Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa

Future Imperfect?
Author: Andrew W.M. Smith,Chris Jeppesen
Publisher: UCL Press
ISBN: 1911307738
Category: History
Page: 254
View: 8916
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Looking at decolonization in the conditional tense, this volume teases out the complex and uncertain ends of British and French empire in Africa during the period of ‘late colonial shift’ after 1945. Rather than view decolonization as an inevitable process, the contributors together explore the crucial historical moments in which change was negotiated, compromises were made, and debates were staged. Three core themes guide the analysis: development, contingency and entanglement. The chapters consider the ways in which decolonization was governed and moderated by concerns about development and profit. A complementary focus on contingency allows deeper consideration of how colonial powers planned for ‘colonial futures’, and how divergent voices greeted the end of empire. Thinking about entanglements likewise stresses both the connections that existed between the British and French empires in Africa, and those that endured beyond the formal transfer of power. Praise for Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa '…this ambitious volume represents a significant step forward for the field. As is often the case with rich and stimulating work, the volume gestures towards more themes than I have space to properly address in this review. These include shifting terrains of temporality, spatial Scales, and state sovereignty, which together raise important questions about the relationship between decolonization and globalization. By bringing all of these crucial issues into the same frame,Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa is sure to inspire new thought-provoking research.' - H-France vol. 17, issue 205

Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa

Future Imperfect?
Author: Andrew W.M. Smith,Chris Jeppesen
Publisher: UCL Press
ISBN: 1911307746
Category: History
Page: 254
View: 6939
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Looking at decolonization in the conditional tense, this volume teases out the complex and uncertain ends of British and French empire in Africa during the period of ‘late colonial shift’ after 1945. Rather than view decolonization as an inevitable process, the contributors together explore the crucial historical moments in which change was negotiated, compromises were made, and debates were staged. Three core themes guide the analysis: development, contingency and entanglement. The chapters consider the ways in which decolonization was governed and moderated by concerns about development and profit. A complementary focus on contingency allows deeper consideration of how colonial powers planned for ‘colonial futures’, and how divergent voices greeted the end of empire. Thinking about entanglements likewise stresses both the connections that existed between the British and French empires in Africa, and those that endured beyond the formal transfer of power.

Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa

Future Imperfect?
Author: Andrew W.M. Smith,Chris Jeppesen
Publisher: UCL Press
ISBN: 1911307754
Category: History
Page: 254
View: 4689
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Looking at decolonization in the conditional tense, this volume teases out the complex and uncertain ends of British and French empire in Africa during the period of ‘late colonial shift’ after 1945. Rather than view decolonization as an inevitable process, the contributors together explore the crucial historical moments in which change was negotiated, compromises were made, and debates were staged. Three core themes guide the analysis: development, contingency and entanglement. The chapters consider the ways in which decolonization was governed and moderated by concerns about development and profit. A complementary focus on contingency allows deeper consideration of how colonial powers planned for ‘colonial futures’, and how divergent voices greeted the end of empire. Thinking about entanglements likewise stresses both the connections that existed between the British and French empires in Africa, and those that endured beyond the formal transfer of power.

Decolonization and African Society

The Labor Question in French and British Africa
Author: Frederick Cooper
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521566001
Category: History
Page: 677
View: 9689
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Large-scale comparative study of African labor and colonial policy.

The End of Empire in French West Africa

France's Successful Decolonization
Author: Tony Chafer
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1845206304
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 3524
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In an effort to restore its world-power status after the humiliation of defeat and occupation, France was eager to maintain its overseas empire at the end of the Second World War. Yet just fifteen years later France had decolonized, and by 1960 only a few small island territories remained under French control. The process of decolonization in Indochina and Algeria has been widely studied, but much less has been written about decolonization in France's largest colony, French West Africa. Here, the French approach was regarded as exemplary -- that is, a smooth transition successfully managed by well intentioned French politicians and enlightened African leaders. Overturning this received wisdom, Chafer argues that the rapid unfurling of events after the Second World War was a complex , piecemeal and unpredictable process, resulting in a 'successful decolonization' that was achieved largely by accident. At independence, the winners assumed the reins of political power, while the losers were often repressed, imprisoned or silenced. This important book challenges the traditional dichotomy between 'imperial' and 'colonial' history and will be of interest to students of imperial and French history, politics and international relations, development and post-colonial studies.

Decolonization in Britain and France

The Domestic Consequences of International Relations
Author: Miles Kahler
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400855586
Category: History
Page: 442
View: 3776
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Professor Kahler focuses on organizations below the state, investigating party competition and sensitivity to political change produced by the characteristics of commercial firms. In addition, he explores transmission of external shocks to the domestic polity by the state itself and the domestic politics of settler societies under external threat Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

British and French Colonialism in Africa, Asia and the Middle East

Connected Empires across the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries
Author: James R. Fichter
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9783319979632
Category: History
Page: 346
View: 426
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This book examines the connections between the British Empire and French colonialism in war, peace and the various stages of competitive cooperation between, in which the two empires were often frères ennemis. It argues that in crucial ways the British and French colonial empires influenced each other. Chapters in the volume consider the two empires' connections in North, West and Central Africa, as well as their entanglement at sea in the Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf and South China Sea. Also analysed are their mutual engagement with Islam in both the Hajj and various religiously inflected colonial revolts, their mutually-informed systems of administration in the New Hebrides and generally, and the interconnected ways the two empires fought World War II and decolonization. By uniting historians of France and her colonies with historians of Britain and her colonies, this volume speaks to a broad international and imperial history audience.

The French North African Crisis

Colonial Breakdown and Anglo-French Relations, 1945–62
Author: M. Thomas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230287425
Category: History
Page: 287
View: 4252
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The French North African Crisis analyses the postwar breakdown in French imperial rule in North West Africa, concentrating primarily upon the Algerian war of independence. The book highlights the human tragedy involved and the divisive consequences within French metropolitan politics of intractable colonial conflict. It further examines how far the protracted crisis of colonial control in North Africa shaped French foreign and security policy and this impacted upon Anglo-French relations, the western alliance and the wider process of decolonization.

The Ends of European Colonial Empires

Cases and Comparisons
Author: Miguel Bandeira Jerónimo,António Costa Pinto
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137394064
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 6805
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This volume provides a multidimensional assessment of the diverse ends of the European colonial empires, addressing different geographies, taking into account diverse chronologies of decolonization, and evaluating the specificities of each imperial configuration under appreciation (Portuguese, Belgian, French, British, Dutch).

Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism

Anti-Colonial Protest in the French Empire
Author: Adria K. Lawrence
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107434688
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 5115
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During the first half of the twentieth century, movements seeking political equality emerged in France's overseas territories. Within twenty years, they were replaced by movements for national independence in the majority of French colonies, protectorates, and mandates. In this pathbreaking study of the decolonization era, Adria Lawrence asks why elites in French colonies shifted from demands for egalitarian and democratic reforms to calls for independent statehood, and why mass mobilization for independence emerged where and when it did. Lawrence shows that nationalist discourses became dominant as a consequence of the failure of the reform agenda. Where political rights were granted, colonial subjects opted for further integration and reform. Contrary to conventional accounts, nationalism was not the only or even the primary form of anti-colonialism. Lawrence shows further that mass nationalist protest occurred only when and where French authority was disrupted. Imperial crises were the cause, not the result, of mass protest.

Fight or Flight

Britain, France, and their Roads from Empire
Author: Martin Thomas
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191664073
Category: History
Page: 640
View: 8654
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Although shattered by war, in 1945 Britain and France still controlled the world's two largest colonial empires, with imperial territories stretched over four continents. And they appeared determined to keep them: the roll-call of British and French politicians, soldiers, settlers and writers who promised in word and print at this time to defend their colonial possessions at all costs is a long one. Yet, within twenty years both empires had almost completely disappeared. The collapse was cataclysmic. Peaceable 'transfers of power' were eclipsed by episodes of territorial partition and mass violence whose bitter aftermath still lingers. Hundreds of millions across four continents were caught up in the biggest reconfiguration of the international system ever seen. In the meantime, even the most dogged imperialists, who had once stiffly defended imperial rule, ultimately bent to the wind of change. By the early 1950s Winston Churchill had retreated from his wartime pledge to keep Britain's Empire intact. And General de Gaulle, who quit the French presidency in 1946 complaining that France's new post-war democracy would never hang on to the country's imperial prizes, narrowly escaped assassination a generation later - after negotiating the humiliating French withdrawal from Algeria. Fight or Flight is the first ever comparative account of this dramatic collapse, explaining the end of the British and French colonial empires as an intertwined, even co-dependent process. Decolonization gathered momentum, not as an empire-specific affair, but as a global one, in which the wider march of twentieth-century history played a vital part: industrial concentration and global depression, World War and Cold War, Communism and other anti-colonial ideologies, mass consumerism and the allure of American popular culture. Above all, as Martin Thomas shows, the internationalization of colonial affairs made it impossible to contain colonial problems locally, spelling the end for Europe's two largest colonial empires in less than two decades from the end of the Second World War.

The Wretched of the Earth


Author: Frantz Fanon
Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.
ISBN: 9780802198853
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 8662
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Frantz Fanon was one of the twentieth century’s most important theorists of revolution, colonialism, and racial difference, and this, his masterwork, is a classic alongside Orientalism and The Autobiography of Malcolm X. The Wretched of the Earth is a brilliant analysis of the psychology of the colonized and their path to liberation. Bearing singular insight into the rage of colonized peoples and the role of violence in historical change, the book also incisively attacks postindependence disenfranchisement of the masses by the elite on one hand, and intertribal and interfaith animosities on the other. A veritable handbook of social reorganization for leaders of emerging nations, The Wretched of the Earth has had a major impact on civil rights, anticolonialism, and black-consciousness movements around the world. This new translation updates its language for a new generation of readers and its lessons are more vital now than ever.

Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence

The Wars of Independence in Kenya and Algeria
Author: Fabian Klose
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812244958
Category: History
Page: 369
View: 655
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Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence explores the relationship between the human rights movement emerging after 1945 and the increasing violence of decolonization. Based on material previously inaccessible in the archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the United Nations Human Rights Commission, this comparative study uses the Mau Mau War (1952-1956) and the Algerian War (1954-1962) to examine the policies of two major imperial powers, Britain and France. Historian Fabian Klose considers the significance of declared states of emergency, counterinsurgency strategy, and the significance of humanitarian international law in both conflicts. Klose's findings from these previously confidential archives reveal the escalating violence and oppressive tactics used by the British and French military during these anticolonial conflicts in North and East Africa, where Western powers that promoted human rights in other areas of the world were opposed to the growing global acceptance of freedom, equality, self-determination, and other postwar ideals. Practices such as collective punishment, torture, and extrajudicial killings did lasting damage to international human rights efforts until the end of decolonization. Clearly argued and meticulously researched, Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence demonstrates the mutually impacting histories of international human rights and decolonization, expanding our understanding of political violence in human rights discourse.

Constitution-making in Asia

Decolonisation and State-Building in the Aftermath of the British Empire
Author: H. Kumarasingham
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317245105
Category: History
Page: 212
View: 1383
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Britain’s main imperial possessions in Asia were granted independence in the 1940s and 1950s and needed to craft constitutions for their new states. Invariably the indigenous elites drew upon British constitutional ideas and institutions regardless of the political conditions that prevailed in their very different lands. Many Asian nations called upon the services of Englishman and Law Professor Sir Ivor Jennings to advise or assist their own constitution making. Although he was one of the twentieth century’s most prominent constitutional scholars, his opinion and influence were often controversial and remain so due to his advocating British norms in Asian form. This book examines the process of constitutional formation in the era of decolonisation and state building in Asia. It sheds light upon the influence and participation of Jennings in particular and British ideas in general on democracy and institutions across the Asian continent. Critical cases studies on India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Nepal – all linked by Britain and Jennings – assess the distinctive methods and outcomes of constitution making and how British ideas fared in these major states. The book offers chapters on the Westminster model in Asia, Human Rights, Nationalism, Ethnic politics, Federalism, Foreign influence, Decolonisation, Authoritarianism, the Rule of Law, Parliamentary democracy and the power and influence of key political actors. Taking an original stance on constitution making in Asia after British rule, it also puts forward ideas of contemporary significance for Asian states and other emerging democracies engaged in constitution making, regime change and seeking to understand their colonial past. The first political, historical or constitutional analysis comparing Asia’s experience with its indelible British constitutional legacy, this book is a critical resource on state building and constitution making in Asia following independence. It will appeal to students and scholars of world history, public law and politics.

The Wind of Change

Harold Macmillan and British Decolonization
Author: L. Butler,S. Stockwell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137318007
Category: History
Page: 281
View: 5815
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Harold Macmillan's 'Wind of Change' speech, delivered to the South African parliament in Cape Town at the end of a landmark six-week African tour, presaged the end of the British Empire in Africa. This book, the first to focus on Macmillan's 'Wind of Change', comprises a series of essays by leading historians in the field.

Diplomacy and Nation-Building in Africa

Franco-British Relations and Cameroon at the End of Empire
Author: Mélanie Torrent
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1848857772
Category: History
Page: 409
View: 7279
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Cameroon stands as a remarkable example of nation-building in the aftermath of European domination. Split between the French and British empires after World War I, it experienced a unique drive for self-determination at the turn of the 1960s, culminating in both independence from European power and the re-unification of two of its divided territories. This book investigates the influence of foreign policy on nation-building in West Africa in the context of both the Cold War and European integration. Shedding fresh light on the challenges of bridging the political, economic, and linguistic divide that France and Britain had left, Mélanie Torrent explores the evolution of a nation, charting both Cameroon's importance in Franco-British relations and Cameroon's use of bilateral and multilateral diplomacy in asserting its independence. This work should be essential reading for students of African studies, International Relations, and the post-colonial world.

Former British Southern Cameroons Journey Towards Complete Decolonization, Independence, and Sovereignty.

A Comprehensive Compilation of Efforts. Vol One
Author: Martin Ayong Ayim
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 1434365204
Category: History
Page: 816
View: 3366
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Strong Pre-Plebiscite Position of British Southern Cameroons Leaders The two leaders (Endeley and Foncha, Former and current Prime Ministers) accepted completely dropping the idea of joining Nigeria or Cameroon, simply requesting of the British administering authority the granting of independence to the Southern Cameroons in its own right (Kale 1967: 70; Awasom 1980: 57). This decision was happily welcomed by the British Commissioner, J.O. Fields, and it led to the London Talks of November 1960. The London Talk was chaired by the British Secretary of State for Colonies. It was attended by the Commissioner J. O. Fields, and the Southern Cameroonian leaders including E. M. L. Endeley, J. N. Foncha, P. M. Motomby-Woleta, Reverend Kangsen, S. E. Ncha, Fon Galega II of Bali, and Fon Oben of Mamfe. Discussions on the independence of the Southern Cameroons were moving toward fruition, but not for long. The atmosphere soon changed dramatically, for it was filled with a diversity of views, and "so these other roundtable talks ended in smoke" (Kale 1967: 70).19 Foncha and Endeley had to campaign to obtain independence for the Southern Cameroons, either by reunifying with Cameroon or the Federal Republic of Nigeria, in spite of themselves. The Southern Cameroons, therefore, presented "one of the most bizarre cases in history where a territory had to gain its independence by attaching itself to an already independent state" (Awasom 1980: 58). Whatever effort necessary When you're willing to make an initial effort, you'll succeed sometimes. Take the next step, make a second effort, and you'll succeed more often. If you're prepared to make a third, fourth, or fifth effort, you'll reach a much highersuccess rate. And when you commit to putting forth whatever effort is necessary, you will achieve whatever you choose. Real and lasting success usually requires more than one attempt. If you make just a single attempt and then give up, you haven't given yourself much of an opportunity to achieve. There is no reason to become discouraged if you fail to reach your goal on the first attempt, or even the second or third. For each effort, though it may not get you there, gets you closer. Even an unsuccessful attempt gives you valuable knowledge and experience, and vastly increases the likelihood of success on the next attempt. When you continue getting closer each time, you surely and eventually will get where you intend to go. The roads leading to the most beautiful places always twist and turn and double back on themselves. Keep making the effort, no matter what, and you will reach the beautiful places where you wish to be. -- Ralph Marston

African Political Activism in Postcolonial France

State Surveillance and Social Welfare
Author: Gillian Glaes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351698621
Category: History
Page: 234
View: 9629
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African Political Activism in Postcolonial France engages with several areas of scholarly inquiry, ranging from the study of immigrants to the investigation of surveillance and the legacy of colonialism. Within migration studies, many important analyses have focused on integration, yielding critical contributions to our understanding of immigration and identity. This work moves in a different direction. Factoring in the dynamics of colonialism, decolonization, and their effect on immigrant political activism and state policy in the postcolonial, Cold War era reveals that immigrants from francophone Sub-Saharan Africa were key players who shaped the development of public policy toward immigrants. Through this approach, we can understand how republicanism, colonial ideology, immigration policy, and immigrant political activism intersected in the post-colonial era, shaping the reception of African workers and affecting their lives and experiences in France.

Crises of Empire

Decolonization and Europe's Imperial States
Author: Martin Thomas,Bob Moore,L. J. Butler
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472531213
Category: History
Page: 480
View: 7254
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Crises of Empire offers a comprehensive and uniquely comparative analysis of the history of decolonization in the British, French and Dutch empires. By comparing the processes of decolonization across three of the major modern empires, from the aftermath of the First World War to the late 20th century, the authors are able to analyse decolonization as a long-term process. They explore significant changes to the international system, shifting popular attitudes to colonialism and the economics of empire. This new edition incorporates the latest developments in the historiography, as well as: - Increased coverage of the Belgian and Portuguese empires - New introductions to each of the three main parts, offering some background and context to British, French and Dutch decolonization - More coverage of cultural aspects of decolonization, exploring empire 'from below' This new edition of Crises of Empire is essential reading for all students of imperial history and decolonization. In particular, it will be welcomed by those who are interested in taking a comparative approach, putting the history of decolonization into a pan-European framework.

Decolonization and the French of Algeria

Bringing the Settler Colony Home
Author: Sung-Eun Choi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137520752
Category: History
Page: 220
View: 7552
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In 1962, almost one million people were evacuated from Algeria. France called these citizens Repatriates to hide their French Algerian origins and to integrate them into society. This book is about Repatriation and how it became central to France's postcolonial understanding of decolonization, the Algerian past, and French identity.