Anthropology and Civilizational Analysis

Eurasian Explorations
Author: Johann P. Arnason,Chris Hann
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 1438469411
Category: Civilization
Page: 414
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Brings social and cultural anthropologists into dialogue with historical sociology and illustrates the continued potential of the concept of civilization for all participants. The concept of civilization has a long but checkered history in anthropology, and anthropological materials have been of great importance for the development of civilizational analysis in historical sociology. Anthropology and Civilizational Analysis brings these diverse fields together and explores a wide range of topics pertaining to civilization, from classical theories to contemporary rhetorical discourses, including detailed case studies of concrete practices documented through archival and ethnographic research. While many scholars and the wider public still think of civilization in simplistic terms, viewing it in terms of Enlightenment notions of progress and evolution to higher stages, others have pluralized the term only to create essentialized units which are only tenuously linked to historical processes. In this book contributors use dynamic approaches, including those rooted in the seminal writings of Émile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss, opening up the dimension of civilization as an important complement to other key terms such as society and culture in social science and historical analysis.

Rethinking Civilizational Analysis


Author: Said Amir Arjomand,Edward A Tiryakian
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781412901833
Category: Social Science
Page: 260
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Although the concept of 'civilization' has deep roots in the social sciences, there is an urgent need to re-think it for contemporary times. Rethinking Civilizational Analysis points to an exhaustion in using 'the nation state' and 'world system' as the basic macro-units of social analysis because they do not get to grips with the 'soft power' variable of cultural factors involved in global aspects of development.

Civilization

The West and the Rest
Author: Niall Ferguson
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0143122061
Category: History
Page: 402
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A history of Western civilization's rise to global dominance offers insight into the development of such concepts as competition, modern medicine, and the work ethic, arguing that Western dominance is being lost to cultures who are more productively utilizing Western techniques.

Civilization and Its Discontents


Author: Sigmund Freud,General Press
Publisher: GENERAL PRESS
ISBN: 9387669521
Category: History
Page: 136
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Civilization and Its Discontents is one of the last of Freud's books, written in the decade before his death and first published in German in 1929. It is considered his most brilliant work. In it he states his views on the broad question of man's place in the world. It seeks to answer several questions fundamental to human society and its organization: What influences led to the creation of civilization? Why and how did it come to be? What determines civilization’s trajectory? Freud’s theories on the effect of the knowledge of death on human existence and the birth of art are central to his work. Many of humankind's primitive instincts (for example, the desire to kill and the insatiable craving for sexual gratification) are clearly harmful to the well-being of a human community. As a result, civilization creates laws that prohibit killing, rape, and adultery, and it implements severe punishments if such commandments are broken. This process, argues Freud, is an inherent quality of civilization that instills perpetual feelings of discontent in its citizens. Freud's theme is that what works for civilization doesn't necessarily work for man. Man, by nature aggressive and egotistical, seeks self-satisfaction.

Eros and Civilization

A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud
Author: Herbert Marcuse
Publisher: Beacon Press
ISBN: 0807096954
Category: Psychology
Page: 312
View: 9722
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"A philosophical critique of psychoanalysis that takes psychoanalysis seriously but not as unchallengeable dogma. . . . The most significant general treatment of psychoanalytic theory since Freud himself ceased publication."—Clyde Kluckhohn, The New York Times

The Middle East and Central Asia

An Anthropological Approach
Author: Dale F. Eickelman
Publisher: Pearson College Division
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 9742
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Based on a synthesis of the extensive research of Middle Eastern and Western scholars, this lively anthropological introduction to the Middle East and Central Asia explores the socio-political complexities of those regions and introduces students to the questions that have been, and are being, developed by scholars and writers concerned with the two regions. The volume provides an anthropological introduction to the Middle East, and Central Asia including region, economy, and society, personal and family relationships, change in practical ideologies, the cultural order of complex societies, religion and experience and the shape of change. For individuals interested in an introduction to the Middle East and Central Asia.

Madness and Civilization

A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason
Author: Michel Foucault
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0307833100
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 4906
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Michel Foucault examines the archeology of madness in the West from 1500 to 1800 - from the late Middle Ages, when insanity was still considered part of everyday life and fools and lunatics walked the streets freely, to the time when such people began to be considered a threat, asylums were first built, and walls were erected between the "insane" and the rest of humanity.

The Great Divide

Nature and Human Nature in the Old World and the New
Author: Peter Watson
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062196677
Category: History
Page: 640
View: 8689
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In The Great Divide, acclaimed author and historian Peter Watson explores the development of humankind between the Old World and the New, and offers a groundbreaking new understanding of human history. By 15,000 BC, humans had migrated from northeastern Asia across the frozen Bering land bridge to the Americas. When the last Ice Agecame to an end, the Bering Strait refilled with water, dividing America from Eurasia. This division continued until Christopher Columbus voyaged to the New World in the fifteenth century. The Great Divide compares the development of humankind in the Old World and the New between 15,000 BC and AD 1,500. Combining the most up-to-date knowledge in archaeology, anthropology, geology, meteorology, cosmology, and mythology, Peter Watson’s masterful study offers uniquely revealing insight into what it means to be human.

Against the Grain

A Deep History of the Earliest States
Author: James C. Scott
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300231687
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 9809
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An account of all the new and surprising evidence now available for the beginnings of the earliest civilizations that contradict the standard narrative Why did humans abandon hunting and gathering for sedentary communities dependent on livestock and cereal grains, and governed by precursors of today’s states? Most people believe that plant and animal domestication allowed humans, finally, to settle down and form agricultural villages, towns, and states, which made possible civilization, law, public order, and a presumably secure way of living. But archaeological and historical evidence challenges this narrative. The first agrarian states, says James C. Scott, were born of accumulations of domestications: first fire, then plants, livestock, subjects of the state, captives, and finally women in the patriarchal family—all of which can be viewed as a way of gaining control over reproduction. Scott explores why we avoided sedentism and plow agriculture, the advantages of mobile subsistence, the unforeseeable disease epidemics arising from crowding plants, animals, and grain, and why all early states are based on millets and cereal grains and unfree labor. He also discusses the “barbarians” who long evaded state control, as a way of understanding continuing tension between states and nonsubject peoples.

Moses and Civilization

The Meaning Behind Freud's Myth
Author: Robert A. Paul
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300064285
Category: Psychology
Page: 268
View: 3348
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Freud's major cultural books, Totem and Taboo and Moses and Monotheism, have long been viewed as failed attempts at historical reconstruction. This book, by an anthropologist and practicing psychoanalyst, offers a brilliant reinterpretation of these works, presenting them instead as versions and unwitting analyses of the great mythic narrative underlying Judeo-Christian civilization, found principally in the Five Books of Moses. Synthesizing aspects of structural anthropology, symbolic anthropology, evolutionary theory, and psychoanalysis, Robert A. Paul reveals the numerous parallels between Freud's myth of the primal horde and the Torah text. He shows how the primal-horde scenario is the basis for the Christian myth of the life and death of Jesus. And he details the way Freud's myth corresponds to the unconscious fantasy structure of the obsessional personality - a style of personality dynamics Paul sees as essential to maintaining the bureaucratic institutions that comprise Western civilization's most distinctive features. Paul thus corrects and completes Freud's project, creating a valid psychoanalytic account of Western civilization that rests not on faulty speculation, as did Freud's, but on a detailed reading of the biblical text and of the legends, folklore, commentaries, and social practices surrounding it.

1177 B.C.

The Year Civilization Collapsed
Author: Eric H. Cline
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400874491
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 3604
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In 1177 B.C., marauding groups known only as the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them, but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline, as did most of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades. No more Minoans or Mycenaeans. No more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economy and cultures of the late second millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, suddenly ceased to exist, along with writing systems, technology, and monumental architecture. But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown. How did it happen? In this major new account of the causes of this "First Dark Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures, ranging from invasion and revolt to earthquakes, drought, and the cutting of international trade routes. Bringing to life the vibrant multicultural world of these great civilizations, he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuries. A compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to, and ultimately destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age—and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece.

Civilizations in World Politics

Plural and Pluralist Perspectives
Author: Peter J. Katzenstein
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135278059
Category: Political Science
Page: 248
View: 9461
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A highly original and readily accessible examination of the cultural dimension of international politics, this book provides a sophisticated and nuanced account of the relevance of cultural categories for the analysis of world politics. The book’s analytical focus is on plural and pluralist civilizations. Civilizations exist in the plural within one civilization of modernity; and they are internally pluralist rather than unitary. The existence of plural and pluralist civilizations is reflected in transcivilizational engagements, intercivilizational encounters and, only occasionally, in civilizational clashes. Drawing on the work of Eisenstadt, Collins and Elias, Katzenstein’s introduction provides a cogent and detailed alternative to Huntington’s. This perspective is then developed and explored through six outstanding case studies written by leading experts in their fields. Combining contemporary and historical perspectives while addressing the civilizational politics of America, Europe, China, Japan, India and Islam, the book draws these discussions together in Patrick Jackson’s theoretically informed, thematic conclusion. Featuring an exceptional line-up and representing a diversity of theoretical views within one integrative perspective, this work will be of interest to all scholars and students of international relations, sociology and political science.

The Decline of the West


Author: Oswald Spengler
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195066340
Category: Philosophy
Page: 414
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Spengler's work describes how we have entered into a centuries-long "world-historical" phase comparable to late antiquity, and his controversial ideas spark debate over the meaning of historiography.

Dialogue of Civilizations

An Introduction to Civilizational Analysis
Author: Victor Segesvary
Publisher: University Press of America
ISBN: 9780761816324
Category: Political Science
Page: 132
View: 3724
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The necessity of a dialogue among the various rich and powerful civilizations that co-exist on our planet will be a looming international problem in the coming 21st century. A civilizational dialogue necessitates familiarity with major aspects of other civilizations such as religion, symbolism, myth in the spiritual domain, social structure and development, or political organization in the social and institutional spheres. Familiarity between civilizations would enable them, in the course of the dialogue, to identify shared beliefs and values which are the common aspects of humanity that unite us all. Dialogue of Civilization guides the reader through a deep analysis of different civilizational worlds. An indispensable book for students and professors of anthropology, political science, and foreign relations.

The Great Revolutions and the Civilizations of Modernity


Author: Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt
Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers
ISBN: 9789004148123
Category: Social Science
Page: 227
View: 7410
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This book attempts to analyze the civilizational and historical context of the development of the modern revolutions — of the Great Revolutions and of their relations to modernity, to the civilization of modernity, its dynamics and tribulations.

Diversity in Europe

Dilemnas of differential treatment in theory and practice
Author: Gideon Calder,Emanuela Ceva
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136868283
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 9814
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From bans on religious symbols in public spaces, to the provision of abortion by doctors, recent cases across Europe have highlighted acute dilemmas about how best to respond to the claims of individuals or groups feeling that their values or beliefs are not treated fairly by the law. Diversity in Europe uses the resources of political theory alongside comparative analysis of contemporary practices in different countries (Germany, Italy, Turkey, Spain and the UK) to explore the challenges diversity poses for European democracies. Crucial throughout is whether the democratic commitment to equality entails uniformity in the law, or is compatible with saying 'yes' to some requests from citizens that they be treated differently, to accommodate their ethical, cultural and religious particularity. Such differential treatment may take several forms, e.g. group or individual rights, either to legal exemptions or to conscientious objection. Exploring these from various angles, the book gives a sense of the tools democracies need to address the challenges of diversity more generally. Making an important contribution to our understanding of the political implications of ethical, cultural and religious diversity, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of political and social philosophy, European studies, political science, social policy, applied ethics, law, and socio-legal studies.

The Collapse of Complex Societies


Author: Joseph Tainter
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521386739
Category: Social Science
Page: 250
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Dr Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory.

The Interpretation of Cultures


Author: Clifford Geertz
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465093566
Category: Social Science
Page: 576
View: 7088
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In The Interpretation of Cultures, the most original anthropologist of his generation moved far beyond the traditional confines of his discipline to develop an important new concept of culture. This groundbreaking book, winner of the 1974 Sorokin Award of the American Sociological Association, helped define for an entire generation of anthropologists what their field is ultimately about.

The Decay of Western Civilisation and Resurgence of Russia

Between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Author: Glenn Diesen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351012614
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 3998
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What explains the rise of populist movements across the West and their affinity towards Russia? UKIP’s Brexit victory, Trump’s triumph, and the successive elections and referendums in Europe were united by a repudiation of the liberal international order. These new political forces envision the struggle to reproduce and advance Western civilisation to be fought along a patriotism–cosmopolitanism or nationalism–globalism battlefield, in which Russia becomes a partner rather than an adversary. Armed with neomodernism and geoeconomics, Russia has inadvertently taken on a central role in the decay of Western civilisation. This book explores the cooperation and competition between Western and Russian civilisation and the rise of anti-establishment political forces both contesting the international liberal order and expressing the desire for closer relations with Russia. Diesen proposes that Western civilisation has reached a critical juncture as modern society (gesellschaft) has overwhelmed and exhausted the traditional community (gemeinschaft) and shows the causes for the decay of Western civilisation and the subsequent impact on cooperation and conflict with Russia. The author also considers whether Russia’s international conservativism is authentic and can negate the West’s decadence, or if it is merely a shrewd strategy by a rival civilisation also in decay. This volume will be of interest to scholars of international relations, political science, security studies, international political economy, and Russian studies.

Rule of Law, Islam, and Constitutional Politics in Egypt and Iran, The


Author: Said Amir Arjomand,Nathan J. Brown
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 1438445989
Category: Law
Page: 338
View: 6192
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A comparative analysis of the ways in which Islam has become entangled with the process of democratization in both Egypt & Iran, authoritarian regimes that have faced increasing demands for reform.