
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A great deal of contemporary law has a direct connection to the Holocaust. That connection, however, is seldom acknowledged in legal texts and has never been the subject of a full-length scholarly work. This book examines the background of the Holocaust and genocide through the prism of the law; the criminal and civil prosecution of the Nazis and their collaborators for Holocaust-era crimes; and contemporary attempts to criminally prosecute perpetrators for the crime of genocide. It provides the history of the Holocaust as a legal event, and sets out how genocide has become known as the "crime of crimes" under both international law and in popular discourse. It goes on to discuss specific post-Holocaust legal topics, and examines the Holocaust as a catalyst for post-Holocaust international justice. Together, this collection of subjects establishes a new legal discipline, which the author Michael Bazyler labels "Post-Holocaust Law."

Remembering Parthenope

The Reception of Classical Naples from Antiquity to the Present
Author: Jessica Hughes,Claudio Buongiovanni
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199673934
Category: Naples (Italy)
Page: 370
View: 2871
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This edited collection focuses on how the ancient past of the city of Naples has been invented, shaped, transmitted, and received in literature, art, and material culture since the time of the city's foundation. Adopting a chronological approach, chapters examine important moments in Naples' reception history from the Roman period (when the city was already several centuries old) to the present day. Among the topics covered are representations of the city's early history and mythology in texts and temples of the Roman period; later uses of Roman spolia (marble sculptures and architectural elements) in Christian churches; the importance of antiquity to the rulers of the Angevin and Swabian periods; the appropriation of the city's classical heritage by Renaissance humanists; the image of the 'local' poets Virgil and Statius in later eras; humanist images of the ancient aqueducts and catacombs that ran beneath the city; representations of classical monuments in early modern city guides; images of ancient ruins in contemporary Catholic nativity scenes; and the archaeology and philosophy of the city's Metro system. Featuring contributions from an interdisciplinary range of scholars, this comprehensive volume provides a highly accessible point of entry into the vast bibliography on ancient Naples.

A Book of Women Poets from Antiquity to Now


Author: Aliki Barnstone,Willis Barnstone
Publisher: Schocken
ISBN: N.A
Category: Poetry
Page: 822
View: 974
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Anthologizes verses by women ranging from Enheduanna, a second millennium B.C. Sumerian princess, to the medieval poets Marie de France and Florencia de Pinar, to noteworthy poets of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

The History of Terrorism

From Antiquity to ISIS
Author: Gérard Chaliand,Arnaud Blin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520292502
Category: History
Page: 536
View: 8614
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First published in English in 2007 under title: The history of terrorism: from antiquity to al Qaeda.

Wild Beasts & Idle Humours

The Insanity Defense from Antiquity to the Present
Author: Daniel N. Robinson
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780674952898
Category: Law
Page: 299
View: 3948
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Daniel Robinson, a distinguished historian of psychology, has pored over centuries of written law, statements by legal commentators, summaries of crimes, and punishments, to glean from these sources an understanding of epochal views of responsibility and competence. From the Greek phrenesis to the Roman notions of furiosus and non compos mentis, from the seventeenth-century witch trials to today's interpretation of mens rea, Robinson takes us through the intricate history of how the insanity defense has been construed as a meeting point of the law and those professions that chart human behavior and conduct, namely, religion, medicine, and psychology. The result is a rare historical account of "insanity" within western civilization.

Paris

The Secret History
Author: Andrew Hussey
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 9781608192373
Category: History
Page: 512
View: 5863
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If Adam Gopniks Paris to the Moon described daily life in contemporary Paris, this book describes daily life in Paris throughout its history: a history of the city from the point of view of the Parisians themselves. Paris captures everyones imaginations: Its a backdrop for Prousts fictional pederast, Robert Doisneaus photographic kiss, and Edith Piafs serenaded soldier-lovers; a home as much to romance and love poems as to prostitution and opium dens. The many pieces of the city coexist, each one as real as the next. Whats more, the conflicted identity of the city is visible everywhere-between cobblestones, in bars, on the métro. In this lively and lucid volume, Andrew Hussey brings to life the urchins and artists whove left their marks on the city, filling in the gaps of a history that affected the disenfranchised as much as the nobility. Paris: The Secret History ranges across centuries, movements, and cultural and political beliefs, from Napoleons overcrowded cemeteries to Balzacs nocturnal flight from his debts. For Hussey, Paris is a city whose long and conflicted history continues to thrive and change. The books is a picaresque journey through royal palaces, brothels, and sidewalk cafés, uncovering the rich, exotic, and often lurid history of the worlds most beloved city.

Famine

A Short History
Author: Cormac O Grada,Cormac Ó Gráda
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691147973
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 344
View: 1636
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"O Grada explores the causes and profound consequences of famine over the past five millennia ... He enriches our understanding of the most crucial and far-reaching aspects of famine; how food markets can mitigate famine or make it worse; famine's long-term demographic consequences; and the successes or failures of globalized disaster relief. O Grada demonstrates the central role famine has played in the economic and political histories of places"--From publisher description.