Authority and Political Culture in Shi'ism


Author: Said Amir Arjomand
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780887066382
Category: Crafts & Hobbies
Page: 393
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Preface Contributors 1 Introduction: Shi’ism, Authority, and Political Culture Said Amir Arjomand Part I Essays 2 Imam and Community in the Pre-Ghayba Period Etan Kohlberg 3 The Evolution of Popular Eulogy of the Imams among the Shi’a Mohammad-Dja’far Mahdjoub and John R. Perry 4 The Mujtahid of the Age and the Mulla-bashi: An Intermediate Stage in the Institutionalization of Religious Authority in Shi’ite Iran Said Amir Arjomand 5 In Between the Madrasa and the Marketplace: The Designation of Clerical Leadership in Modern Shi’ism Abbas Amanat 6 Constitutionalism and Clerical Authority Abdol Karim Lahidji 7 Shari’at Sangalaji: A Reformist Theologian of the Rida Shah Period Yann Richard and Kathryn Arjomand 8 Ideological Revolution in Shi’ism Said Amir Arjomand Part II Selected Sources 9 An Annotated Bibliography on Government and Statecraft Mohammad-Taqi Danishpazhouh and Andrew Newman 10 ‘Allama al-Hilli on the Imamate and Ijtihad John Cooper 11 Two Decrees of Shah Tahmasp Concerning Statecraft and the Authority of Shaykh ‘All al-Karaki Said Amir Arjomand 12 The Muqaddas al-Ardabili on Taqlid John Cooper 13 Two Seventeenth-Century Persian Tracts on Kingship and Rulers William C. Chittick 14 Lives of Prominent Nineteenth-Century ‘Ulama’ from Tunika-buni’s Qisas al-’Ulama’ Hamid Dabashi 15 An Exchange between a Mujtahid and a Qajar Official Hamid Dabashi 16 Two Clerical Tracts on Constitutionalism Hamid Dabashi 17 Clerical Authority in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran Index

Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism

From Ali to Post-Khomeini
Author: Hamid Mavani
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135044732
Category: Political Science
Page: 274
View: 2540
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Ranging from the time of the infallible Imams, to the contemporary era, this book provides a comprehensive overview of Shi’i religious and political authority, focusing on Iran and Lebanon, without limiting the discourse to Khomeini’s version of an Islamic State. Utilising untapped Arabic and Persian sources, Hamid Mavani provides a detailed, nuanced, and diverse theoretical discussion on the doctrine of leadership (Imamate) in Shi’ism from traditional, theological, philosophical, and mystical perspectives. This theoretical discussion becomes the foundation for an analysis of the transmission of the Twelfth Imam’s religious and political authority vis-á-vis the jurists during his Greater Occultation. Bringing the often overlooked diversity within the Shi’i tradition into sharp focus, Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi’ism discusses what constitutes an Islamic state, if there is such a notion as an Islamic state. Hamid Mavani further explores the possibility of creating a space for secularity, facilitating a separation between religion and state, and ensuring equal rights for all. This book argues that such a development is only possible if there is a rehabilitation of ijtihad. If this were to materialise modern religious, social, economic, political, and cultural challenges could be addressed more successfully. This book will be of use to scholars and students with interests ranging from Politics, to Religion, to Middle East Studies.

Religion and State

The Muslim Approach to Politics
Author: L. Carl. Brown
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231529376
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 8936
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If Westerners know a single Islamic term, it is likely to be jihad, the Arabic word for "holy war." The image of Islam as an inherently aggressive and xenophobic religion has long prevailed in the West and can at times appear to be substantiated by current events. L. Carl Brown challenges this conventional wisdom with a fascinating historical overview of the relationship between religious and political life in the Muslim world ranging from Islam's early centuries to the present day. Religion and State examines the commonplace notion—held by both radical Muslim ideologues and various Western observers alike—that in Islam there is no separation between religion and politics. By placing this assertion in a broad historical context, the book reveals both the continuities between premodern and modern Islamic political thought as well as the distinctive dimensions of modern Muslim experiences. Brown shows that both the modern-day fundamentalists and their critics have it wrong when they posit an eternally militant, unchanging Islam outside of history. "They are conflating theology and history. They are confusing the oughtand the is," he writes. As the historical record shows, mainstream Muslim political thought in premodern times tended toward political quietism. Brown maintains that we can better understand present-day politics among Muslims by accepting the reality of their historical diversity while at the same time seeking to identify what may be distinctive in Muslim thought and action. In order to illuminate the distinguishing characteristics of Islam in relation to politics, Brown compares this religion with its two Semitic sisters, Judaism and Christianity, drawing striking comparisons between Islam today and Christianity during the Reformation. With a wealth of evidence, he recreates a tradition of Islamic diversity every bit as rich as that of Judaism and Christianity.

Shi'ism


Author: Hamid Dabashi
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674058755
Category: Religion
Page: 448
View: 3689
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For a Western world anxious to understand Islam and, in particular, Shi’ism, this book arrives with urgently needed information and critical analysis. Hamid Dabashi exposes the soul of Shi’ism as a religion of protest—successful only when in a warring position, and losing its legitimacy when in power.

Shi'ism in America


Author: Liyakat Nathani Takim
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814782973
Category: History
Page: 295
View: 7871
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There are over two million Shi'is, who differ from Sunni Muslims in their understandings of the early line of succession after Muhammad, in the United States. With community roots going back sometimes close to one hundred years, the Shi'i community can be found in major cities like New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, and Dearborn, Michigan. Early in the century, Shi'is and Sunnis sometimes arrived at the same time, worshipped together, shared similar experiences, and confronted the same challenges despite their sectarian differences. Both tracing the early history and illuminating the more recent past with surveys and interviews, Takim explores the experiences of this community. Filling an important scholarly gap, he also demonstrates how living in the West has impelled the Shi'i community to grapple with the ways in which Islamic law may respond to the challenges of modernity.Shi'ism in Americaprovides the first general overview of this United States religious community, from religious, cultural, and political institutions to inter-group relations and the experience of African American Shi'is. Liyakat Nathani Takim is Sharjah Chair in Global Islam at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A native of Zanzibar, Tanzania, he is the author of many works, includingThe Heirs of the Prophet: Charisma and Religious Authority in Shi'ite Islam

History of Islamic Political Thought


Author: Antony Black
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748688781
Category: Philosophy
Page: 400
View: 5828
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Second edition of the history of Islamic political thought that traces its roots from early Islam to the current age of Fundamentalism (622 AD to 2010 AD).

Iran

A Modern History
Author: Abbas Amanat
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300231466
Category: History
Page: 992
View: 8517
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A masterfully researched and compelling history of Iran from 1501 to 2009 This history of modern Iran is not a survey in the conventional sense but an ambitious exploration of the story of a nation. It offers a revealing look at how events, people, and institutions are shaped by currents that sometimes reach back hundreds of years. The book covers the complex history of the diverse societies and economies of Iran against the background of dynastic changes, revolutions, civil wars, foreign occupation, and the rise of the Islamic Republic. Abbas Amanat combines chronological and thematic approaches, exploring events with lasting implications for modern Iran and the world. Drawing on diverse historical scholarship and emphasizing the twentieth century, he addresses debates about Iran’s culture and politics. Political history is the driving narrative force, given impetus by Amanat's decades of research and study. He layers the book with discussions of literature, music, and the arts; ideology and religion; economy and society; and cultural identity and heritage.

Shi'ism

Theology and philosophy. Vol. 2
Author: Paul Luft,Colin Turner
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780415391870
Category:
Page: 356
View: 5739
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The Emergence of Modern Shi'ism

Islamic Reform in Iraq and Iran
Author: Zackery M. Heern
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
ISBN: 1780744978
Category: Religion
Page: 240
View: 6717
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This book takes a fresh look at the foundations of modern Islam. Scholars often locate the origins of the modern Islamic world in European colonialism or Islamic reactions to European modernity. This study, however, focuses on the rise of Islamic movements indigenous to the Middle East, which developed in direct response to the collapse and decentralization of the Islamic gunpowder empires. Arguing that the Usuli movement, as well as Wahhabism and neo-Sufism, emerged in reaction to the disintegration and political decentralization of the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal empires, this book specifically highlights the emergence of Usuli Shi‘ism in the 18th and 19th centuries. The long-term impact of the Usuli revival was that Shi‘i clerics gained unprecedented social, political, and economic power in Iran and southern Iraq. Usuli clerics claimed authority to issue binding legal judgments, which, they argue, must be observed by all Shi‘is. By the early 19th century, Usulism emerged as a popular, fiercely independent, transnational Islamic movement. The Usuli clerics have often operated at the heart of social and political developments in modern Iraq and Iran and today dominate the politics of the region.

Expectation of the Millennium

Shi'ism in History
Author: Seyyed Hossein Nasr,Hamid Dabashi,Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780887068430
Category: Religion
Page: 460
View: 3330
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This is an anthology on the history, politics, and social aspects of Shi'ism including translations of original sources. It examines the historical development of Shi'ism, Shi'i political thought, the status of Shi'i minority communities in the Muslim world, and the life and works of prominent social and political thinkers. The book assesses the extent of the politicization process in Shi'ism in recent years and addresses that important question of the Shi'i attitude towards authority.

The Twelver Shia in Modern Times

Religious Culture and Political History
Author: Rainer Brunner,Werner Ende
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789004118034
Category: Religion
Page: 395
View: 1307
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This publication discusses the development of Shiite Islam since the 18th century in its various aspects. Its 21 contributions focus on the transformation of theological traditions, the role of internal criticism and ideological and political tendencies in the 20the century.

The Divine Guide in Early Shi'ism

The Sources of Esotericism in Islam
Author: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791421222
Category: Religion
Page: 279
View: 2659
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The Imam, the Divine Guide, is the central point around which the Shi'ite religion turns. The power of Shi'ism comes from the actions of the Imam. This title is reserved exclusively for the sucessors of the prophets in their mission. The author shows that from the beginning of Shi'ite Islam until the tenth century, the Imam was primarily a master of knowledge with supernatural powers, not a jurist theologian. The Imam is the threshold through which God and the creatures communicate. He is thus a cosmic necessity, the key and the center of the universal economy of the sacred. The author presents Shi'ism as a religion founded on double dimensions where the role of the leader remains constantly central: perpetual initiation into divine secrets and continued confrontation with anti-initiation forces. Without esotericism, exotericism loses its meaning. Early Imamism is an esoteric doctrine. Historically, then, at the beginning of esotericism in Islam, we find an initiatory, mystical, and occultist doctrine. This is the first book to systematically explore the immense literature attributed to the Imams themselves in order to recover the authentic original vision. It restores an essential source of esotericism in the world of Islam.

Islamic Law and Society in Iran

A Social History of Qajar Tehran
Author: Nobuaki Kondo
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 135178319X
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 6322
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The relationship between Islamic law and society is an important issue in Iran under the Islamic Republic. Although Islamic law was a pivotal element in the traditional Iranian society, no comprehensive research has been made until today. This is because modern reformers emphasized the lack of rule of law in nineteenth-century Iran. However, a legal system did exist, and Islamic law was a substantial part of it. This is the first book on the relationship between Islamic law and the Iranian society during the nineteenth century. The author explores the legal aspects of urban society in Iran and provides the social context in which political process occurred and examines how authorities applied law in society, how people utilized the law, and how the law regulated society. Based on rich archival sources including court records and private deeds from Qajar Tehran, this book explores how Islamic law functioned in Iranian society. The judicial system, sharia court, and religious endowments (vaqf) are fully discussed, and the role of ‘ulama as legal experts is highlighted throughout the book. It challenges nationalist and modernist views on nineteenth-century Iran and provides a unique model in terms of the relationship between Islamic law and society, which is rather different from the Ottoman case. Providing an understanding of this legal system in Iran and its role in society, this book offers a basis for assessing the motives and results of modern reforms as well as the modernist discourse. This book will be of interest to students of Middle Eastern and Iranian Studies.

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought


Author: Gerhard Böwering,Patricia Crone
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691134847
Category: Political Science
Page: 656
View: 7298
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"In 2012, the year 1433 of the Muslim calendar, the Islamic population throughout the world was estimated at approximately a billion and a half, representing about one-fifth of humanity. In geographical terms, Islam occupies the center of the world, stretching like a big belt across the globe from east to west."--P. vii.

Guardians of Shi'ism


Author: Elvire Corboz
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748691464
Category: Religion
Page: 288
View: 4789
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Based on a political sociology of two families of religious scholars, al-Hakim and al-Khu'i, Elvire Corboz explains the internal workings of transnational leadership patterns in Shi'ism for the first time.

Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy

Toward a Democratic Theory for Muslim Societies
Author: Nader Hashemi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199886520
Category: Religion
Page: 310
View: 6484
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Islam's relationship to liberal-democratic politics has emerged as one of the most pressing and contentious issues in international affairs. In Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy, Nader Hashemi challenges the widely held belief among social scientists that religious politics and liberal-democratic development are structurally incompatible. This book argues for a rethinking of democratic theory so that it incorporates the variable of religion in the development of liberal democracy. In the process, it proves that an indigenous theory of Muslim secularism is not only possible, but is a necessary requirement for the advancement of liberal democracy in Muslim societies.

The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future


Author: Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr,Vali Nasr
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393329682
Category: Political Science
Page: 310
View: 8553
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Considers the ways in which struggles between the Shia and Sunni in the Middle East will affect the region's future, offering insight into the long-standing, brutal power conflicts between Iran and Saudi Arabia for political and spiritual leadership of the Muslim world. Reprint.

Roman Catholics and Shi'i Muslims

Prayer, Passion, and Politics
Author: James A. Bill,John Alden Williams
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 0807874922
Category: Religion
Page: 208
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i" --> This timely work explores two influential religious traditions that might seem to have little in common: Twelver Shi'i Islam and Roman Catholicism. With the worldwide rise of religious fundamentalism, it is imperative that religious movements such as Christianity and Islam begin working harder to understand one another's history and beliefs. Myths and misunderstandings continue to prevail, and observers tend to focus on the differences between the two faith systems. Without denying these differences, the authors of this book reveal a number of interesting linkages between Roman Catholicism and Twelver Shi'ism. They compare the histories of the two faiths, consider parallels between important figures in each, and highlight the doctrinal, structural, and sociopolitical similarities they share. Balanced in tone and carefully researched, the book helps explain the essence of both traditions while enriching our understanding of each. There are an estimated 140 million Twelver Shi'is in the world today. The highest percentages live in Persian Gulf countries, including Iran and Iraq, and in Azerbaijan, Lebanon, and Afghanistan. Sizable numbers also inhabit Pakistan, India, and Turkey. The largest Christian denomination, Roman Catholicism is present across the globe, though its population of more than one billion people is concentrated in North and South America and in Europe.

The Shi'is of Iraq


Author: Yitzhak Nakash
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691115757
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 4666
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"The Shii's of Iraq" provides a comprehensive history of Iraq's majority group and its turbulent relations with the ruling Sunni minority. Yitzhak Nakash challenges the widely held belief that Shi'i society and politics in Iraq are a reflection of Iranian Shi'ism, pointing to the strong Arab attributes of Iraqi Shi'ism. A new introduction brings this book into the new century and illuminates the role that Shi'is could play in a future Iraq after Saddam Hussein.

Safavid Iran

Rebirth of a Persian Empire
Author: Andrew J Newman
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857733664
Category: History
Page: 296
View: 8201
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Winner of the International Book Prize in Iranian Studies The Safavid dynasty, which reigned from the late fifteenth to the eighteenth century, links medieval with modern Iran. The Safavids witnessed wide-ranging developments in politics, warfare, science, philosophy, religion, art and architecture. But how did this dynasty manage to produce the longest lasting and most glorious of Iran’s Islamic-period eras? Andrew Newman offers a complete re-evaluation of the Safavid place in history as they presided over these extraordinary developments and the wondrous flowering of Iranian culture. In the process he dissects the Safavid story, from before the 1501 capture of Tabriz by Shah Ismail (1488-1524), the point at which Shi`ism became the realm's established faith; on to the sixteenth and early seventeenth century dominated by Shah Abbas (1587-1629), whose patronage of art and architecture from his capital of Isfahan embodied the Safavid spirit; and culminating with the reign of Sultan Husayn (reg. 1694-1722). Based on meticulous scholarship, Newman offers a valuable new interpretation of the rise of the Safavids and their eventual demise in the eighteenth century. Safavid Iran, with its fresh insights and new research, is the definitive single volume work on the subject. ‘There is an enormous amount of valuable material here and very wide and impressive reading.’ Charles Melville, Reader in Persian History, University of Cambridge