## An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory

*To Truth Through Proof*

**Author**: Peter B. Andrews

**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**9401599343

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**390

**View:**6064

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

In case you are considering to adopt this book for courses with over 50 students, please contact [email protected] for more information. This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability. The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive notation facilitates proofs of the classical incompleteness and undecidability theorems which are very elegant and easy to understand. The discussion of semantics makes clear the important distinction between standard and nonstandard models which is so important in understanding puzzling phenomena such as the incompleteness theorems and Skolem's Paradox about countable models of set theory. Some of the numerous exercises require giving formal proofs. A computer program called ETPS which is available from the web facilitates doing and checking such exercises. Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and philosophers in universities, as well as to computer scientists in industry who wish to use higher-order logic for hardware and software specification and verification.

## An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory

**Author**: Peter B. Andrews

**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**9781402007637

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**390

**View:**1500

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

In case you are considering to adopt this book for courses with over 50 students, please contact [email protected] for more information. This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability. The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive notation facilitates proofs of the classical incompleteness and undecidability theorems which are very elegant and easy to understand. The discussion of semantics makes clear the important distinction between standard and nonstandard models which is so important in understanding puzzling phenomena such as the incompleteness theorems and Skolem's Paradox about countable models of set theory. Some of the numerous exercises require giving formal proofs. A computer program called ETPS which is available from the web facilitates doing and checking such exercises. Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and philosophers in universities, as well as to computer scientists in industry who wish to use higher-order logic for hardware and software specification and verification.

## An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory

**Author**: Peter B. Andrews

**Publisher:**N.A

**ISBN:**9789401599351

**Category:**

**Page:**414

**View:**5310

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

## Truth Through Proof

*A Formalist Foundation for Mathematics*

**Author**: Alan Weir

**Publisher:**OUP Oxford

**ISBN:**9780199541492

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**296

**View:**7758

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

Truth Through Proof defends an anti-platonist philosophy of mathematics derived from game formalism. Alan Weir aims to develop a more satisfactory successor to game formalism utilising a widely accepted, broadly neo-Fregean framework, in which the proposition expressed by an utterance is a function of both sense and background circumstance.

## Principia Mathematica to *56

**Author**: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

**Publisher:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**9780521626064

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**410

**View:**5022

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

The great three-volume Principia Mathematica (CUP 1927) is deservedly the most famous work ever written on the foundations of mathematics. Its aim is to deduce all the fundamental propositions of logic and mathematics from a small number of logical premises and primitive ideas, establishing that mathematics is a development of logic. This abridged text of Volume I contains the material that is most relevant to an introductory study of logic and the philosophy of mathematics (more advanced students will of course wish to refer to the complete edition). It contains the whole of the preliminary sections (which present the authors' justification of the philosophical standpoint adopted at the outset of their work); the whole of Part I (in which the logical properties of propositions, propositional functions, classes and relations are established); section A of Part II (dealing with unit classes and couples); and Appendices A and C (which give further developments of the argument on the theory of deduction and truth functions).

## Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

**Author**: Bertrand Russell

**Publisher:**Courier Corporation

**ISBN:**9780486277240

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**208

**View:**5623

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

In the words of Bertrand Russell, "Because language is misleading, as well as because it is diffuse and inexact when applied to logic (for which it was never intended), logical symbolism is absolutely necessary to any exact or thorough treatment of mathematical philosophy." That assertion underlies this book, a seminal work in the field for more than 70 years. In it, Russell offers a nontechnical, undogmatic account of his philosophical criticism as it relates to arithmetic and logic. Rather than an exhaustive treatment, however, the influential philosopher and mathematician focuses on certain issues of mathematical logic that, to his mind, invalidated much traditional and contemporary philosophy. In dealing with such topics as number, order, relations, limits and continuity, propositional functions, descriptions, and classes, Russell writes in a clear, accessible manner, requiring neither a knowledge of mathematics nor an aptitude for mathematical symbolism. The result is a thought-provoking excursion into the fascinating realm where mathematics and philosophy meet — a philosophical classic that will be welcomed by any thinking person interested in this crucial area of modern thought.

## Mathematical Logic

**Author**: H.-D. Ebbinghaus,J. Flum,Wolfgang Thomas

**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**1475723555

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**291

**View:**8203

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

This introduction to first-order logic clearly works out the role of first-order logic in the foundations of mathematics, particularly the two basic questions of the range of the axiomatic method and of theorem-proving by machines. It covers several advanced topics not commonly treated in introductory texts, such as Fraïssé's characterization of elementary equivalence, Lindström's theorem on the maximality of first-order logic, and the fundamentals of logic programming.

## Category Theory

**Author**: Steve Awodey

**Publisher:**Oxford University Press

**ISBN:**0199587361

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**311

**View:**5858

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

A comprehensive reference to category theory for students and researchers in mathematics, computer science, logic, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophy. Useful for self-study and as a course text, the book includes all basic definitions and theorems (with full proofs), as well as numerous examples and exercises.

## Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Fourth Edition

**Author**: Elliott Mendelson

**Publisher:**CRC Press

**ISBN:**9780412808302

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**440

**View:**6589

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in mathematical logic. This edition includes an extensive appendix on second-order logic, a section on set theory with urlements, and a section on the logic that results when we allow models with empty domains. The text contains numerous exercises and an appendix furnishes answers to many of them. Introduction to Mathematical Logic includes: propositional logic first-order logic first-order number theory and the incompleteness and undecidability theorems of Gödel, Rosser, Church, and Tarski axiomatic set theory theory of computability The study of mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, and computability theory provides an understanding of the fundamental assumptions and proof techniques that form basis of mathematics. Logic and computability theory have also become indispensable tools in theoretical computer science, including artificial intelligence. Introduction to Mathematical Logic covers these topics in a clear, reader-friendly style that will be valued by anyone working in computer science as well as lecturers and researchers in mathematics, philosophy, and related fields.

## Programming with Higher-Order Logic

**Author**: Dale Miller,Gopalan Nadathur

**Publisher:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**052187940X

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**306

**View:**1141

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

Formal systems that describe computations over syntactic structures occur frequently in computer science. Logic programming provides a natural framework for encoding and animating such systems. However, these systems often embody variable binding, a notion that must be treated carefully at a computational level. This book aims to show that a programming language based on a simply typed version of higher-order logic provides an elegant, declarative means for providing such a treatment. Three broad topics are covered in pursuit of this goal. First, a proof-theoretic framework that supports a general view of logic programming is identified. Second, an actual language called λProlog is developed by applying this view to higher-order logic. Finally, a methodology for programming with specifications is exposed by showing how several computations over formal objects such as logical formulas, functional programs, and λ-terms and π-calculus expressions can be encoded in λProlog.

## Set Theory and the Continuum Hypothesis

**Author**: Paul J. Cohen,Martin Davis

**Publisher:**Courier Corporation

**ISBN:**0486469212

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**154

**View:**7666

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. Written by an award-winning professor at Stanford University, it employs intuitive explanations as well as detailed mathematical proofs in a self-contained treatment. This unique text and reference is suitable for students and professionals. 1966 edition. Copyright renewed 1994.

## Type Theory & Functional Programming

**Author**: Simon Thompson

**Publisher:**Addison Wesley Publishing Company

**ISBN:**9780201416671

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**372

**View:**5595

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

This book explores the role of Martin-Lof s constructive type theory in computer programming. The main focus of the book is how the theory can be successfully applied in practice. Introductory sections provide the necessary background in logic, lambda calculus and constructive mathematics, and exercises and chapter summaries are included to reinforce understanding.

## Theory and Reality

*An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science*

**Author**: Peter Godfrey-Smith

**Publisher:**University of Chicago Press

**ISBN:**9780226300610

**Category:**Science

**Page:**288

**View:**1511

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.

## How to Prove It

*A Structured Approach*

**Author**: Daniel J. Velleman

**Publisher:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**1139450972

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**N.A

**View:**8327

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.

## Programming in Martin-Löf's type theory

*an introduction*

**Author**: Bengt Nordström,Kent Petersson,Jan M. Smith

**Publisher:**Oxford University Press, USA

**ISBN:**N.A

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**221

**View:**4995

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

In recent years, several formalisms for program construction have appeared. One such formalism is the type theory developed by Per Martin-Lof. Well suited as a theory for program construction, it makes possible the expression of both specifications and programs within the same formalism. Furthermore, the proof rules can be used to derive a correct program from a specification as well as to verify that a given program has a certain property. This book contains a thorough introduction to type theory, with information on polymorphic sets, subsets, monomorphic sets, and a full set of helpful examples.

## Introduction to Mathematical Logic

**Author**: Hans Hermes

**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**3642871321

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**244

**View:**1969

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

This book grew out of lectures. It is intended as an introduction to classical two-valued predicate logic. The restriction to classical logic is not meant to imply that this logic is intrinsically better than other, non-classical logics; however, classical logic is a good introduction to logic because of its simplicity, and a good basis for applications because it is the foundation of classical mathematics, and thus of the exact sciences which are based on it. The book is meant primarily for mathematics students who are already acquainted with some of the fundamental concepts of mathematics, such as that of a group. It should help the reader to see for himself the advantages of a formalisation. The step from the everyday language to a formalised language, which usually creates difficulties, is dis cussed and practised thoroughly. The analysis of the way in which basic mathematical structures are approached in mathematics leads in a natural way to the semantic notion of consequence. One of the substantial achievements of modern logic has been to show that the notion of consequence can be replaced by a provably equivalent notion of derivability which is defined by means of a calculus. Today we know of many calculi which have this property.

## Logic for Computer Science

*Foundations of Automatic Theorem Proving, Second Edition*

**Author**: Jean H. Gallier

**Publisher:**Courier Dover Publications

**ISBN:**0486780821

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**528

**View:**3989

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in first-order logic; SLD-resolution, logic programming, and the foundations of PROLOG; and many-sorted first-order logic. Numerous problems appear throughout the book, and two Appendixes provide practical background information.

## Types for Proofs and Programs

*International Conference, TYPES 2007, Cividale Del Friuli, Italy, May 2-5, 2007, Revised Selected Papers*

**Author**: Marino Miculan,Ivan Scagnetto,Furio Honsell

**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**3540680845

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**203

**View:**4380

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of TYPES 2007, the concluding conference of the Types project, held in Cividale del Friuli, Italy, in May 2007. The 13 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 22 submissions. The topic of this last annual workshop of the Types Working Group was formal reasoning and computer programming based on type theory. Great importance was attached to languages and computerized tools for reasoning, and applications in several domains such as analysis of programming languages, certified software, formalization of mathematics and mathematics education.

## Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning

*11th International Workshop, LPAR 2004, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 14-18, 2005, Proceedings*

**Author**: Franz Baader,Andrei Voronkov

**Publisher:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**3540252363

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**560

**View:**2814

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

## Introduction to Graph Theory

**Author**: Richard J. Trudeau

**Publisher:**Courier Corporation

**ISBN:**0486318664

**Category:**Mathematics

**Page:**224

**View:**468

**DOWNLOAD NOW »**

Aimed at "the mathematically traumatized," this text offers nontechnical coverage of graph theory, with exercises. Discusses planar graphs, Euler's formula, Platonic graphs, coloring, the genus of a graph, Euler walks, Hamilton walks, more. 1976 edition.