Competition and Variation in Natural Languages

The Case for Case
Author: Mengistu Amberber,Helen de Hoop
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459776
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 374
View: 3120
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This volume combines different perspectives on case-marking: (1) typological and descriptive approaches of various types and instances of case-marking in the languages of the world as well as comparison with languages that express similar types of relations without morphological case-marking; (2) formal analyses in different theoretical frameworks of the syntactic, semantic, and morphological properties of case-marking; (3) a historical approach of case-marking; (4) a psycholinguistic approach of case-marking. Although there are a number of publications on case related issues, there is no volume such as the present one, which exclusively looks at case marking, competition and variation from a cross-linguistic perspective and within the context of different contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of language. In addition to chapters with broad conceptual orientation, the volume offers detailed empirical studies of case in a number of diverse languages including: Amharic, Basque, Dutch, Hindi, Japanese, Kuuk Thaayorre, Malagasy and Yurakaré. The volume will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in the cognitive sciences, general linguistics, typology, historical linguistics, formal linguistics, and psycholinguistics. The book will interest scholars working within the context of formal syntactic and semantic theories as it provides insight into the properties of case from a cross-linguistic perspective. The book also will be of interest to cognitive scientists interested in the relationship between meaning and grammar, in particular, and the human mind's capacity in the mapping of meaning onto grammar, in general.

The Limits of Syntactic Variation


Author: Theresa Biberauer
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027290660
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 521
View: 9121
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Against the background of the past half century’s typological and generative work on comparative syntax, this volume brings together 16 papers considering what we have learned and may still be able to learn about the nature and extent of syntactic variation. More specifically, it offers a multi-perspective critique of the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic variation, evaluating the merits and shortcomings of the pre-Minimalist phase of this enterprise and considering and illustrating the possibilities opened up by recent empirical and theoretical advances. Contributions focus on four central topics: firstly, the question of the locus of variation, whether the attested variation may plausibly be understood in parametric terms and, if so, what form such parameters might take; secondly, the fate of one of the most prominent early parameters, the Null Subject Parameter; thirdly, the matter of parametric clusters more generally; and finally, acquisition issues.

Quantification, Definiteness, and Nominalization


Author: Anastasia Giannakidou,Monika Rathert
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191562017
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 432
View: 8338
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This book addresses recent developments in the study of quantifier phrases, nominalizations, and the linking definite determiner. It reflects the intense reconsideration of the nature of quantification, and of fundamental aspects of the syntax and semantics of quantifier phrases. Leading international scholars explore novel and challenging ideas at the interfaces between syntax and morphology, syntax and semantics, morphology and the lexicon. They examine core issues in the field, such as kind reference, number marking, partitivity, context dependence and the way presuppositions are built into the meanings of quantifiers. They also consider how in this context definiteness and the definite determiner D play a central role, and the way in which D is also instrumental in nominalizations. With nominalization, the lexical semantic contribution of verbs and their arguments becomes central, and within the perspective of this book the question is asked whether syntactic nominalizations share with noun phrases the same external layer, namely the functional projection DP. If so, what exactly is the contribution of D in this case, and how much of the lexical correspondence between nouns and verbs is preserved? This book presents the latest thinking on cross-paradigm and cross-linguistic approaches in three of the most vibrant and productive research areas in linguistics. It paves the way towards a more comprehensive understanding of how quantification, definiteness, and nominalizations are encoded in the grammar.

Mechanisms of Language Acquisition

The 20th Annual Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition
Author: Brian MacWhinney
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317757408
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 496
View: 7924
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First published in 1987. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Language Evolution

Contact, Competition and Change
Author: Salikoko S. Mufwene
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1441175350
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 376
View: 3904
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Languages are constantly changing. New words are added to the English language every year, either borrowed or coined, and there is often railing against the 'decline' of the language by public figures. Some languages, such as French and Finnish, have academies to protect them against foreign imports. Yet languages are species-like constructs, which evolve naturally over time. Migration, imperialism, and globalization have blurred boundaries between many of them, producing new ones (such as creoles) and driving some to extinction. This book examines the processes by which languages change, from the macroecological perspective of competition and natural selection. In a series of chapters, Salikoko Mufwene examines such themes as: - natural selection in language - the actuation question and the invisible hand that drives evolution - multilingualism and language contact - language birth and language death - the emergence of Creoles and Pidgins - the varying impacts of colonization and globalization on language vitality This comprehensive examination of the organic evolution of language will be essential reading for graduate and senior undergraduate students, and for researchers on the social dynamics of language variation and change, language vitality and death, and even the origins of linguistic diversity.

Genetics and the Origin of Species


Author: Theodosius Dobzhansky,Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231054751
Category: Science
Page: 364
View: 3668
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Featuring an introduction by Stephen Jay Gould, "Genetics and the Origin of Species" presents the first edition of Dobzhansky's groundbreaking and now classic inquiry into what has emerged as the most important single area of scientific inquiry in the twentieth century: biological theory of evolution. Genetics and the Origin of Species went through three editions (1937, 1941, and 1951) in which the importance accorded natural selection changed radically.

Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language


Author: Charles D. Yang
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199254156
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 173
View: 9355
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The model is makes quantitative and cross-linguistic predictions about child language. It may also be deployed as a predictive model of language change which, when the evidence is available, could explain why grammars change in a particular direction at a particular time.

Differential Subject Marking


Author: Helen de Hoop,Peter de Swart
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402064975
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 312
View: 8653
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Not all sentences encode their subjects in the same way. Some languages overtly mark some subjects depending on certain features of the subject argument or the sentence in which the subject figures. This is known as Differential Subject Marking (DSM). Containing illuminating discussions of DSM from languages all over the world, this book shows that DSM is often the result of interactions between conflicting constraints on language use.

The Role of Processing Complexity in Word Order Variation and Change


Author: N.A
Publisher: Stanford University
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 4755
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All normal humans have the same basic cognitive capacity for language. Nevertheless, the world's languages differ in the kind and number of grammatical options they give their speakers to express themselves with. Sometimes, a language's grammatical constructions may differ in how easy they are for comprehenders to process or how readily speakers will choose them. It has been observed that languages which allow more difficult constructions also tend to allow easier ones, and when a language only allows one option, it tends to allow the easiest to process. This correlation is intuitive: languages tend to give their speakers options that they find easy to use. However, the causal process that underlies it is not well understood. How did the world's languages come to have this convenient property? In this dissertation, I discuss a family of evolutionary models of language change in which processing-efficient variants tend to be selected more frequently, and hence over time have the potential to displace less efficient variants, pushing them out of the language. I begin by showing that a psycholinguistic theory, dependency length minimization, accounts for word ordering preferences in data taken from Old and Middle English just as it does in Present Day English. I then discuss computer simulations of a model of language change which implements this bias, predicting observed word order changes in English. Finally, I present experimental studies of online comprehension in Japanese which not only display evidence for the dependency length bias, but also suggest that comprehenders encode it as part of their knowledge about language, using it to help understand the sentences they receive from their peers.

Verb classes and transitivity in Amharic


Author: Mengistu Amberber
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783895864049
Category: Amharic language
Page: 108
View: 5092
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Adaptation and Natural Selection

A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought
Author: George Christopher Williams
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400820108
Category: Science
Page: 328
View: 2553
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Biological evolution is a fact--but the many conflicting theories of evolution remain controversial even today. In 1966, simple Darwinism, which holds that evolution functions primarily at the level of the individual organism, was threatened by opposing concepts such as group selection, a popular idea stating that evolution acts to select entire species rather than individuals. George Williams's famous argument in favor of the Darwinists struck a powerful blow to those in opposing camps. His Adaptation and Natural Selection, now a classic of science literature, is a thorough and convincing essay in defense of Darwinism; its suggestions for developing effective principles for dealing with the evolution debate and its relevance to many fields outside biology ensure the timelessness of this critical work.

Linguistic Structure in Language Processing


Author: G.N. Carlson,M.K. Tanenhaus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400927290
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 416
View: 9339
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The papers in this volume are intended to exemplify the state of experimental psycho linguistics in the middle to later 1980s. Our over riding impression is that the field has come a long way since the earlier work of the 1950s and 1960s, and that the field has emerged with a renewed strength from a difficult period in the 1970s. Not only are the theoretical issues more sharply defined and integrated with existing issues from other domains ("modularity" being one such example), but the experimental techniques employed are much more sophisticated, thanks to the work of numerous psychologists not necessarily interested in psycholinguistics, and thanks to improving technologies unavailable a few years ago (for instance, eye-trackers). We selected papers that provide a coherent, overall picture of existing techniques and issues. The volume is organized much as one might organize an introductory linguistics course - beginning with sound and working "up" to mean ing. Indeed, the first paper, Rebecca Treiman's, begins with considera tion of syllable structure, a phonological consideration, and the last, Alan Garnham's, exemplifies some work on the interpretation of pro nouns, a semantic matter. In between are found works concentrating on morphemes, lexical structures, and syntax. The cross-section represented in this volume is by necessity incom plete, since we focus only on experimental work directed at under standing how adults comprehend and produce language. We do not include any works on language acquisition, first or second.

New Perspectives on Case Theory


Author: Ellen Brandner,Heike Zinsmeister
Publisher: Stanford Univ Center for the Study
ISBN: N.A
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 373
View: 4042
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Case is one of the central concepts in modern generative syntax, doing the work of linking arguments to predicates, moving nominal expressions, and in some languages connecting the referential properties of nominal expressions. Different languages, however, make use of overt case distinctions to very different degrees, leaving the principles of case with many open questions. This volume offers analyses of case phenomena in a broad range of languages and frameworks, including some novel approaches to case that will invite much discussion.

The Theory of Evolution


Author: John Maynard Smith
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521451284
Category: Science
Page: 354
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All living plants and animals, including man, are the modified descendants of one or a few simple living things. A hundred years ago Darwin and Wallace in their theory of natural selection, or the survival of the fittest, explained how evolution could have happened, in terms of processes known to take place today. In this book John Maynard Smith describes how their theory has been confirmed, but at the same time transformed, by recent research, and in particular by the discovery of the laws of inheritance.

Theoretical issues in natural language processing 3

New Mexico State University, 7-9 January, 1987, position papers
Author: Yorick Wilks,Association for Computational Linguistics
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 235
View: 2653
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Non-nominative Subjects


Author: Peri Bhaskararao,Karumuri V. Subbarao
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027229700
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 337
View: 2991
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Volume 1 of Non-nominative Subjects (NNSs) presents the most recent research on this topic from a wide range of languages from diverse language families of the world, with ample data and in-depth analysis. A significant feature of these volumes is that authors with different theoretical perspectives study the intricate questions raised by these constructions. Some of the central issues include the subject properties of noun phrases with ergative, dative, accusative and genitive case, case assignment and checking, anaphor–antecedent coreference, the nature of predicates with NNSs, whether they are volitional or non-volitional, possibilities of control coreference and agreement phenomena. These analyses have significant implications for theories of syntax and verbal semantics, first language acquisition of NNSs, convergence of case marking patterns in language contact situations, and the nature of syntactic change.

Complex Predicates

Cross-linguistic Perspectives on Event Structure
Author: Mengistu Amberber,Brett Baker,Mark Harvey
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139487485
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: N.A
View: 3228
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Complex predicates are multipredicational, but monoclausal structures. They have proven problematic for linguistic theory, particularly for proposed distinctions between the lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This volume focuses on the mapping from morphosyntactic structures to event structure, and in particular the constraints on possible mappings. The volume showcases the 'coverb construction', a complex predicate construction which, though widespread, has received little attention in the literature. The coverb construction contrasts with more familiar serial verb constructions. The coverb construction generally maps only to event structures like those of monomorphemic verbs, whereas serial verb constructions map to a range of event structures differing from those of monomorphemic verbs. The volume coverage is truly cross-linguistic, including languages from Australia, Papua New Guinea, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, East Africa and North America. The volume establishes a new arena of research in event structure, syntax, and cross-linguistic typology.

The Variation of Animals & Plants Under Domestication


Author: Charles Darwin
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Domestic animals
Page: 605
View: 4700
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Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations - E-Book


Author: Dolores E. Battle
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323087124
Category: Medical
Page: 336
View: 9374
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Written by some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field, Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations, 4th Edition offers an in-depth look at the major cultural groups in the U.S. and the issues concerning their communication development, common disorders, and treatment options. This fourth edition features a wealth of updates and new features — including the latest research and added coverage of communication issues in countries such as Australia, China, Canada, and Brazil — to give speech-language pathology students and speech-language pathologists a balanced and global perspective on the most topical multicultural communication issues of today. Comprehensive coverage focuses on a wide variety of cultural and age populations. Cutting-edge research and data offer up-to-date discussions based on the latest studies in multiculturalism as it relates to the SLP and AuD professions. Diverse panel of expert authors include some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field. Additional resources provide a focused listing of print and electronic sources at the end of each chapter to support more in-depth study of a particular subject. Chapter on international perspectives tackles issues in countries such as Australia, Canada, China, and Brazil to give you a more global understanding of communication disorders. The latest statistics from the 2010 U.S. Census report offers the most current data available. Increased content on older adults covers the multicultural issues, voice disorders, and neurogenic disorders particular to this important demographic. Case studies give you practice solving realistic clinical problems. Chapter overview and conclusion outline the key information in each chapter and serve as a checklist for content mastery.

Natural Language Information Retrieval


Author: T. Strzalkowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401723885
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 384
View: 3075
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The last decade has been one of dramatic progress in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). This hitherto largely academic discipline has found itself at the center of an information revolution ushered in by the Internet age, as demand for human-computer communication and informa tion access has exploded. Emerging applications in computer-assisted infor mation production and dissemination, automated understanding of news, understanding of spoken language, and processing of foreign languages have given impetus to research that resulted in a new generation of robust tools, systems, and commercial products. Well-positioned government research funding, particularly in the U. S. , has helped to advance the state-of-the art at an unprecedented pace, in no small measure thanks to the rigorous 1 evaluations. This volume focuses on the use of Natural Language Processing in In formation Retrieval (IR), an area of science and technology that deals with cataloging, categorization, classification, and search of large amounts of information, particularly in textual form. An outcome of an information retrieval process is usually a set of documents containing information on a given topic, and may consist of newspaper-like articles, memos, reports of any kind, entire books, as well as annotated image and sound files. Since we assume that the information is primarily encoded as text, IR is also a natural language processing problem: in order to decide if a document is relevant to a given information need, one needs to be able to understand its content.