Competition and Variation in Natural Languages

The Case for Case
Author: Mengistu Amberber,Helen de Hoop
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459776
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 374
View: 1904
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This volume combines different perspectives on case-marking: (1) typological and descriptive approaches of various types and instances of case-marking in the languages of the world as well as comparison with languages that express similar types of relations without morphological case-marking; (2) formal analyses in different theoretical frameworks of the syntactic, semantic, and morphological properties of case-marking; (3) a historical approach of case-marking; (4) a psycholinguistic approach of case-marking. Although there are a number of publications on case related issues, there is no volume such as the present one, which exclusively looks at case marking, competition and variation from a cross-linguistic perspective and within the context of different contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of language. In addition to chapters with broad conceptual orientation, the volume offers detailed empirical studies of case in a number of diverse languages including: Amharic, Basque, Dutch, Hindi, Japanese, Kuuk Thaayorre, Malagasy and Yurakaré. The volume will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in the cognitive sciences, general linguistics, typology, historical linguistics, formal linguistics, and psycholinguistics. The book will interest scholars working within the context of formal syntactic and semantic theories as it provides insight into the properties of case from a cross-linguistic perspective. The book also will be of interest to cognitive scientists interested in the relationship between meaning and grammar, in particular, and the human mind's capacity in the mapping of meaning onto grammar, in general.

The Limits of Syntactic Variation


Author: Theresa Biberauer
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027290660
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 521
View: 8155
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Against the background of the past half century’s typological and generative work on comparative syntax, this volume brings together 16 papers considering what we have learned and may still be able to learn about the nature and extent of syntactic variation. More specifically, it offers a multi-perspective critique of the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic variation, evaluating the merits and shortcomings of the pre-Minimalist phase of this enterprise and considering and illustrating the possibilities opened up by recent empirical and theoretical advances. Contributions focus on four central topics: firstly, the question of the locus of variation, whether the attested variation may plausibly be understood in parametric terms and, if so, what form such parameters might take; secondly, the fate of one of the most prominent early parameters, the Null Subject Parameter; thirdly, the matter of parametric clusters more generally; and finally, acquisition issues.

Quantification, Definiteness, and Nominalization


Author: Anastasia Giannakidou,Monika Rathert
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191562017
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 432
View: 7062
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This book addresses recent developments in the study of quantifier phrases, nominalizations, and the linking definite determiner. It reflects the intense reconsideration of the nature of quantification, and of fundamental aspects of the syntax and semantics of quantifier phrases. Leading international scholars explore novel and challenging ideas at the interfaces between syntax and morphology, syntax and semantics, morphology and the lexicon. They examine core issues in the field, such as kind reference, number marking, partitivity, context dependence and the way presuppositions are built into the meanings of quantifiers. They also consider how in this context definiteness and the definite determiner D play a central role, and the way in which D is also instrumental in nominalizations. With nominalization, the lexical semantic contribution of verbs and their arguments becomes central, and within the perspective of this book the question is asked whether syntactic nominalizations share with noun phrases the same external layer, namely the functional projection DP. If so, what exactly is the contribution of D in this case, and how much of the lexical correspondence between nouns and verbs is preserved? This book presents the latest thinking on cross-paradigm and cross-linguistic approaches in three of the most vibrant and productive research areas in linguistics. It paves the way towards a more comprehensive understanding of how quantification, definiteness, and nominalizations are encoded in the grammar.

Mechanisms of Language Acquisition

The 20th Annual Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition
Author: Brian MacWhinney
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317757408
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 496
View: 5711
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First published in 1987. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Language Evolution

Contact, Competition and Change
Author: Salikoko S. Mufwene
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1441175350
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 376
View: 1768
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Languages are constantly changing. New words are added to the English language every year, either borrowed or coined, and there is often railing against the 'decline' of the language by public figures. Some languages, such as French and Finnish, have academies to protect them against foreign imports. Yet languages are species-like constructs, which evolve naturally over time. Migration, imperialism, and globalization have blurred boundaries between many of them, producing new ones (such as creoles) and driving some to extinction. This book examines the processes by which languages change, from the macroecological perspective of competition and natural selection. In a series of chapters, Salikoko Mufwene examines such themes as: - natural selection in language - the actuation question and the invisible hand that drives evolution - multilingualism and language contact - language birth and language death - the emergence of Creoles and Pidgins - the varying impacts of colonization and globalization on language vitality This comprehensive examination of the organic evolution of language will be essential reading for graduate and senior undergraduate students, and for researchers on the social dynamics of language variation and change, language vitality and death, and even the origins of linguistic diversity.

Complex Predicates

Cross-linguistic Perspectives on Event Structure
Author: Mengistu Amberber,Brett Baker,Mark Harvey
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139487485
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: N.A
View: 1272
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Complex predicates are multipredicational, but monoclausal structures. They have proven problematic for linguistic theory, particularly for proposed distinctions between the lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This volume focuses on the mapping from morphosyntactic structures to event structure, and in particular the constraints on possible mappings. The volume showcases the 'coverb construction', a complex predicate construction which, though widespread, has received little attention in the literature. The coverb construction contrasts with more familiar serial verb constructions. The coverb construction generally maps only to event structures like those of monomorphemic verbs, whereas serial verb constructions map to a range of event structures differing from those of monomorphemic verbs. The volume coverage is truly cross-linguistic, including languages from Australia, Papua New Guinea, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, East Africa and North America. The volume establishes a new arena of research in event structure, syntax, and cross-linguistic typology.

The Role of Processing Complexity in Word Order Variation and Change


Author: N.A
Publisher: Stanford University
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 1952
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All normal humans have the same basic cognitive capacity for language. Nevertheless, the world's languages differ in the kind and number of grammatical options they give their speakers to express themselves with. Sometimes, a language's grammatical constructions may differ in how easy they are for comprehenders to process or how readily speakers will choose them. It has been observed that languages which allow more difficult constructions also tend to allow easier ones, and when a language only allows one option, it tends to allow the easiest to process. This correlation is intuitive: languages tend to give their speakers options that they find easy to use. However, the causal process that underlies it is not well understood. How did the world's languages come to have this convenient property? In this dissertation, I discuss a family of evolutionary models of language change in which processing-efficient variants tend to be selected more frequently, and hence over time have the potential to displace less efficient variants, pushing them out of the language. I begin by showing that a psycholinguistic theory, dependency length minimization, accounts for word ordering preferences in data taken from Old and Middle English just as it does in Present Day English. I then discuss computer simulations of a model of language change which implements this bias, predicting observed word order changes in English. Finally, I present experimental studies of online comprehension in Japanese which not only display evidence for the dependency length bias, but also suggest that comprehenders encode it as part of their knowledge about language, using it to help understand the sentences they receive from their peers.

Dialektsyntax


Author: Werner Abraham,Josef Bayer
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3322970329
Category: Social Science
Page: 272
View: 817
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Das Studium von Dialekten stellt einen wichtigen Bereich in der vergleichenden Syntaxforschung dar, der aber in bezug auf die germanischen Sprachen bislang noch stark vernachlässigt ist. Mit dieser Sammlung von dialektsyntaktischen Arbeiten soll ein Anfang gemacht werden, dialektale Varietäten des Deutschen, Friesischen, Jiddischen und Niederländischen hinsichtlich neuerer Entwicklungen der Syntaxtheorie zu untersuchen. Den theoretischen Rahmen bildet bei der Mehrzahl der Beiträge die Prinzipien- und Parametertheorie, die sich in der vergleichenden Syntaxforschung bewährt hat. Grammatische Phänomene, die thematisiert werden, umfassen klitische Pronomina, das Kasussystem, Infinitivkonstruktionen, Wortstellung und Kongruenz.

Verb classes and transitivity in Amharic


Author: Mengistu Amberber
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783895864049
Category: Amharic language
Page: 108
View: 4568
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Linguistic Structure in Language Processing


Author: G.N. Carlson,M.K. Tanenhaus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400927290
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 416
View: 1266
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The papers in this volume are intended to exemplify the state of experimental psycho linguistics in the middle to later 1980s. Our over riding impression is that the field has come a long way since the earlier work of the 1950s and 1960s, and that the field has emerged with a renewed strength from a difficult period in the 1970s. Not only are the theoretical issues more sharply defined and integrated with existing issues from other domains ("modularity" being one such example), but the experimental techniques employed are much more sophisticated, thanks to the work of numerous psychologists not necessarily interested in psycholinguistics, and thanks to improving technologies unavailable a few years ago (for instance, eye-trackers). We selected papers that provide a coherent, overall picture of existing techniques and issues. The volume is organized much as one might organize an introductory linguistics course - beginning with sound and working "up" to mean ing. Indeed, the first paper, Rebecca Treiman's, begins with considera tion of syllable structure, a phonological consideration, and the last, Alan Garnham's, exemplifies some work on the interpretation of pro nouns, a semantic matter. In between are found works concentrating on morphemes, lexical structures, and syntax. The cross-section represented in this volume is by necessity incom plete, since we focus only on experimental work directed at under standing how adults comprehend and produce language. We do not include any works on language acquisition, first or second.

New Perspectives on Case Theory


Author: Ellen Brandner,Heike Zinsmeister
Publisher: Stanford Univ Center for the Study
ISBN: N.A
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 373
View: 2511
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Case is one of the central concepts in modern generative syntax, doing the work of linking arguments to predicates, moving nominal expressions, and in some languages connecting the referential properties of nominal expressions. Different languages, however, make use of overt case distinctions to very different degrees, leaving the principles of case with many open questions. This volume offers analyses of case phenomena in a broad range of languages and frameworks, including some novel approaches to case that will invite much discussion.

Conflicts in Interpretation


Author: Petra Hendriks,Helen De Hoop,Irene Krämer,Henriette De Swart,Joost Zwarts
Publisher: Equinox
ISBN: 9781845534370
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 227
View: 3091
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Conflicts in Interpretation applies novel methods of constraint interaction, derived from connectionist theories and implemented in linguistics within the framework of Optimality Theory, to core semantic and pragmatic issues such as polysemy, negation, (in) definiteness, focus, anaphora, and rhetorical structure. It explores the hypothesis that a natural language grammar is a set of potentially conflicting constraints on forms and meanings. Moreover, it hypothesizes that competent language users not only optimize from an input form to the optimal output meaning for this form, or vice versa, but also consider the opposite direction of optimization, thus taking into account the speaker as a hearer and taking into account the hearer as a speaker. The book aims to show that such a bidirectional constraint-based grammar sheds new light on the relation between form and meaning, within a sentence as well as across sentence boundaries, within a single language as well as across languages, and within competent adult language users as well as during language development. An important dimension of the book is the structured investigation of issues at the interface of semantics with syntax and pragmatics, such as the effects of distinguishing between speaker's perspective and hearer's perspective in comprehension and production, stable and instable patterns of form and meaning across languages, and the development of a coherent pattern of form and meaning in children. Conflicts in Interpretation will be of interest to any researcher or advanced student in linguistics, cognitive science, language typology, or psycholinguistics who is interested in the capacity of our human mind to map meaning onto form, and form onto meaning.

Theoretical issues in natural language processing 3

New Mexico State University, 7-9 January, 1987, position papers
Author: Yorick Wilks,Association for Computational Linguistics
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 235
View: 8951
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The Handbook of Language Emergence


Author: Brian MacWhinney,William O'Grady
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118346092
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 656
View: 8338
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This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever

Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations - E-Book


Author: Dolores E. Battle
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323087124
Category: Medical
Page: 336
View: 1081
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Written by some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field, Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations, 4th Edition offers an in-depth look at the major cultural groups in the U.S. and the issues concerning their communication development, common disorders, and treatment options. This fourth edition features a wealth of updates and new features — including the latest research and added coverage of communication issues in countries such as Australia, China, Canada, and Brazil — to give speech-language pathology students and speech-language pathologists a balanced and global perspective on the most topical multicultural communication issues of today. Comprehensive coverage focuses on a wide variety of cultural and age populations. Cutting-edge research and data offer up-to-date discussions based on the latest studies in multiculturalism as it relates to the SLP and AuD professions. Diverse panel of expert authors include some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field. Additional resources provide a focused listing of print and electronic sources at the end of each chapter to support more in-depth study of a particular subject. Chapter on international perspectives tackles issues in countries such as Australia, Canada, China, and Brazil to give you a more global understanding of communication disorders. The latest statistics from the 2010 U.S. Census report offers the most current data available. Increased content on older adults covers the multicultural issues, voice disorders, and neurogenic disorders particular to this important demographic. Case studies give you practice solving realistic clinical problems. Chapter overview and conclusion outline the key information in each chapter and serve as a checklist for content mastery.

Natural Language Information Retrieval


Author: T. Strzalkowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401723885
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 384
View: 5081
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The last decade has been one of dramatic progress in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). This hitherto largely academic discipline has found itself at the center of an information revolution ushered in by the Internet age, as demand for human-computer communication and informa tion access has exploded. Emerging applications in computer-assisted infor mation production and dissemination, automated understanding of news, understanding of spoken language, and processing of foreign languages have given impetus to research that resulted in a new generation of robust tools, systems, and commercial products. Well-positioned government research funding, particularly in the U. S. , has helped to advance the state-of-the art at an unprecedented pace, in no small measure thanks to the rigorous 1 evaluations. This volume focuses on the use of Natural Language Processing in In formation Retrieval (IR), an area of science and technology that deals with cataloging, categorization, classification, and search of large amounts of information, particularly in textual form. An outcome of an information retrieval process is usually a set of documents containing information on a given topic, and may consist of newspaper-like articles, memos, reports of any kind, entire books, as well as annotated image and sound files. Since we assume that the information is primarily encoded as text, IR is also a natural language processing problem: in order to decide if a document is relevant to a given information need, one needs to be able to understand its content.

Über Die Entstehung der Arten (Großdruck)


Author: Charles Darwin
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781532849770
Category:
Page: 624
View: 8311
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Charles Darwin: Über die Entstehung der Arten Lesefreundlicher Großdruck in 16-pt-Schrift Edition Holzinger. Großformat, 216 x 279 mm Berliner Ausgabe, 2016 Vollständiger, durchgesehener Neusatz bearbeitet und eingerichtet von Michael Holzinger Erstdruck: London 1859. Erste deutsche Übersetzung von Heinrich Georg Bronn unter dem Titel »Über die Entstehung der Arten im Thier- und Pflanzenreich durch natürliche Züchtung, oder Erhaltung der vervollkommneten Rassen im Kampf ums Daseyn«, Stuttgart 1860. Der Text folgt der Übersetzung der sechsten Auflage, London 1872, durch Julius Victor Carus von 1884. Textgrundlage ist die Ausgabe: Charles Darwin: Über die Entstehung der Arten durch natürliche Zuchtwahl oder die Erhaltung der begünstigten Rassen im Kampfe um's Dasein. Nach der letzten englischen Ausgabe wiederholt durchgesehen von J. Victor Carus, 9. Auflage, Stuttgart: Schweitzerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1899. Herausgeber der Reihe: Michael Holzinger Reihengestaltung: Viktor Harvion Umschlaggestaltung unter Verwendung des Bildes: Charles Darwin auf einem Aquarell von George Richmond (1809-1896) aus dem Jahr 1840 Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 16 pt.

Variation, Selection, Development

Probing the Evolutionary Model of Language Change
Author: Regine Eckardt,Gerhard Jäger,Tonjes Veenstra
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110205394
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 416
View: 9526
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Can language change be modelled as an evolutionary process? Can notions like variation, selection and competition be fruitfully applied to facts of language development? The present volume ties together various strands of linguistic research which can bring us towards an answer to these questions. In one of the youngest and rapidly growing areas of linguistic research, mathematical models and simulations of competition based developments have been applied to instances of language change. By matching the predicted and observed developmental trends, researchers gauge existing models to the needs of linguistic applications and evaluate the fruitfulness of evolutionary models in linguistics. The present volume confronts these studies with more empirically-based studies in creolization and historical language change which bear on key concepts of evolutionary models. What does it mean for a linguistic construction to survive its competitors? How do the interacting factors in phases of creolization differ from those in ordinary language change, and how - consequently - might Creole languages differ structurally from older languages? Some of the authors, finally, also address the question how different aspects of our linguistic competence tie in with our more elementary cognitive capacities. The volume contains contributions by Brady Clark et al., Elly van Gelderen, Alain Kihm, Manfred Krifka, Wouter Kusters, Robert van Rooij, Anette Rosenbach, John McWhorter, Teresa Satterfield, Michael Tomasello and Elizabeth C. Traugott. The book brings together contributions from two areas of research: the study of language evolution by means of methods from artifical intelligence/artificial life (like computer simulations and analytic mathematical methods) on the one hand, and empirically oriented research from historical linguistics and creolisation studies that uses concepts from evolutionary theory as a heuristic tool in a qualitative way. The book is thus interesting for readers from both traditions because it supplies them with information about relevant ongoing research and useful methods and data from the other camp.

From OV to VO in Early Middle English


Author: Carola Trips
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027296278
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 359
View: 3932
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This monograph answers the question of why English changed from an OV to a VO language on the assumption that this change is due to intensive language contact with Scandinavian. It shows for the first time that the English language was much more heavily influenced by Scandinavian than assumed before, i.e., northern Early Middle English texts clearly show Scandinavian syntactic patterns like stylistic fronting that can only be found today in the Modern Scandinavian languages. Thus, it sheds new light on the force of language contact in that it shows that a language can be heavily influenced through contact with another language in such a way that it affects deeper levels of language. It further gives an introduction to working with the Penn-Helsinki-Parsed Corpus of Middle English II (PPCMEII). It discusses the texts included in the corpus, it describes the format of the texts, and it explains how to search the corpus with the tool called Corpus Search. The book targets researchers in diachronic syntax, comparative syntax and in general linguists working in the field of generative syntax. It can further be used as an introduction to working with the PPCMEII.

Progress in Artificial Intelligence

12th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA 2005, Covilha, Portugal, December 5-8, 2005, Proceedings
Author: Carlos Bento,Amilcar Cardoso,Gael Dias
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540307370
Category: Computers
Page: 704
View: 1939
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With this edition, EPIA, the Portuguese Conference on Arti?cial Intelligence, celebrates its 20th anniversary.Like all its previous editions, it has been run - der the auspices of the Portuguese Association for Arti?cial Intelligence (APPIA), which was established in 1984 and is also celebrating 20 years of activity. The ?rst edition of EPIA was held in Porto, in October 1985, organised by Pavel Brazdil, Miguel Filgueiras, Lu 's Damas and Armando Campos e Matos. EPIA soon evolved to an international conference by adopting in its fourth edition English as the o?cial language and having its proceedings published by Springer, intheLNAIseries.Inrecentyears, theconferencegraduallyprogressed from a plenary organisation to a workshop-based structure. The conference has steadily assumed high-quality standards, both in its scienti?c management and in the scienti?c program, with the aim of progressively broadening its audience and improving its impact over young researchers. EPIA2005wasthe12theditionoftheconference.With theabove-mentioned celebrations in mind, we decided to work towards the involvement of several generations of AI researchersin the organisationof the event. As a result, EPIA 2005 involved for the ?rst time an Advisory Committee, composed of all the founders of APPIA that are still working in AI, and also the Co-chairs of the lastEPIAs, as listed elsewherein these proceedings.We wantto express to them our gratitude for all the support, advice and con?dence.