An American Health Dilemma: Race, medicine, and health care in the United States 1900-2000


Author: W. Michael Byrd,Linda A. Clayton
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415927376
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 854
View: 9247
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Explores the state of health care in relation to African Americans from the early days of the U.S. to the present, covering topics such as the insurance industry, social and economic factors, eugenics, and medical experiments.

An American Health Dilemma

A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900
Author: W. Michael Byrd,Linda A. Clayton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135960488
Category: History
Page: 616
View: 4401
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At times mirroring and at times shockingly disparate to the rise of traditional white American medicine, the history of African-American health care is a story of traditional healers; root doctors; granny midwives; underappreciated and overworked African-American physicians; scrupulous and unscrupulous white doctors and scientists; governmental support and neglect; epidemics; and poverty. Virtually every part of this story revolves around race. More than 50 years after the publication of An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal's 1944 classic about race relations in the USA, An American Health Dilemma presents a comprehensive and groundbreaking history and social analysis of race, race relations and the African-American medical and public health experience. Beginning with the origins of western medicine and science in Egypt, Greece and Rome the authors explore the relationship between race, medicine, and health care from the precursors of American science and medicine through the days of the slave trade with the harrowing middle passage and equally deadly breaking-in period through the Civil War and the gains of reconstruction and the reversals caused by Jim Crow laws. It offers an extensive examination of the history of intellectual and scientific racism that evolved to give sanction to the mistreatment, medical abuse, and neglect of African Americans and other non-white people. Also included are biographical portraits of black medical pioneers like James McCune Smith, the first African American to earn a degree from a European university, and anecdotal vignettes,like the tragic story of "the Hottentot Venus", which illustrate larger themes. An American Health Dilemma promises to become an irreplaceable and essential look at African-American and medical history and will provide an invaluable baseline for future exploration of race and racism in the American health system.

An American Health Dilemma: A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900


Author: W. Michael Byrd,Linda A. Clayton
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415924498
Category: Medical
Page: 624
View: 431
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Toward Equity in Health

A New Global Approach to Health Disparities
Author: Barbara C. Wallace, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780826103680
Category: Medical
Page: 592
View: 8644
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This essential collection presents a state-of-the-art framework for how workers in public health and related disciplines should conceptualize health disparities and how they should be addressed worldwide. The contributors, who are leading public health professionals, educators, and practitioners in complimentary fields advance new evidence-based models designed to mobilize and educate the next generation of research and practice. The resulting chapters articulate new theory, procedures, and policies; the legacy of racism; community-based participatory research; new internet technology; training community workers and educators; closing the education and health gap; and addressing the needs of special populations. Toward Equity in Health is an essential book for all who are working toward global health equity-whether in health education, health promotion, disease prevention, public health, the health care delivery system, or patient- and population level health.

Black and Blue

The Origins and Consequences of Medical Racism
Author: John Hoberman
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520951840
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 1668
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Black & Blue is the first systematic description of how American doctors think about racial differences and how this kind of thinking affects the treatment of their black patients. The standard studies of medical racism examine past medical abuses of black people and do not address the racially motivated thinking and behaviors of physicians practicing medicine today. Black & Blue penetrates the physician’s private sphere where racial fantasies and misinformation distort diagnoses and treatments. Doctors have always absorbed the racial stereotypes and folkloric beliefs about racial differences that permeate the general population. Within the world of medicine this racial folklore has infiltrated all of the medical sub-disciplines, from cardiology to gynecology to psychiatry. Doctors have thus imposed white or black racial identities upon every organ system of the human body, along with racial interpretations of black children, the black elderly, the black athlete, black musicality, black pain thresholds, and other aspects of black minds and bodies. The American medical establishment does not readily absorb either historical or current information about medical racism. For this reason, racial enlightenment will not reach medical schools until the current race-aversive curricula include new historical and sociological perspectives.

Das Omnivoren-Dilemma

Wie sich die Industrie der Lebensmittel bemächtigte und warum Essen so kompliziert wurde
Author: Michael Pollan
Publisher: Goldmann Verlag
ISBN: 3641119804
Category: Cooking
Page: 608
View: 9223
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Das Standardwerk über vernünftige Ernährung Der Mensch gehört von der Konsititution seiner Verdauungsorgane her zu den Omnivoren, den Allesfressern. Das war in der Evolution sicherlich nützlich. Doch das heutige Überangebot von Nahrungsmitteln in Supermärkten und Schnellrestaurants bringt nicht nur ihn selbst körperlich an den Rand des Abgrunds, sondern ruiniert auch noch seinen Lebensraum und sein soziales Umfeld. Mit Biss und investigativer Recherche sieht sich Pollan um, wie unsere Nahrungsmittel hergestellt und verarbeitet werden, vom Maisfeld über Cheeseburger mit Pommes bis zum Öko-Menü. Er öffnet uns die Augen für unser gestörtes Essverhalten und für den Weg zurück zu Einfachheit und Genuss.

Community- Based Health Research

Issues and Methods
Author: Daniel S. Blumenthal, MD, MPH,Ralph J. DiClemente, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780826120267
Category: Medical
Page: 240
View: 8297
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This book identifies key concepts of successful community-based research beyond the aspect of location, including prevention focus, population-centered partnerships, multidisciplinary cooperation, and cultural competency. Lessons from the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and case studies on HIV/AIDS prevention and cardiovascular risk reduction illustrate the application of research methods with both positive and negative outcomes. For Further Information, Please Click Here!

Polio Wars

Sister Kenny and the Golden Age of American Medicine
Author: Naomi Rogers
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199334137
Category: Medical
Page: 488
View: 5962
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During World War II, polio epidemics in the United States were viewed as the country's "other war at home": they could be neither predicted nor contained, and paralyzed patients faced disability in a world unfriendly to the disabled. These realities were exacerbated by the medical community's enforced orthodoxy in treating the disease, treatments that generally consisted of ineffective therapies. Polio Wars is the story of Sister Elizabeth Kenny -- "Sister" being a reference to her status as a senior nurse, not a religious designation -- who arrived in the US from Australia in 1940 espousing an unorthodox approach to the treatment of polio. Kenny approached the disease as a non-neurological affliction, championing such novel therapies as hot packs and muscle exercises in place of splinting, surgery, and immobilization. Her care embodied a different style of clinical practice, one of optimistic, patient-centered treatments that gave hope to desperate patients and families. The Kenny method, initially dismissed by the US medical establishment, gained overwhelming support over the ensuing decade, including the endorsement of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (today's March of Dimes), America's largest disease philanthropy. By 1952, a Gallup Poll identified Sister Kenny as most admired woman in America, and she went on to serve as an expert witness at Congressional hearings on scientific research, a foundation director, and the subject of a Hollywood film. Kenny breached professional and social mores, crafting a public persona that blended Florence Nightingale and Marie Curie. By the 1980s, following the discovery of the Salk and Sabin vaccines and the March of Dimes' withdrawal from polio research, most Americans had forgotten polio, its therapies, and Sister Kenny. In examining this historical arc and the public's process of forgetting, Naomi Rogers presents Kenny as someone worth remembering. Polio Wars recalls both the passion and the practices of clinical care and explores them in their own terms.

Policy Challenges in Modern Health Care


Author: David Mechanic,Lynn B. Rogut,David C. Colby
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813535784
Category: Medical
Page: 276
View: 2765
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Health care delivery in the United States is an enormously complex enterprise, and its $1.6 trillion annual expenditures involve a host of competing interests. While arguably the nation offers among the most technologically advanced medical care in the world, the American system consistently under performs relative to its resources. Gaps in financing and service delivery pose major barriers to improving health, reducing disparities, achieving universal insurance coverage, enhancing quality, controlling costs, and meeting the needs of patients and families. Bringing together twenty-five of the nation's leading experts in health care policy and public health, this book provides a much-needed perspective on how our health care system evolved, why we face the challenges that we do, and why reform is so difficult to achieve. The essays tackle tough issues including: socioeconomic disadvantage, tobacco, obesity, gun violence, insurance gaps, the rationing of services, the power of special interests, medical errors, and the nursing shortage. Linking the nation's health problems to larger political, cultural, and philosophical contexts, Policy Challenges in Modern Health Care offers a compelling look at where we stand and where we need to be headed.

Health in the City

Race, Poverty, and the Negotiation of Women’s Health in New York City, 1915–1930
Author: Tanya Hart
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479873063
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 3799
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Shortly after the dawn of the twentieth century, the New York City Department of Health decided to address what it perceived as the racial nature of health. It delivered heavily racialized care in different neighborhoods throughout the city: syphillis treatment among African Americans, tuberculosis for Italian Americans, and so on. It was a challenging and ambitious program, dangerous for the providers, and troublingly reductive for the patients. Nevertheless, poor and working-class African American, British West Indian, and Southern Italian women all received some of the nation’s best health care during this period. Health in the City challenges traditional ideas of early twentieth-century urban black health care by showing a program that was simultaneously racialized and cutting-edge. It reveals that even the most well-meaning public health programs may inadvertently reinforce perceptions of inferiority that they were created to fix.

Community-Based Participatory Health Research, Second Edition

Issues, Methods, and Translation to Practice
Author: Daniel S. Blumenthal, MD, MPH,Ralph J. DiClemente, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826193978
Category: Medical
Page: 296
View: 5979
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ìCommunity-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) has become the preferred model for conducting research in communities. Most scientists who conduct such research now recognize that working in partnership with the community is preferable, and more ethical, than conducting research on a communityÖ. As Surgeon General of the United States, I direct a number of programs aimed at encouraging Americans to avoid tobacco, engage in physical activity, consume more nutritious diets, and protect their health in other ways. We need more effective methods to persuade, motivate, and enable individuals and communities to adopt these healthier lifestyles, and it is through CBPR that we will be able to discover these methods.î From the Foreword by Regina M. Benjamin, MD, MBA, U.S. Surgeon General ìThe editors of this book bring together in one place both a description of epidemiological methods and a discussion of community-level issues. It is a volume that will prove useful to those who wish to conduct contemporary community-based research.î ñ Praise for the First Edition from the Foreword David Satcher, Former Surgeon General of the United States This second edition of a highly regarded textbook on the foundations of and strategies for achieving fertile community-based health care research has been completely revised and updated. It now includes new chapters on translating research into practice, evaluating research, and applying community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to service, education, and evaluation. The book also updates a crucial chapter on the voices of community stakeholders and an important study of the ethical issues surrounding the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Edited by renowned professors of community-based research, the text is distinguished by its how-to approach and focus on practical research methods. The text discusses the unique challenges of conducting CBPR and addresses ways to build and sustain community partnerships. It explores ethical issues regarding health care research, includes input from community stakeholders, and describes national and international support for CBPR. Research methods covered include qualitative studies, surveys, and intervention trials. Applications of CBPR illustrate how to translate research into practice and community-based participatory approaches to service, education, and evaluation. The second edition includes new chapters on: Building and sustaining researcher/community partnerships National and international investments in and support for CBPR Surveys and methods for conducting CBPR Translating research into practice Community-based participatory approaches to service, education, and evaluation

Current Controversies in Perinatology, An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology,


Author: Robert H. Lane
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323326730
Category: Medical
Page: 321
View: 6336
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Neonatal-perinatal medicine has a strong history of evidence based practice but unfortunately there remain many areas of uncertainty and unproven hypotheses and treatments that may harm our highly vulnerable patients. When new ideas are introduced into the labor and delivery room or the NICU we have to evaluate these procedures and therapies before they become accepted as standards of care. We need to learn from the past lessons of grey baby syndrome and chloramphenicol and of kernicterus and sulfonamide antibiotics where therapeutic good intentions actually did more harm than good and increased the mortality rate of premature babies in the NICU.This proposed edition addresses a broad range of current topics in perinatal neonatal practice. The AAP has just issued new guidelines for the approach to a neonate exposed to maternal genital herpes virus infection. The recommendations were not evidence based and are highly controversial as well as confusing. These topics are addressed in a scholarly and objective manner to both address the controversy and help the practitioner make informed decisions.

Enslaved Women in America: An Encyclopedia

An Encyclopedia
Author: Daina Ramey Berry Ph.D.,Deleso A. Alford
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313349096
Category: Social Science
Page: 381
View: 8742
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This singular reference provides an authoritative account of the daily lives of enslaved women in the United States, from colonial times to emancipation following the Civil War. Through essays, photos, and primary source documents, the female experience is explored, and women are depicted as central, rather than marginal, figures in history. • Dozens of photos of former enslaved women • Detailed historical timeline • Numerous rare primary documents, including runaway slave advertisements and even a plantation recipe for turtle soup • Profiles of noted female slaves and their works

The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture

Volume 22: Science and Medicine
Author: James G. Thomas Jr.,Charles Reagan Wilson
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 0807837431
Category: Reference
Page: 304
View: 9402
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Science and medicine have been critical to southern history and the formation of southern culture. For three centuries, scientists in the South have documented the lush natural world around them and set a lasting tradition of inquiry. The medical history of the region, however, has been at times tragic. Disease, death, and generations of poor health have been the legacy of slavery, the plantation economy, rural life, and poorly planned cities. The essays in this volume explore this legacy as well as recent developments in technology, research, and medicine in the South. Subjects include natural history, slave health, medicine in the Civil War, public health, eugenics, HIV/AIDS, environmental health, and the rise of research institutions and hospitals, to name but a few. With 38 thematic essays, 44 topical entries, and a comprehensive overview essay, this volume offers an authoritative reference to science and medicine in the American South.

Discrimination by Default

How Racism Becomes Routine
Author: Lu-in Wang
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814795064
Category: Law
Page: 187
View: 416
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Much as we “select” computer settings by default—reflexively, without thinking, and sometimes without realizing there are other options—we often discriminate by default as well. And just as default computer settings tend to become locked in or entrenched as the standard, discrimination by default creates a situation in which disparate outcomes are expected, accepted, and taken for granted. The killing of Amadou Diallo, racial disparities in medical care, the dominance of Whites and men in certain professions, and even the uneven media attention paid to crimes depending on their victims’ race and class, all might be cases of discrimination by, or as, default. Wang contends that, today, most discrimination occurs by default and not design, making legal prohibitions that focus on those who discriminate out of ill will inadequate to redress the largest share of modern discrimination. She draws on social psychology to detail three ways in which unconscious assumptions can lead to discrimination, showing how they play out in a range of everyday settings. Wang then demonstrates how these dynamics interact in medical care to produce an invisible, self-fulfilling, and self-perpetuating prophecy of racial disparity. She goes on to suggest ways in which institutions and individuals might recognize, interrupt, and override the discriminatory default.

Das geträumte Land

Roman
Author: Imbolo Mbue
Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch
ISBN: 3462315889
Category: Fiction
Page: 432
View: 7499
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Die große neue Stimme aus den USA Imbolo Mbues hochgelobtes Debüt erzählt die unvergessliche Geschichte zweier Familien unterschiedlicher Herkunft, die in New York kurz vor der Bankenkrise aufeinandertreffen. Die Lehman-Brothers-Pleite bringt nicht nur ihr Leben, sondern auch ihr Wertesystem gehörig durcheinander. Jende Jonga hat es endlich geschafft, seine Frau und seinen kleinen Sohn aus Kamerun nach Amerika zu holen. Das Glück scheint komplett, als Jende den Job als Chauffeur von Clark Edwards, einem Manager der Lehmann Brothers Bank, ergattert. Und Mrs Edwards engagiert Jendes Frau sogar als Haus- und Kindermädchen in ihrem Sommerhaus in den Hamptons. Die beiden Familien könnten unterschiedlicher nicht sein und wollen doch dasselbe: ihren Kindern eine gute Zukunft bieten. Allerdings ist das Leben der Bankerfamilie längst nicht so perfekt und glamourös, wie es zunächst scheint. Als Lehman Brothers pleitegeht, ist die Fassade nicht mehr aufrechtzuerhalten. Die Jongas versuchen verzweifelt, Jendes Job zu retten – auch um den Preis ihrer Ehe. Das Leben der beiden Paare wird dramatisch auf den Kopf gestellt und Jende sieht sich gezwungen, eine unmögliche Entscheidung zu treffen. Ein hochaktueller, brillant geschriebener Roman über Familie, Immigration, Heimat und Gesellschaft, der uns alle angeht.

Z Magazine


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: United States
Page: N.A
View: 6497
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Nichts ist okay!


Author: Brendan Kiely,Jason Reynolds
Publisher: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag
ISBN: 3423430400
Category: Juvenile Fiction
Page: 320
View: 1559
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Zwei Stimmen, zwei Autoren, schwarz und weiß.. Eigentlich wollte Rashad nur eine Tüte Chips kaufen, doch kaum hat er den Laden betreten, wird er von einem Polizisten brutal niedergeschlagen. Beobachtet hat den Vorfall ein anderer Junge: Quinn, der ausgerechnet mit der Familie des Angreifers befreundet ist. Rashad ist schwarz, der Polizist weiß. Ein weiterer rassistischer Übergriff? Wie so viele? Rashad landet im Krankenhaus, und Quinn steht zwischen den Fronten. Er muss sich entscheiden: Tritt er als Zeuge auf und wird zum Verräter? Oder hält er den Mund und schweigt zu Diskriminierung und Gewalt. Derweil organisieren Rashads Freunde eine Demonstration gegen Rassismus und Polizeiwillkür. Eine Stadt gerät in Ausnahmezustand. Und zwei Jugendliche mittendrin.

The Policy Partnership

Presidential Elections and American Democracy
Author: Bruce Buchanan
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415947602
Category: Political Science
Page: 140
View: 3138
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This publication celebrates the 50th anniversary of the "Journal of Documentation". It reviews the progress of documentation and information provision.

Nighttime Breastfeeding

An American Cultural Dilemma
Author: Cecília Tomori
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782384367
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 316
View: 614
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Nighttime for many new parents in the United States is fraught with the intense challenges of learning to breastfeed and helping their babies sleep so they can get rest themselves. Through careful ethnographic study of the dilemmas raised by nighttime breastfeeding, and their examination in the context of anthropological, historical, and feminist studies, this volume unravels the cultural tensions that underlie these difficulties. As parents negotiate these dilemmas, they not only confront conflicting medical guidelines about breastfeeding and solitary infant sleep, but also larger questions about cultural and moral expectations for children and parents, and their relationship with one another.