Biogeography

A Study of Plants in the Ecosphere
Author: Joy Tivy
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781138407190
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 469
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The third edition of this classic text, presents a broad-based study of the variations in the form and functioning of the biosphere at regional and global scale.

Vegetation Description and Data Analysis

A Practical Approach
Author: Martin Kent
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119962390
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 4382
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Vegetation Description and Data Analysis: A Practical Approach, Second Edition is a fully revised and up-dated edition of this key text. The book takes account of recent advances in the field whilst retaining the original reader-friendly approach to the coverage of vegetation description and multivariate analysis in the context of vegetation data and plant ecology. Since the publication of the hugely popular first edition there have been significant developments in computer hardware and software, new key journals have been established in the field and scope and application of vegetation description and analysis has become a truly global field. This new edition includes full coverage of new developments and technologies. This contemporary and comprehensive edition of this well-known and respected textbook will prove invaluable to undergraduate and graduate students in biological sciences, environmental science, geography, botany, agriculture, forestry and biological conservation. Fully international approach Includes illustrative case studies throughout Now with new material on: the nature of plant communities; transitional areas between plant communities; induction and deduction of plant ecology; diversity indices and dominance diversity curves; multivariate analysis in ecology. Accessible, reader-friendly style Now with new and improved illustrations

Ecosystems


Author: Gordon Dickinson,Kevin Murphy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113431938X
Category: Science
Page: 224
View: 5054
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In examining both theory and applications, this book, through useful examples, provides a stimulating introduction to ecosystems. It examines the nature, types and characteristics of ecosystems as well as investigating the interactions between various systems and human actions. Using functional ecology as the basis for applying the ecosystem concept in contemporary environmental science and ecology, this second edition of this highly successful volume has been updated to reflect the latest research. It incorporates a strengthened theme in the use of functional ecology in explaining how ecosystems work and how the ecosystem concept may be used in science and applied science, and coverage of the interactions between humans and ecosystems has been substantially bolstered with the addition of chapters on human impacts and large scale impacts on ecosystems, and global environmental change and the consequences for ecosystems. Presented in a student-friendly format, this book features boxed definitions, examples, case studies, summary points, discussion questions and annotated further reading lists. It provides a concise and accessible synthesis of both ecosystem theory and its applications, and will be a valuable resource for students of environmental studies, ecology and geography.

Deserts and Desert Environments


Author: Julie J Laity
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444300741
Category: Science
Page: 360
View: 9612
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Taking a global perspective, this book provides a concise overview of drylands, including their physical, biological, temporal, and human components. Examines the physical systems occurring in desert environments, including climate, hydrology, past and present lakes, weathering, hillslopes, geomorphic surfaces, water as a geomorphic agent, and aeolian processes Offers an accessible introduction to the physical, biological, temporal, and human components of drylands Investigates the nature, environmental requirements, and essential geomorphic roles of plants and animals in this stressful biological environment Highlights the impact of human population growth on climate, desertification, water resources, and dust storm activity Includes an examination of surface/atmosphere interactions and the impact of ENSO events.

Fundamentals of Geomorphology


Author: Richard John Huggett
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317378385
Category: Science
Page: 544
View: 5014
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The new fourth edition of Fundamentals of Geomorphology continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject by discussing the latest developments in the field, as well as covering the basics of Earth surface forms and processes. The revised edition has an improved logically cohesive structure, added recent material on Quaternary environments and landscapes, landscape evolution and tectonics, as well as updated information in fast-changing areas such as the application of dating techniques, digital terrain modelling, historical contingency, preglacial landforms, neocatastrophism, and biogeomorphology. The book begins with a consideration of the nature of geomorphology, process and form, history, and geomorphic systems, and moves on to discuss: Endogenic processes: structural landforms associated with plate tectonics and those associated with volcanoes, impact craters, and folds, faults, and joints. Exogenic processes: landforms resulting from, or influenced by, the exogenic agencies of weathering, running water, flowing ice and meltwater, ground ice and frost, the wind, and the sea; landforms developed on limestone; and long-term geomorphology, a discussion of ancient landforms, including palaeosurfaces, stagnant landscape features, and evolutionary aspects of landscape change. Featuring over 400 illustrations, diagrams, and tables, Fundamentals of Geomorphology provides a stimulating and innovative perspective on the key topics and debates within the field of geomorphology. Written in an accessible and lively manner, and providing guides to further reading, chapter summaries, and an extensive glossary of key terms, this is an indispensable undergraduate level textbook for students of physical geography.

Sourcebook on the Environment

A Guide to the Literature
Author: Kenneth A. Hammond,George Macinko,Wilma B. Fairchild,Association of American Geographers
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226315225
Category: Reference
Page: 613
View: 6164
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Covers philosophies, perspectives, case studies, and environmental problems

Ecology of Lianas


Author: Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118392485
Category: Science
Page: 504
View: 7666
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Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study by early ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to the natural history of climbing plants. Over the past quarter century, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, and liana are again recognized as important components of many forests, particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount of research on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeper understanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, as well as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics and functioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution of lianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, their global abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effects on the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperate forests.

Geography Since the Second World War (RLE Social & Cultural Geography)


Author: Ron Johnston,Paul Claval
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317907094
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 8957
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The discipline of geography has undergone much change and growth in recent years. With growth has come diversity. Before 1945 there were differences between countries in the emphases on subject matter and research approach, although these were all related closely to three main ‘models’ – French, German and American. Since then, the relative importance of French and German influences has declined substantially, including within their own national territories, and the Anglo-American model has grown to world dominance. With that model, however, there is no dominant point of view but rather a multiplicity of competing approaches. These various approaches have had a different reception in other parts of the world, reflecting the base of pre-1945 geographical scholarship, the goals of geographical work set by soceities and the nature of the international contacts. The result is substantial international diversity in the practice of geography. This authoritative volume provides much needed information to make them aware of current international trends.

Plant Conservation and Biodiversity


Author: David L. Hawksworth,Alan T. Bull
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402064446
Category: Science
Page: 421
View: 3177
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Original studies address key aspects of the conservation and biodiversity of plants. Articles are all peer-reviewed primary research papers, contributed by leading biodiversity researchers from around the world. Collectively, these articles provide a snapshot of the major issues and activities in global plant conservation. Many of the articles can serve as excellent case studies for courses in ecology, restoration, biodiversity, and conservation.

Animal Distribution


Author: D.R. Khanna
Publisher: Discovery Publishing House
ISBN: 9788171417728
Category: Zoogeography
Page: 276
View: 9961
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Contents: Introduction, Geological Distribution, Geographical Distribution, Bathymetric Distribution, Oriental Region, Australian Region, Ethiopian Region, Neotropical Region, Palaearctic Region, Nearctic Region, Antarctica, Island Regions.

Ant-Plant Interactions

Impacts of Humans on Terrestrial Ecosystems
Author: Paulo S. Oliveira,Suzanne Koptur
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110715975X
Category: Science
Page: 470
View: 3362
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Ants are probably the most dominant insect family on earth, and flowering plants have been the dominant plant group on land for more than 100 million years. In recent decades, human activities have degraded natural environments with unparalleled speed and scale, making it increasingly apparent that interspecific interactions vary not only under different ecological conditions and across habitats, but also according to anthropogenic global change. This is the first volume entirely devoted to the anthropogenic effects on the interactions between these two major components of terrestrial ecosystems. A first-rate team of contributors report their research from a variety of temperate and tropical ecosystems worldwide, including South, Central and North America, Africa, Japan, Polynesia, Indonesia and Australia. It provides an in-depth summary of the current understanding for researchers already acquainted with insect-plant interactions, yet is written at a level to offer a window into the ecology of ant-plant interactions for the mostly uninitiated international scientific community.

Biogeography and Ecology of Southern Africa


Author: Marinus J.A. Werger,A.C. van Bruggen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400999518
Category: Science
Page: 1444
View: 827
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Southern Africa is certainly not a naturally bounded area so that there are several possibilities for delineating it and concepts about its extent. Wellington* discussed the various possibilities for delineation and suggested that one line stands out more clearly and definitely as a physical boundary than any other, namely the South Equatorial Divide, the watershed between the ZaIre, Cuanza and Rufiji Rivers on the one hand and the Z ambezi, Cunene and Rovuma Rivers on the other. This South Equatorial Divide is indeed a major line of separation for some organisms and is also applicable in a certain geographical sense, though it does not possess the slightest significance for many other groups of organisms, ecosystems or geographical and physical features of Africa. The placing of the northern boundary of southern Africa differs in fact strongly per scientific dis cipline and is also influenced by practical considerations regarding the possibilities of scientific work as subordinate to certain political realities and historically grown traditions. This is illustrated, for example, in such works as the Flora of Southern Africa, where the northern boundary of the area is conceived as the northern and eastern political boundaries of South West Africa, South Africa and Swaziland. Botswana, traditionally included in the area covered by the Flora Zambesiaca, thus forms a large wedge in 'Southern Africa'.

The Evolution of Senescence in the Tree of Life


Author: Richard P. Shefferson,Owen R. Jones,Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108138608
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 9436
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The existing theories on the evolution of senescence assume that senescence is inevitable in all organisms. However, recent studies have shown that this is not necessarily true. A better understanding of senescence and its underlying mechanisms could have far-reaching consequences for conservation and eco-evolutionary research. This book is the first to offer interdisciplinary perspectives on the evolution of senescence in many species, setting the stage for further developments. It brings together new insights from a wide range of scientific fields and cutting-edge research done on a multitude of different animals (including humans), plants and microbes, giving the reader a complete overview of recent developments and of the controversies currently surrounding the topic. Written by specialists from a variety of disciplines, this book is a valuable source of information for students and researchers interested in ageing and life history traits and populations.

Landscape Ecology: A Widening Foundation


Author: Vittorio Ingegnoli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540427438
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 357
View: 3545
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The urgent need for a sustainable environment has resulted in the increased recognition of the field of landscape ecology amongst policy makers working in the area of nature conservation, restoration and territorial planning. Nonetheless, the question of what is precisely meant by the term 'landscape ecology' is still unresolved. Is it, for example, an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the environment at a landscape scale? Or perhaps at the level of biological organisation? Still further, has the inseparability of landscape and culture affected the scope of 'landscape ecology'? No doubt, a proper foundation of the discipline must first be cemented. This book then develops such a foundation. In doing so it provides all the diverse applications of the discipline with a solid framework and proposes an effective diagnostic methodology to investigate the ecological state and the pathologies of the landscape.

Forests and Global Change


Author: David A. Coomes,David F. R. P. Burslem,William D. Simonson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107783070
Category: Nature
Page: N.A
View: 6719
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Forests hold a significant proportion of global biodiversity and terrestrial carbon stocks and are at the forefront of human-induced global change. The dynamics and distribution of forest vegetation determines the habitat for other organisms, and regulates the delivery of ecosystem services, including carbon storage. Presenting recent research across temperate and tropical ecosystems, this volume synthesises the numerous ways that forests are responding to global change and includes perspectives on: the role of forests in the global carbon and energy budgets; historical patterns of forest change and diversification; contemporary mechanisms of community assembly and implications of underlying drivers of global change; and the ways in which forests supply ecosystem services that support human lives. The chapters represent case studies drawn from the authors' expertise, highlighting exciting new research and providing information that will be valuable to academics, students, researchers and practitioners with an interest in this field.

Numerical Ecology with R


Author: Daniel Borcard,Francois Gillet,Pierre Legendre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441979766
Category: Medical
Page: 306
View: 8770
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Numerical Ecology with R provides a long-awaited bridge between a textbook in Numerical Ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. After short theoretical overviews, the authors accompany the users through the exploration of the methods by means of applied and extensively commented examples. Users are invited to use this book as a teaching companion at the computer. The travel starts with exploratory approaches, proceeds with the construction of association matrices, then addresses three families of methods: clustering, unconstrained and canonical ordination, and spatial analysis. All the necessary data files, the scripts used in the chapters, as well as the extra R functions and packages written by the authors, can be downloaded from a web page accessible through the Springer web site(http://adn.biol.umontreal.ca/~numericalecology/numecolR/). This book is aimed at professional researchers, practitioners, graduate students and teachers in ecology, environmental science and engineering, and in related fields such as oceanography, molecular ecology, agriculture and soil science, who already have a background in general and multivariate statistics and wish to apply this knowledge to their data using the R language, as well as people willing to accompany their disciplinary learning with practical applications. People from other fields (e.g. geology, geography, paleoecology, phylogenetics, anthropology, the social and education sciences, etc.) may also benefit from the materials presented in this book. The three authors teach numerical ecology, both theoretical and practical, to a wide array of audiences, in regular courses in their Universities and in short courses given around the world. Daniel Borcard is lecturer of Biostatistics and Ecology and researcher in Numerical Ecology at Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. François Gillet is professor of Community Ecology and Ecological Modelling at Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France. Pierre Legendre is professor of Quantitative Biology and Ecology at Université de Montréal, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and ISI Highly Cited Researcher in Ecology/Environment.

Observation and Ecology

Broadening the Scope of Science to Understand a Complex World
Author: Rafe Sagarin,Aníbal Pauchard
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610912306
Category: Science
Page: 240
View: 3400
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The need to understand and address large-scale environmental problems that are difficult to study in controlled environments—issues ranging from climate change to overfishing to invasive species—is driving the field of ecology in new and important directions. Observation and Ecology documents that transformation, exploring how scientists and researchers are expanding their methodological toolbox to incorporate an array of new and reexamined observational approaches—from traditional ecological knowledge to animal-borne sensors to genomic and remote-sensing technologies—to track, study, and understand current environmental problems and their implications. The authors paint a clear picture of what observational approaches to ecology are and where they fit in the context of ecological science. They consider the full range of observational abilities we have available to us and explore the challenges and practical difficulties of using a primarily observational approach to achieve scientific understanding. They also show how observations can be a bridge from ecological science to education, environmental policy, and resource management. Observations in ecology can play a key role in understanding our changing planet and the consequences of human activities on ecological processes. This book will serve as an important resource for future scientists and conservation leaders who are seeking a more holistic and applicable approach to ecological science.

An Introduction to Applied Biogeography


Author: Ian F. Spellerberg,John W. D. Sawyer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521457125
Category: Nature
Page: 243
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Species distribution, conservation management, landscape planning.

The Biosphere


Author: Vladimir I. Vernadsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461217504
Category: Science
Page: 178
View: 3392
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"Vladimir Vernadsky was a brilliant and prescient scholar-a true scientific visionary who saw the deep connections between life on Earth and the rest of the planet and understood the profound implications for life as a cosmic phenomenon." -DAVID H. GRINSPOON, AUTHOR OF VENUS REVEALED "The Biosphere should be required reading for all entry level students in earth and planetary sciences." -ERIC D. SCHNEIDER, AUTHOR OF INTO THE COOL: THE NEW THERMODYNAMICS OF CREATIVE DESTRUCTION

Invasion Biology

Hypotheses and Evidence
Author: Jonathan M Jeschke,Tina Heger
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1780647646
Category: Science
Page: 187
View: 6152
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There are many hypotheses describing the interactions involved in biological invasions, but it is largely unknown whether they are backed up by empirical evidence. This book fills that gap by developing a tool for assessing research hypotheses and applying it to twelve invasion hypotheses, using the hierarchy-of-hypotheses (HoH) approach, and mapping the connections between theory and evidence. In Part 1, an overview chapter of invasion biology is followed by an introduction to the HoH approach and short chapters by science theorists and philosophers who comment on the approach. Part 2 outlines the invasion hypotheses and their interrelationships. These include biotic resistance and island susceptibility hypotheses, disturbance hypothesis, invasional meltdown hypothesis, enemy release hypothesis, evolution of increased competitive ability and shifting defence hypotheses, tens rule, phenotypic plasticity hypothesis, Darwin's naturalization and limiting similarity hypotheses and the propagule pressure hypothesis. Part 3 provides a synthesis and suggests future directions for invasion research.