Basic Set Theory


Author: Nikolai Konstantinovich Vereshchagin,Alexander Shen
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821827316
Category: Mathematics
Page: 116
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The main notions of set theory (cardinals, ordinals, transfinite induction) are fundamental to all mathematicians, not only to those who specialize in mathematical logic or set-theoretic topology. Basic set theory is generally given a brief overview in courses on analysis, algebra, or topology, even though it is sufficiently important, interesting, and simple to merit its own dedicated treatment. This book provides just that in the form of a leisurely exposition for a diversified audience. It is suitable for a broad range of readers, from undergraduate students to professional mathematicians who want to finally find out what transfinite induction is and why it is always replaced by Zorn's Lemma. The text introduces all main subjects of ``naive'' (nonaxiomatic) set theory: functions, cardinalities, ordered and well-ordered sets, transfinite induction and its applications, ordinals, and operations on ordinals. Included are discussions and proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein Theorem, Cantor's diagonal method, Zorn's Lemma, Zermelo's Theorem, and Hamel bases. With over 150 problems, the book is a complete and accessible introduction to the subject.

Computable Functions


Author: Nikolai Konstantinovich Vereshchagin,Alexander Shen
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821827324
Category: Mathematics
Page: 166
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This lively and concise book is based on the lectures for undergraduates given by the authors at the Moscow State University Mathematics Department and covers the basic notions of the general theory of computation. It begins with the definition of a computable function and an algorithm and discusses decidability, enumerability, universal functions, numberings and their properties, $m$-completeness, the fixed point theorem, arithmetical hierarchy, oracle computations, and degrees of unsolvability. The authors also cover specific computational models, such as Turing machines and recursive functions. The intended audience includes undergraduate students majoring in mathematics or computer science, and all mathematicians and programmers who would like to learn the basics of the general theory of computation.

Invariant Theory


Author: Mara D. Neusel
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821841327
Category: Mathematics
Page: 314
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This book presents the characteristic zero invariant theory of finite groups acting linearly on polynomial algebras. The author assumes basic knowledge of groups and rings, and introduces more advanced methods from commutative algebra along the way. The theory is illustrated by numerous examples and applications to physics, engineering, numerical analysis, combinatorics, coding theory, and graph theory. A wide selection of exercises and suggestions for further reading makes the book appropriate for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate level course.

Invitation to Ergodic Theory


Author: César Ernesto Silva
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821844202
Category: Mathematics
Page: 262
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This book is an introduction to basic concepts in ergodic theory such as recurrence, ergodicity, the ergodic theorem, mixing, and weak mixing. It does not assume knowledge of measure theory; all the results needed from measure theory are presented from scratch. In particular, the book includes a detailed construction of the Lebesgue measure on the real line and an introduction to measure spaces up to the Caratheodory extension theorem. It also develops the Lebesgue theory of integration, including the dominated convergence theorem and an introduction to the Lebesgue $Lp$spaces.

Higher Arithmetic

An Algorithmic Introduction to Number Theory
Author: Harold M. Edwards
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821844397
Category: Mathematics
Page: 210
View: 5424
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Although number theorists have sometimes shunned and even disparaged computation in the past, today's applications of number theory to cryptography and computer security demand vast arithmetical computations. These demands have shifted the focus of studies in number theory and have changed attitudes toward computation itself. The important new applications have attracted a great many students to number theory, but the best reason for studying the subject remains what it was when Gauss published his classic Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801: Number theory is the equal of Euclidean geometry--some would say it is superior to Euclidean geometry--as a model of pure, logical, deductive thinking. An arithmetical computation, after all, is the purest form of deductive argument. Higher Arithmetic explains number theory in a way that gives deductive reasoning, including algorithms and computations, the central role. Hands-on experience with the application of algorithms to computational examples enables students to master the fundamental ideas of basic number theory. This is a worthwhile goal for any student of mathematics and an essential one for students interested in the modern applications of number theory. Harold M. Edwards is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at New York University. His previous books are Advanced Calculus (1969, 1980, 1993), Riemann's Zeta Function (1974, 2001), Fermat's Last Theorem (1977), Galois Theory (1984), Divisor Theory (1990), Linear Algebra (1995), and Essays in Constructive Mathematics (2005). For his masterly mathematical exposition he was awarded a Steele Prize as well as a Whiteman Prize by the American Mathematical Society.

Introduction to Topology


Author: V. A. Vasilʹev
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821821628
Category: Mathematics
Page: 149
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This English translation of a Russian book presents the basic notions of differential and algebraic topology, which are indispensable for specialists and useful for research mathematicians and theoretical physicists. In particular, ideas and results are introduced related to manifolds, cell spaces, coverings and fibrations, homotopy groups, intersection index, etc. The author notes, ``The lecture note origins of the book left a significant imprint on its style. It contains very few detailed proofs: I tried to give as many illustrations as possible and to show what really occurs in topology, not always explaining why it occurs.'' He concludes, ``As a rule, only those proofs (or sketches of proofs) that are interesting per se and have important generalizations are presented.''

A (terse) Introduction to Linear Algebra


Author: Yitzhak Katznelson,Yonatan R. Katznelson
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821844199
Category: Mathematics
Page: 215
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Linear algebra is the study of vector spaces and the linear maps between them. It underlies much of modern mathematics and is widely used in applications. A (Terse) Introduction to Linear Algebra is a concise presentation of the core material of the subject--those elements of linear algebra that every mathematician, and everyone who uses mathematics, should know. It goes from the notion of a finite-dimensional vector space to the canonical forms of linear operators and their matrices, and covers along the way such key topics as: systems of linear equations, linear operators and matrices, determinants, duality, and the spectral theory of operators on inner-product spaces. The last chapter offers a selection of additional topics indicating directions in which the core material can be applied. The Appendix provides all the relevant background material. Written for students with some mathematical maturity and an interest in abstraction and formal reasoning, the book is self-contained and is appropriate for an advanced undergraduate course in linear algebra.

A View from the Top

Analysis, Combinatorics and Number Theory
Author: Alex Iosevich
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821843974
Category: Mathematics
Page: 136
View: 9536
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This book is based on a capstone course that the author taught to upper division undergraduate students with the goal to explain and visualize the connections between different areas of mathematics and the way different subject matters flow from one another. In teaching his readers a variety of problem solving techniques as well, the author succeeds in enhancing the readers' hands on knowledge of mathematics and provides glimpses into the world of research and discovery. The connections between different techniques and areas of mathematics are emphasized throughout and constitute one of the most important lessons this book attempts to impart. This book is interesting and accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of high school mathematics and a curiosity about research mathematics. The author is a professor at the University of Missouri and has maintained a keen interest in teaching at different levels since his undergraduate days at the University of Chicago. He has run numerous summer programs in mathematics for local high school students and undergraduate students at his university.The author gets much of his research inspiration from his teaching activities and looks forward to exploring this wonderful and rewarding symbiosis for years to come.

Introduction to Representation Theory


Author: Pavel I. Etingof,Oleg Golberg,Sebastian Hensel ,Tiankai Liu ,Alex Schwendner ,Dmitry Vaintrob ,Elena Yudovina
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821853511
Category: Mathematics
Page: 228
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Very roughly speaking, representation theory studies symmetry in linear spaces. It is a beautiful mathematical subject which has many applications, ranging from number theory and combinatorics to geometry, probability theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum field theory. The goal of this book is to give a ``holistic'' introduction to representation theory, presenting it as a unified subject which studies representations of associative algebras and treating the representation theories of groups, Lie algebras, and quivers as special cases. Using this approach, the book covers a number of standard topics in the representation theories of these structures. Theoretical material in the book is supplemented by many problems and exercises which touch upon a lot of additional topics; the more difficult exercises are provided with hints. The book is designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. It should be accessible to students with a strong background in linear algebra and a basic knowledge of abstract algebra.

Basic Set Theory


Author: Azriel Levy
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486150739
Category: Mathematics
Page: 416
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The first part of this advanced-level text covers pure set theory, and the second deals with applications and advanced topics (point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, infinite combinatorics and large cardinals). 1979 edition.

Elementary Algebraic Geometry


Author: Klaus Hulek
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821829521
Category: Mathematics
Page: 213
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This book is a true introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of algebraic geometry. The language is purposefully kept on an elementary level, avoiding sheaf theory and cohomology theory. The introduction of new algebraic concepts is always motivated by a discussion of the corresponding geometric ideas. The main point of the book is to illustrate the interplay between abstract theory and specific examples. The book contains numerous problems that illustrate the general theory. The text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. It contains sufficient material for a one-semester course. The reader should be familiar with the basic concepts of modern algebra. A course in one complex variable would be helpful, but is not necessary.

Basic Discrete Mathematics

Logic, Set Theory, and Probability
Author: Richard Kohar
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9814730416
Category: Mathematics
Page: 732
View: 2856
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This lively introductory text exposes the student in the humanities to the world of discrete mathematics. A problem-solving based approach grounded in the ideas of George Pólya are at the heart of this book. Students learn to handle and solve new problems on their own. A straightforward, clear writing style and well-crafted examples with diagrams invite the students to develop into precise and critical thinkers. Particular attention has been given to the material that some students find challenging, such as proofs. This book illustrates how to spot invalid arguments, to enumerate possibilities, and to construct probabilities. It also presents case studies to students about the possible detrimental effects of ignoring these basic principles. The book is invaluable for a discrete and finite mathematics course at the freshman undergraduate level or for self-study since there are full solutions to the exercises in an appendix. "Written with clarity, humor and relevant real-world examples, Basic Discrete Mathematics is a wonderful introduction to discrete mathematical reasoning."- Arthur Benjamin, Professor of Mathematics at Harvey Mudd College, and author of The Magic of Math

A First Course in Mathematical Logic and Set Theory


Author: Michael L. O'Leary
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470905883
Category: Mathematics
Page: 464
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Rather than teach mathematics and the structure of proofssimultaneously, this book first introduces logic as the foundationof proofs and then demonstrates how logic applies to mathematicaltopics. This method ensures that readers gain a firmunderstanding of how logic interacts with mathematics and empowersthem to solve more complex problems. The study of logic andapplications is used throughout to prepare readers for further workin proof writing. Readers are first introduced tomathematical proof-writing, and then the book provides anoverview of symbolic logic that includes two-column logicproofs. Readers are then transitioned to set theory andinduction, and applications of number theory, relations, functions,groups, and topology are provided to further aid incomprehension. Topical coverage includes propositional logic,predicate logic, set theory, mathematical induction, number theory,relations, functions, group theory, and topology.

Volterra Adventures


Author: Joel H. Shapiro
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470441160
Category: Convolutions (Mathematics)
Page: 219
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This book introduces functional analysis to undergraduate mathematics students who possess a basic background in analysis and linear algebra. By studying how the Volterra operator acts on vector spaces of continuous functions, its readers will sharpen their skills, reinterpret what they already know, and learn fundamental Banach-space techniques—all in the pursuit of two celebrated results: the Titchmarsh Convolution Theorem and the Volterra Invariant Subspace Theorem. Exercises throughout the text enhance the material and facilitate interactive study.

Random Walk and the Heat Equation


Author: Gregory F. Lawler
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821848291
Category: Mathematics
Page: 156
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The heat equation can be derived by averaging over a very large number of particles. Traditionally, the resulting PDE is studied as a deterministic equation, an approach that has brought many significant results and a deep understanding of the equation and its solutions. By studying the heat equation and considering the individual random particles, however, one gains further intuition into the problem. While this is now standard for many researchers, this approach is generally not presented at the undergraduate level. In this book, Lawler introduces the heat equations and the closely related notion of harmonic functions from a probabilistic perspective. The theme of the first two chapters of the book is the relationship between random walks and the heat equation. This first chapter discusses the discrete case, random walk and the heat equation on the integer lattice; and the second chapter discusses the continuous case, Brownian motion and the usual heat equation. Relationships are shown between the two. For example, solving the heat equation in the discrete setting becomes a problem of diagonalization of symmetric matrices, which becomes a problem in Fourier series in the continuous case. Random walk and Brownian motion are introduced and developed from first principles. The latter two chapters discuss different topics: martingales and fractal dimension, with the chapters tied together by one example, a random Cantor set. The idea of this book is to merge probabilistic and deterministic approaches to heat flow. It is also intended as a bridge from undergraduate analysis to graduate and research perspectives. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduates, particularly those considering graduate work in mathematics or related areas.

An Introduction to Game-theoretic Modelling


Author: Mike Mesterton-Gibbons
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821819291
Category: Mathematics
Page: 368
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This is an introduction to game theory and applications with an emphasis on self-discovery from the perspective of a mathematical modeller. The book deals in a unified manner with the central concepts of both classical and evolutionary game theory. The key ideas are illustrated throughout by a wide variety of well-chosen examples of both human and non-human behavior, including car pooling, price fixing, food sharing, sex allocation and competition for territories or oviposition sites. There are numerous exercises with solutions.

Finite Fields and Applications

7th International Conference, Fq7, Toulouse, France, May 5-9, 2003, Revised Papers
Author: Gary L. Mullen,Alain Poli,Henning Stichtenoth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540246339
Category: Mathematics
Page: 263
View: 6190
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Mathematics++


Author: Ida Kantor, Jiří Matoušek,Robert Šámal
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470422611
Category: MATHEMATICS
Page: 343
View: 7386
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Mathematics++ is a concise introduction to six selected areas of 20th century mathematics providing numerous modern mathematical tools used in contemporary research in computer science, engineering, and other fields. The areas are: measure theory, high-dimensional geometry, Fourier analysis, representations of groups, multivariate polynomials, and topology. For each of the areas, the authors introduce basic notions, examples, and results. The presentation is clear and accessible, stressing intuitive understanding, and it includes carefully selected exercises as an integral part. Theory is complemented by applications--some quite surprising--in theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics. The chapters are independent of one another and can be studied in any order. It is assumed that the reader has gone through the basic mathematics courses. Although the book was conceived while the authors were teaching Ph.D. students in theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics, it will be useful for a much wider audience, such as mathematicians specializing in other areas, mathematics students deciding what specialization to pursue, or experts in engineering or other fields.

The Discrete Math Workbook

A Companion Manual for Practical Study
Author: Sergei Kurgalin,Sergei Borzunov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319926454
Category: Computers
Page: 485
View: 9505
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This practically-oriented textbook presents an accessible introduction to discrete mathematics through a substantial collection of classroom-tested exercises. Each chapter opens with concise coverage of the theory underlying the topic, reviewing the basic concepts and establishing the terminology, as well as providing the key formulae and instructions on their use. This is then followed by a detailed account of the most common problems in the area, before the reader is invited to practice solving such problems for themselves through a varied series of questions and assignments. Topics and features: provides an extensive set of exercises and examples of varying levels of complexity, suitable for both laboratory practical training and self-study; offers detailed solutions to many problems, applying commonly-used methods and computational schemes; introduces the fundamentals of mathematical logic, the theory of algorithms, Boolean algebra, graph theory, sets, relations, functions, and combinatorics; presents more advanced material on the design and analysis of algorithms, including asymptotic analysis, and parallel algorithms; includes reference lists of trigonometric and finite summation formulae in an appendix, together with basic rules for differential and integral calculus. This hands-on study guide is designed to address the core needs of undergraduate students training in computer science, informatics, and electronic engineering, emphasizing the skills required to develop and implement an algorithm in a specific programming language.

Moscow Mathematical Olympiads, 1993-1999


Author: Roman Mikhaĭlovich Fedorov,Silvio Levy
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821853635
Category: Mathematics
Page: 220
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The Moscow Mathematical Olympiad has been challenging high school students with stimulating, original problems of different degrees of difficulty for over 75 years. The problems are nonstandard; solving them takes wit, thinking outside the box, and, sometimes, hours of contemplation. Some are within the reach of most mathematically competent high school students, while others are difficult even for a mathematics professor. Many mathematically inclined students have found that tackling these problems, or even just reading their solutions, is a great way to develop mathematical insight. In 2006 the Moscow Center for Continuous Mathematical Education began publishing a collection of problems from the Moscow Mathematical Olympiads, providing for each an answer (and sometimes a hint) as well as one or more detailed solutions. This volume represents the years 1993-1999. The problems and the accompanying material are well suited for math circles. They are also appropriate for problem-solving classes and practice for regional and national mathematics competitions. In the interest of fostering a greater awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and everyday life, MSRI and the AMS are publishing books in the Mathematical Circles Library series as a service to young people, their parents and teachers, and the mathematics profession. Titles in this series are co-published with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI).