Constitutional Courts and Deliberative Democracy


Author: Conrado Hübner Mendes
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191650161
Category: Law
Page: 360
View: 9554
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Contemporary democracies have granted an expansive amount of power to unelected judges that sit in constitutional or supreme courts. This power shift has never been easily squared with the institutional backbones through which democracy is popularly supposed to be structured. The best institutional translation of a 'government of the people, by the people and for the people' is usually expressed through elections and electoral representation in parliaments. Judicial review of legislation has been challenged as bypassing that common sense conception of democratic rule. The alleged 'democratic deficit' behind what courts are legally empowered to do has been met with a variety of justifications in favour of judicial review. One common justification claims that constitutional courts are, in comparison to elected parliaments, much better suited for impartial deliberation and public reason-giving. Fundamental rights would thus be better protected by that insulated mode of decision-making. This justification has remained largely superficial and, sometimes, too easily embraced. This book analyses the argument that the legitimacy of courts arises from their deliberative capacity. It examines the theory of political deliberation and its implications for institutional design. Against this background, it turns to constitutional review and asks whether an argument can be made in support of judicial power on the basis of deliberative theory.

Carl Schmitt's State and Constitutional Theory

A Critical Analysis
Author: Benjamin Schupmann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192509314
Category: Law
Page: 232
View: 2867
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Can a constitutional democracy commit suicide? Can an illiberal antidemocratic party legitimately obtain power through democratic elections and amend liberalism and democracy out of the constitution entirely? In Weimar Germany, these theoretical questions were both practically and existentially relevant. By 1932, the Nazi and Communist parties combined held a majority of seats in parliament. Neither accepted the legitimacy of liberal democracy. Their only reason for participating democratically was to amend the constitution out of existence. This book analyses Carl Schmitt's state and constitutional theory and shows how it was conceived in response to the Weimar crisis. Right-wing and left-wing political extremists recognized that a path to legal revolution lay in the Weimar constitution's combination of democratic procedures, total neutrality toward political goals, and positive law. Schmitt's writings sought to address the unique problems posed by mass democracy. Schmitt's thought anticipated 'constrained' or 'militant' democracy, a type of constitution that guards against subversive expressions of popular sovereignty and whose mechanisms include the entrenchment of basic constitutional commitments and party bans. Schmitt's state and constitutional theory remains important: the problems he identified continue to exist within liberal democratic states. Schmitt offers democrats today a novel way to understand the legitimacy of liberal democracy and the limits of constitutional change.

Verfassungsfragmente

Gesellschaftlicher Konstitutionalismus in der Globalisierung
Author: Gunther Teubner
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518772805
Category: Law
Page: 291
View: 4698
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Nicht zuletzt durch eine Reihe von öffentlichen Skandalen wurde in den letzten Jahren die »Neue Verfassungsfrage« aufgeworfen. Menschenrechtsverletzungen durch multinationale Unternehmen, Korruption im Medizin- und Wissenschaftsbetrieb, Bedrohung der Meinungsfreiheit durch private Intermediäre im Internet, massive Eingriffe in die Privatsphäre durch Datensammlung privater Organisationen und mit besonderer Wucht die Entfesselung katastrophaler Risiken auf den weltweiten Kapitalmärkten – sie alle werfen Verfassungsprobleme im strengen Sinne auf. Ging es früher um die Freisetzung der politischen Machtenergien des Nationalstaats und zugleich um ihre wirksame rechtsstaatliche Begrenzung, so geht es nun darum, ganz andere gesellschaftliche Energien zu diskutieren und in ihren destruktiven Konsequenzen wirksam zu beschränken. Konstitutionalismus jenseits des Nationalstaats – das heißt zweierlei: Die Verfassungsprobleme stellen sich außerhalb der Grenzen des Nationalstaats in transnationalen Politikprozessen und zugleich außerhalb des institutionalisierten Politiksektors in den »privaten« Sektoren der Weltgesellschaft.

Demokratische Gesetzgebung in der Europäischen Union

Theorie und Praxis der dualen Legitimationsstruktur europäischer Hoheitsgewalt
Author: Jelena von Achenbach
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 364223917X
Category: Law
Page: 522
View: 4042
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Das Mitentscheidungsverfahren (Art. 294 AEUV) ist seit dem Vertrag von Lissabon das ordentliche Gesetzgebungsverfahren der Europäischen Union. Mit der Monographie wird die Co-Gesetzgeberschaft von Europäischem Parlament und Rat als Mittel der demokratischen Legitimation europäischer Gesetzgebung untersucht. Im Zentrum steht dabei eine demokratietheoretische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Modell der dualen demokratischen Legitimation europäischer Hoheitsgewalt, das mit Art. 10 EUV nunmehr im Demokratieprinzip der Union verankert ist. Daneben steht eine empirisch gestützte Untersuchung der Praxis des Mitentscheidungsverfahrens, die sich insbesondere der zunehmenden Informalisierung des Gesetzgebungsprozesses („Triloge“) kritisch widmet.

Die Gegen-Demokratie

Politik im Zeitalter des Misstrauens
Author: Pierre Rosanvallon
Publisher: Hamburger Edition HIS
ISBN: 3868549269
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 478
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Obgleich das demokratische Ideal uneingeschränkt bejaht wird, stehen die Systeme, die sich auf das Ideal berufen, immer heftiger in der Kritik. Doch diese Differenz ist nicht so neu, wie sie scheint: Historisch betrachtet ist die Demokratie immer schon als Versprechen und Problem zugleich in Erscheinung getreten. Denn der Grundsatz, Regierungen durch den Wählerwillen zu legitimieren, ging stets mit Misstrauensbekundungen der Bürger gegenüber den etablierten Mächten einher. Die Gegen-Demokratie ist nicht das Gegenteil von Demokratie, sie ist Bestandteil der parlamentarisch-repräsentativen Demokratie, somit permanenter Ausdruck von Misstrauen gegenüber den gewählten Institutionen. Gleichzeitig ist sie aber auch Ausdruck des politischen Engagements der Bürger_innen jenseits der Wahlurnen. Der Begriff Gegen-Demokratie hebt das Widersprüchliche des Misstrauens hervor, das einerseits die Wachsamkeit der Bürger_innen fördert und auf diese Weise dazu beiträgt, die staatlichen Instanzen für gesellschaftliche Forderungen empfänglicher zu machen, das andererseits aber auch destruktive Formen von Ablehnung und Verleumdung begünstigen kann. Das heißt: Die Gegen-Demokratie bestätigt nicht nur, sie kann auch widersprechen. Rosanvallon entfaltet die verschiedenen Aspekte von Gegen-Demokratie und schreibt ihre Geschichte. Nicht zuletzt plädiert er dafür, die ständige Rede von der Politikverdrossenheit zu überdenken. Denn es ist eher von einem Wandel als von einem Niedergang des bürgerschaftlichen Engagements zu sprechen. Verändert haben sich lediglich das Repertoire, die Träger und die Ziele des politischen Ausdrucks. Die Bürger_innen haben inzwischen viele Alternativen zum Wahlzettel, um ihre Sorgen und Beschwerden zu artikulieren. Die politische Form der Gegen-Demokratie sollte im Diskurs der Politikverdrossenheit nicht unterschätzt, sondern aktiv genutzt werden.

Wer soll Hüter der Verfassung sein?

Abhandlungen zur Theorie der Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit in der pluralistischen, parlamentarischen Demokratie
Author: Hans Kelsen
Publisher: Mohr Siebrek Ek
ISBN: 9783161497407
Category: Law
Page: 112
View: 1708
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English summary: Hans Kelsen is seen as the most important precursor of constitutional jurisdiction in the 20th century. His concept of a central judicial authority with the power of judicial review (negative legislator) over parliament is not only a consequence of the constitution's priority. In his two ground-breaking texts from 1929 and 1931, Kelsen finds the reasons for this in the theory of democracy, thus defending the constitutional court as an element of pluralistic democracy against Carl Schmitt's concept of a presidential custodian of the political unity or people. It is precisely through his pure theory of law that Kelsen is able to attain a modern understanding of constitutional jurisdiction, which does away with the traditional arguments that the separation of powers and democracy are incompatible as well as with the myth of an unpolitical constitutional justice. German description: Hans Kelsen gilt als wichtigster Vordenker der Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit im 20. Jahrhundert. Seine Konzeption einer zentralen Gerichtsinstanz mit machtvoller Normenkontrollkompetenz (negativer Gesetzgeber) gegenuber dem Parlament ergibt sich aber nicht nur aus dem rechtsstaatlichen Vorrang der Verfassung. Kelsen begrundet dies in bahnbrechender Weise vielmehr demokratietheoretisch: Im Machtkampf des politischen Systems ist das Verfassungsgericht 'ein' Huter der Verfassung, indem es sich die gesetzgebende Gewalt mit weiteren Verfassungsorganen im Sinne von checks and balances teilt; dies zum Schutz von Minderheiten als 'Elixier' einer offenen Gesellschaft - und daher vor allem auch als Instrument der parlamentarischen Opposition. Im Schlagabtausch mit seinem Gegner Carl Schmitt verteidigt er so das Verfassungsgericht als Element pluralistischer Demokratie gegen dessen Konzeption eines prasidialen Huters der homogenen politischen Einheit Volk. Gerade der 'reine' Rechtslehrer Kelsen dringt damit zu einem modernen Verstandnis der Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit durch, das mit den tradierten Argumenten einer vermeintlichen Unvereinbarkeit mit Gewaltenteilung und Demokratie in einer bis heute unubertroffenen Weise ebenso aufraumt wie mit dem weit verbreiteten Mythos einer 'unpolitischen' Verfassungsjustiz. Dieser Zusammenhang, der den beiden zentralen Texten Kelsens zur Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit von 1929 und 1931 zugrunde liegt, wird in einem einfuhrenden Essay anhand der Kelsen-Schmitt-Kontroverse entfaltet.

Das demokratische Paradox


Author: Chantal Mouffe
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783851325218
Category:
Page: 139
View: 7834
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Verteidigung der Demokratie

Abhandlungen zur Demokratietheorie
Author: Hans Kelsen
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161488467
Category: Law
Page: 402
View: 6193
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English summary: Hans Kelsen (1881-1973) was not only the founder of the pure theory of law, but also contributed extensively to the theory of democracy and representative government. He was the most prominent defender of parliamentary democracy in German and Austrian constitutional theory in the twentieth century. A leading authority in democratic theory, Kelsen established and justified democracy and representative government with both individual liberty and social pluralism. This explains the continuing interest in his writings. They still address the problems of our times and advocate an individual theory of democracy which accepts political pluralism and social diversity as a natural basis for a democratically established legal order instead of trying to overcome social pluralism. His writings on democracy, however, are not yet as accessible as his writings on jurisprudence. This volume contains a representative selection of Kelsen's most important writings on democracy and parliamentarism. Some texts are well known, others have not yet earned their due respect. Kelsen's articles collected in this volume were written between 1920 and 1955 under five different political regimes. Thus the collection also demonstrates the development of Kelsen's thinking on democracy. The editors' critical introduction gives an overview of Kelsen's thinking in general and the most important aspects of his theory of democracy in particular. German description: Hans Kelsen (1881-1973) kommt der Rang eines Klassikers in der Rechtstheorie zu, zunehmend aber auch in der Demokratie- und Pluralismustheorie. Kelsens Demokratietheorie unterscheidet sich grundlegend von der in Deutschland uberreprasentierten Abbild-Theorie rousseauistischer Provenienz. Seine Verteidigung der Demokratie liefert ein neues erkenntnis- und staatstheoretisches Fundament der Demokratie auf der Basis der individuellen Freiheit, des sozialen Pluralismus und des philosophischen Relativismus. Aufgrund dieser Verwurzelung erweist sich Kelsens Ansatz in der Gegenwart als in besonderem Masse anschlussfahig. Der hier vorgelegte Band enthalt eine reprasentative Auswahl von Kelsens wichtigsten demokratietheoretischen Schriften. Einige Texte sind auf deutsch seit langem vergriffen, andere waren bisher nur schwer zuganglich bzw. unbekannt. Der Band umfasst Abhandlungen, die zwischen 1920 und 1955 und unter funf unterschiedlichen Systemen entstanden sind: Deutsch-Osterreich, Weimarer Republik, Nationalsozialismus, Emigration, USA. Dadurch ermoglicht er auch, die werkimmanente Entwicklung von Kelsens Demokratietheorie zu verfolgen. Eine Einleitung der Herausgeber fuhrt in das Werk Kelsens und die wichtigsten Aspekte seiner Demokratietheorie ein. Ein Sach- und Personenregister ermoglicht den direkten und problemorientierten Zugriff auf die Texte.

Voices at Work

Continuity and Change in the Common Law World
Author: Alan Bogg,Tonia Novitz
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191505668
Category: Law
Page: 470
View: 3694
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This edited collection is the culmination of a comparative project on 'Voices at Work' funded by the Leverhulme Trust 2010 - 2013. The book aims to shed light on the problematic concept of worker 'voice' by tracking its evolution and its complex interactions with various forms of law. Contributors to the volume identify the scope for continuity of legal approaches to voice and the potential for change in a sample of industrialised English speaking common law countries, namely Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK, and USA. These countries, facing broadly similar regulatory dilemmas, have often sought to borrow and adapt certain legal mechanisms from one another. The variance in the outcomes of any attempts at 'borrowing' seems to demonstrate that, despite apparent membership of a 'common law' family, there are significant differences between industrial systems and constitutional traditions, thereby casting doubt on the notion that there are definitive legal solutions which can be applied through transplantation. Instead, it seems worth studying the diverse possibilities for worker voice offered in divergent contexts, not only through traditional forms of labour law, but also such disciplines as competition law, human rights law, international law and public law. In this way, the comparative study highlights a rich multiplicity of institutions and locations of worker voice, configured in a variety of ways across the English-speaking common law world. This book comprises contributions from many leading scholars of labour law, politics and industrial relations drawn from across the jurisdictions, and is therefore an exceedingly comprehensive comparative study. It is addressed to academics, policymakers, legal practitioners, legislative drafters, trade unions and interest groups alike. Additionally, while offering a critique of existing laws, this book proposes alternative legal tools to promote engagement with a multitude of 'voices' at work and therefore foster the effective deployment of law in industrial relations.

Constitutional Violence


Author: Antoni Abat i Ninet
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 074867537X
Category: True Crime
Page: 192
View: 8181
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Western political systems tend to be 'constitutional democracies', dividing the system into a domain of politics, where the people rule, and a domain of law, set aside for a trained elite. Antoni Abat i Ninet strives to resolve these apparently exclusive

Casebook Verfassungsrecht


Author: Ingo Richter,Gunnar Folke Schuppert,Christian Bumke
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783406475238
Category: Constitutional law
Page: 503
View: 1596
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Legitimationsprobleme im Spätkapitalismus


Author: Jürgen Habermas
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 195
View: 1885
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Designing Democracy

What Constitutions Do
Author: Cass R. Sunstein
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195158403
Category: Law
Page: 280
View: 1177
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A fresh examination of constitutionalism is presented by one of the nation's most respected legal scholars.

Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought


Author: Paul Barry Clarke,Joe Foweraker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136908633
Category: Political Science
Page: 768
View: 704
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Containing almost 200 entries from 'accountability' to the 'Westminster model' the Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought explores all the ideas that matter to democracy past, present and future. It is destined to become the first port-of-call for all students, teachers and researchers of political science interested in democratic ideas, democratic practice, and the quality of democratic governance. The Encyclopedia provides extensive coverage of all the key concepts of democratic thought written by a stellar team of distinguished international contributors. The Encyclopedia draws on every tradition of democratic thought, as well as developing new thinking, in order to provide full coverage of the key democratic concepts and engage with their practical implications for the conduct of democratic politics in the world today. In this way, it brings every kind of democratic thinking to bear on the challenges facing contemporary democracies and on the possibilities of the democratic future. The Encyclopedia is global in scope and responds in detail to the democratic revolution of recent decades. Referring both to the established democratic states of Western Europe, North America and Australasia, and to the recent democracies of Latin America, Eastern and Central Europe, Africa and Asia, classical democratic concerns are related to new democracies, and to important changes in the older democracies. Supplemented by full bibliographical information, extensive cross-referencing and suggestions for further reading, the Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought is a unique work of reference combining the expertise of many of the world's leading political scientists, political sociologists and political philosophers. It will be welcomed as an essential resource for both teaching and for independent study, and as a solid starting point both for further research and wider exploration.

Where Our Protection Lies

Separation of Powers and Constitutional Review
Author: Dimitrios Kyritsis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199672253
Category: Law
Page: 240
View: 8015
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In this book Dimitrios Kyritsis advances an original account of constitutional review of primary legislation for its compatibility with human rights. Key to it is the value of separation of powers. When the relationship between courts and the legislature realizes this value, it makes a stronger claim to moral legitimacy. Kyritsis steers a path between the two extremes of the sceptics and the enthusiasts. Against sceptics who claim that constitutional review is an affront to democracy he argues that it is a morally legitimate institutional option for democratic societies because it can provide an effective check on the legislature. Although the latter represents the people and should thus be given the initiative in designing government policy, it carries serious risks, which institutional design must seek to avert. Against enthusiasts he maintains that fundamental rights protection is not the exclusive province of courts but the responsibility of both the judiciary and the legislature. Although courts may sometimes be given the power to scrutinize legislation and even strike it down, if it violates human rights, they must also respect the legislature's important contribution to their joint project. Occasionally, they may even have a duty to defer to morally sub-optimal decisions, as far as rights protection is concerned. This is as it should be. Legitimacy demands less than the ideal. In turn, citizens ought to accept discounts on perfect justice for the sake of achieving a reasonably just and effective political order overall.

Ethik und Recht - Die Ethisierung des Rechts/Ethics and Law - The Ethicalization of Law


Author: Silja Vöneky,Britta Beylage-Haarmann,Anja Höfelmeier,Anna-Katharina Hübler
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 364237090X
Category: Law
Page: 456
View: 7424
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Ziel des Buches ist es, das neue Phänomen der "Ethisierung des Rechts" interdisziplinär zu erfassen und damit das grundsätzliche Verhältnis von Ethik und Recht neu zu bestimmen. Dies geschieht zum einen durch die Untersuchung des theoretischen Fundaments der Beziehung von Recht und Ethik im 21. Jahrhundert. Zum anderen wird an unterschiedlichen Rechts- und Lebensbereichen aufgezeigt, wie ethische Normen das nationale, europäische und internationale Recht durchdringen und ergänzen und wie die dabei auftretenden Probleme gelöst werden können.

Democratic Dialogue and the Constitution


Author: Alison L Young
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191086282
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 5103
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Constitutions divide into those that provide for a constitutionally protected set of rights, where courts can strike down legislation, and those where rights are protected predominantly by parliament, where courts can interpret legislation to protect rights, but cannot strike down legislation. The UK's Human Rights Act 1998 is regarded as an example of a commonwealth model of rights protections. It is justified as a new form of protection of rights which promotes dialogue between the legislature and the courts - dialogue being seen not just as a better means of protecting rights, but as a new form of constitutionalism occupying a middle ground between legal and political constitutionalism. This book argues that there is no clear middle ground for dialogue to occupy, with most theories of legal and political constitutionalism combining legal and political protections, as well as providing an account of interactions between the legislature and the judiciary. Nevertheless, dialogue has a role to play. It differs from legal and political constitutionalism in terms of the assumptions on which it is based and the questions it asks. It focuses on analysing mechanisms of inter-institutional interactions, and assessing when these interactions can provide a better protection of rights, facilitate deliberation, engage citizens and act as an effective check and balance between institutions of the constitution. This book evaluates dialogue in the UK constitution, assessing the protection of human rights through the Human Rights Act 1998, the common law and EU law. It also evaluates court-court dialogue between the UK court and the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. The conclusion evaluates the implications of the proposed British Bill of Rights and the referendum decision to leave the European Union.

Philosophie des Zeichens


Author: Josef Simon
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 311085631X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 329
View: 5353
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The Constitutional State


Author: N. W. Barber
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191637254
Category: Law
Page: 224
View: 7844
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The Constitutional State provides an original analytical account of the state and its associated constitutional phenomena. It presents the state as a form of social group, consisting of people, territory and institutions bound together by rules. The institutions of the state make a distinctive and characteristic claim over the people of the state, who, in turn, have a distinctive and characteristic relationship with these institutions. This account reveals the importance of at least two forms of pluralism - legal and constitutional. It also casts light on some of the more difficult questions faced by writers on constitutions - such as the possibility of states undertaking actions and forming intentions, the moral significance of these actions for the people of the state, and the capacity of the state to carry responsibility for acts between generations.

The Language of Liberal Constitutionalism


Author: Howard Schweber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139462598
Category: Philosophy
Page: N.A
View: 7938
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This book explores two basic questions regarding constitutional theory. First, in view of a commitment to democratic self-rule and widespread disagreement on questions of value, how is the creation of a legitimate constitutional regime possible? Second, what must be true about a constitution if the regime that it supports is to retain its claim to legitimacy? Howard Schweber shows that the answers to these questions appear in a theory of constitutional language that combines democratic theory with constitutional philosophy. The creation of a legitimate constitutional regime depends on a shared commitment to a particular and specialized form of language. Out of this simple observation, Schweber develops arguments about the characteristics of constitutional language, the necessary differences between constitutional language and the language of ordinary law or morality, as well as the authority of officials such as judges to engage in constitutional review of laws.