Counterterrorism in Areas of Political Unrest

The Case of Russia's Northern Caucasus
Author: Ethan S. Burger,Serguei Cheloukhine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146145140X
Category: Social Science
Page: 61
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​​Political transitions often create new law enforcement challenges. This Brief provides an examination of such special law enforcement challenges in the Northern Caucasas, both due to the unique structure of the crime groups that are active in the region, and to the unique social and political environment in which they operate. In 2002, Russian President Vladamir Putin declared the end of the war in Chechnya. In 2006, he announced the insurgency was defeated. Yet today, Russia maintains a significant Internal Police presence in the Northern Caucasus to contain approximately 700 insurgents at a cost estimated to be more than the equivalent of $1 billion per year. Russian law enforcement, armed forces, and their local proxies are fighting irregular forces that operate in a manner akin to organized crime groups or terrorist cells. These groups have formed flexible networks which can sustain heavy losses, including the “decapitation” of their leaders, only to reconstitute themselves ready to fight another day. Beginning with a historical overview of the police and military structures in the region, this Brief provides a case study into the origins, structures, and unique strategies for counter-terrorism policing in these complex conditions. It also provides recommendations for the future, and a framework for understanding similar cases of terrorist operations in areas of political unrest, an increasing global threat.​

Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

First International Symposium, SIMPDA 2011, Campione D’Italia, Italy, June 29 – July 1, 2011, Revised Selected Papers
Author: Karl Aberer,Ernesto Damiani,Tharam Dillon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 364234044X
Category: Computers
Page: 213
View: 4525
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

Advances in Cancer Stem Cell Biology


Author: Roberto Scatena,Alvaro Mordente,Bruno Giardina
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461408093
Category: Medical
Page: 343
View: 9998
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In recent years, cancer stem cells have been recognized as important component in carcinogenesis and they seem to form the basis of many (if not all) tumor types. Cancer stem cells or "cancer cell like stem cells" have been isolated from various cancers of different origin (blood, breast, brain, skin, head and neck, thyroid, cervix, lung, retina, colon, pancreas and so on). Cancer stem cells - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours- seem to show intriguing relationships with physiological stem cells. Specifically, these cancer cells show significant similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells. Moreover, tumour cells might directly arise from normal stem cells. Further, the cellular biology of cancer stem cells show a lot of similarities with normal stem cells.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations


Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319892940
Category: Social Science
Page: 131
View: 8766
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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

The Contours of Police Integrity


Author: Carl B. Klockars,Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovic
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 0761925864
Category: Political Science
Page: 305
View: 2102
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The Contours of Police Integrity presents a comprehensive overview of the potential for police misconduct worldwide. A topic of great concern around the world, the top criminal justice scholars have compiled survey and case data from 10 countries chronicling police integrity and misconduct. The book begins with a chapter on the methodology and issues surrounding police studies and is followed by in-depth chapters on the USA and the UK, written by leading academics in these countries. The book concludes with a capstone summary of this rapidly growing international concern.

Russian Organized Corruption Networks and their International Trajectories


Author: Serguei Cheloukhine,M.R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441909909
Category: Social Science
Page: 181
View: 856
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Countries undergoing major social and legal transitions typically experience a light, but relatively insignificant, increase in crime. However, in the past decade, many transitional countries in Eastern Europe, and Russia in particular, have experienced a surge in criminal activities that came about through the collaboration of diverse players—such as criminals, state officials, businesspersons, and law enforcement—into organized networks aimed to obtain financial and economic gains.

Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors


Author: Inge Brouns,Isabel Pintelon,Jean-Pierre Timmermans,Dirk Adriaensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642227721
Category: Medical
Page: 118
View: 8979
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With the advances of immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy, airway sensory receptor end-organs can now be examined and evaluated objectively. Based on their ‘neurochemical coding’, morphology, location and origin, three sensory receptor end organs are currently morphologically well-characterised: smooth muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs), neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) and visceral pleura receptors (VPRs). The present information on the functional morphological and neurochemical characteristics of these sensory receptors, leads to important conclusions about their (possible) function.

Neurocognitive Risk Assessment for the Early Detection of Violent Extremists


Author: Geoff Dean
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319067192
Category: Social Science
Page: 112
View: 4511
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This Brief provides a theoretical and conceptual development of a new Risk Assessment Toolbox (RAT) for the early detection of violent extremists. It is based on a neurocognitive perspective, conceptualized as ‘neuroplasticity-in-action’ arising from brain-based neural patterns expressed in mind-based cognitive pathways likely to form a mind-set of violent extremism. This neurocognitive-based Risk Assessment Toolbox (RAT) is comprised of two distinct components: a cognitive indicators instrument that serves as an early detection checklist for trained practitioners, and a software visualisation program. The Brief includes: A framework of contemporary approaches to the risk assessment of violence as well as the background context for the current research project on ‘violent extremism’ and its related concepts of ‘terrorism’ and ‘radicalisation,’ out of which the RAT was developed. A detailed overview of RAT and a pilot case study experiment to highlight the practical value and utility of this neurocognitive Risk Assessment Toolbox. Preliminary research findings of a study conducted with a sample of recognized experts (academics and practitioners) in several countries around the world, to fine tune and validate the risk parameters of the two components that constitute RAT (Risk Assessment Toolbox). The current stage of development of RAT as a practitioner-based system for the early detection of potentially violent extremists as well as its strategic intelligence implications for using a neurocognitive risk assessment approach to violent extremism is discussed. Research limitations and plans for future research studies. This work will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice interested in studying violent extremism, terrorism and crime prevention and intervention and policing, as well as researchers in related fields of Forensic Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience and Social Work or Social Intervention.

What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation

Lessons from Systematic Reviews
Author: David Weisburd,David P. Farrington,Charlotte Gill
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493934775
Category: Social Science
Page: 331
View: 6637
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Systematic reviews aim to minimize any possible bias in drawing conclusions by stating explicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, by conducting extensive and wide-ranging searches for possibly eligible studies, and by making all stages of the review explicit and transparent so that the methods can be checked and replicated. Over a decade ago, a concerted effort was made by members of the criminology community, including the Editors and contributors of this volume, to bring the practice of systematic reviews to the study of Criminology, providing replicable, evidence-based data to answer key questions about the study of crime causation, detection, and prevention. Now, the pioneers in this effort present a comprehensive stock-taking of what has been learned in the past decade of systematic reviews in criminology. Much has been discovered about the effectiveness of (for example) boot camps, “hot spots” policing, closed-circuit television surveillance, neighborhood watch, anti-bullying programs in schools, early parenting programs, drug treatment programs, and other key topics. This ambitious volume aims to bring together and assess all major systematic reviews of the effectiveness of criminological interventions, to draw broad conclusions about what works in policing, corrections, developmental prevention, situational prevention, drug abuse treatments, sentencing and deterrence, and communities. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as in related fields such as public health and forensic science, with important implications for policy-makers and practitioners. Decisively showing that the “nothing works” era is over, this volume takes stock of what we know, and still need to know, to prevent crime. Focusing on different areas of prevention, individual chapters provide a state-of–the art analysis of the extent evaluation evidence. Together, they comprise an essential guide to improving both public safety and the lives of those most at risk of criminal involvement. I plan to keep this book close at hand and to use if often! Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati This impressive volume, edited by Weisburd, Farrington and Gill, provides a comprehensive picture of what we’ve learned from systematic reviews about “what works” in addressing crime – and goes on to identify the “next step” issues that demand attention if the field is to move forward. At a time when there is a broad commitment to bringing science to the front lines of practice, this book should be on the reading list of both policymakers and scholars. Laurie O. Robinson, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law Society, George Mason University and former Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice

Volunteer Police in the United States

Programs, Challenges, and Legal Aspects
Author: Elizabeth C. Bartels
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319023659
Category: Social Science
Page: 44
View: 5404
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​This work examines in-depth the phenomenon of volunteer policing in the United States. Due to a combination of municipal budget cuts, decreased manpower, and a renewed interest in community partnership, everyday citizens are increasingly joining the police rank and file. This trend provides low-cost solutions for a number of policing problems, but also brings its own special challenges and considerations. This work provides a historical overview of volunteer police in the United States and abroad; an practical overview of volunteer programs throughout the United States including training programs, requirements and qualifications; a close examination of two central types of laws governing volunteer police units: the "Stand Your Ground" law and the "Good Samaritan" law; and overview of the dangers that can face volunteer police units, and a comparative analysis with volunteer programs worldwide. It will be of interest to researchers in police studies, criminal justice administration, and for policymakers and practitioners working with police organization and training.

Learning from Error in Policing

A Case Study in Organizational Accident Theory
Author: Jon Shane
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319000411
Category: Social Science
Page: 91
View: 1175
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​While the proximate cause of any accident is usually someone’s immediate action— or omission (failure to act)—there is often a trail of underlying latent conditions that facilitated their error: the person has, in effect, been unwittingly “set up” for failure by the organization. This Brief explores an accident in policing, as a framework for examining existing police practices. Learning from Error in Policing describes a case of wrongful arrest from the perspective of organizational accident theory, which suggests a single unsafe act—in this case a wrongful arrest—is facilitated by several underlying latent conditions that triggered the event and failed to stop the harm once in motion. The analysis demonstrates that the risk of errors committed by omission (failing to act) were significantly more likely to occur than errors committed by acts of commission. By examining this case, policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. The analysis of this case, and the underlying lessons learned from it will have important implications for researchers and practitioners in the policing field.​

Social Crime Prevention in the Developing World

Exploring the Role of Police in Crime Prevention
Author: Heath Grant
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319130277
Category: Social Science
Page: 51
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This Brief explores the role of social crime prevention as a crime reduction strategy in the developing world. "Social crime prevention" focuses on the social and economic factors that may contribute to violence and criminal behavior in a community. Particularly in the developing world, an understanding of the socioeconomic and political context holds long-term potential for crime reduction (rather than crime displacement); however, the strategies are complex and the results may be slow. Generally, police and law enforcement are relied upon to present quick results, where social crime prevention strategies can be viewed as being "soft on crime" or too slow. This Brief discusses the tension between the traditional role of police and proactive social crime prevention strategies in an international context, through a variety of case studies. It also provides recommendations for balancing or reshaping this role. This work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers interested in crime prevention, particularly in the developing world, criminal theory, police studies and related disciplines such as demography, sociology and political science.

The Master Plan

ISIS, al-Qaeda, and the Jihadi Strategy for Final Victory
Author: Brian H. Fishman
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300224532
Category: History
Page: 288
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An incisive narrative history of the Islamic State, from the 2005 master plan to reestablish the Caliphate to its quest for Final Victory in 2020 Given how quickly its operations have achieved global impact, it may seem that the Islamic State materialized suddenly. In fact, al-Qaeda’s operations chief, Sayf al-Adl, devised a seven-stage plan for jihadis to conquer the world by 2020 that included reestablishing the Caliphate in Syria between 2013 and 2016. Despite a massive schism between the Islamic State and al-Qaeda, al-Adl’s plan has proved remarkably prescient. In summer 2014, ISIS declared itself the Caliphate after capturing Mosul, Iraq—part of stage five in al-Adl’s plan. Drawing on large troves of recently declassified documents captured from the Islamic State and its predecessors, counterterrorism expert Brian Fishman tells the story of this organization’s complex and largely hidden past—and what the master plan suggests about its future. Only by understanding the Islamic State’s full history—and the strategy that drove it—can we understand the contradictions that may ultimately tear it apart.

The Tragedy of Russia's Reforms

Market Bolshevism Against Democracy
Author: Peter Reddaway,Dmitri Glinski
Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press
ISBN: 9781929223060
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 745
View: 9834
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The Tragedy of Russia s Reforms presents a boldly original analysis of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the birth of the Russian state. The keys to understanding these events, the authors argue, are the prescriptions of Western transitologists, the International Monetary Fund, and advocates of economic shock therapy. These prescriptions allowed the nomenklatura and the financial oligarchs to acquire Russia s industrial and natural resources and to heavily influence the country s political destiny. In this long-awaited, sweeping interpretation, the authors skillfully place the contemporary Russian experience in the context of history, political theory, and Russia s place in the international system."

Constructions of Terrorism

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Research and Policy
Author: Michael Stohl,Richard Burchill,Scott Howard Englund
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520294165
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 224
View: 1395
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This publication is part of the Constructions of Terrorism Research Project being carried out through a partnership between TRENDS Research & Advisory, Abu Dhabi, UAE, and the Orfalea Center for Global and International Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Perceptions of Female Offenders

How Stereotypes and Social Norms Affect Criminal Justice Responses
Author: Brenda Russell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461458714
Category: Social Science
Page: 198
View: 5979
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​Female offenders are often perceived as victims who commit crimes as a self-defense mechanism or as criminal deviants whose actions strayed from typical ‘womanly’ behavior. Such cultural norms for violence exist in our gendered society and there has been scholarly debate about how male and female offenders are perceived and how this perception leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This debate is primarily based upon theories associated with stereotypes and social norms and how these prescriptive norms can influence both public and criminal justice response. Scholars in psychology, sociology, and criminology have found that female offenders are perceived differently than male offenders and this ultimately leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This interdisciplinary book provides an evidence based approach of how female offenders are perceived in society and how this translates to differential treatment within the criminal justice system and explores the ramifications of such differences. Quite often perceptions of female offenders are at odds with research findings. This book will provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the research that is valuable to laypersons, researchers, practitioners, advocates, treatment providers, lawyers, judges, and anyone interested in equality in the criminal justice system. ​

Achieving Impact in Research


Author: Pam Denicolo
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446292797
Category: Social Science
Page: 192
View: 3478
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This unique addition to the Success in Research series addresses the importance of understanding and achieving impact for the purposes of gaining research funding and reporting achieved impact for the Research Excellence Framework (REF). The book includes contributions from researchers and researcher developers who feel that impact is ill-defined and poorly understood despite its prevalence in policy documents, websites and institutional activities. This succinct and cohesive text draws on the expert contributors' collective research practice, knowledge and experience. Using a variety of examples, boxed activities and highlighted reflection points, this practical guide covers the following key areas: The meaning of impact in relation to research How the Impact Agenda fits with attitudes and ethics that motivate research The different characterisations of research impact and when impact is apparent How impact can be planned into proposals, evaluated and evidenced The skills needed to be an impactful researcher How impact can be supported through Knowledge Exchange and effective partnerships This is a must-have guide for anyone seeking to understand and achieve impact in their own research. The Success in Research series, from Cindy Becker and Pam Denicolo, provides short, authoritative and accessible guides on key areas of professional and research development. Avoiding jargon and cutting to the chase of what you really need to know, these practical and supportive books cover a range of areas from presenting research to achieving impact, and from publishing journal articles to developing proposals. They are essential reading for any student or researcher interested in developing their skills and broadening their professional and methodological knowledge in an academic context.

Match-Fixing in International Sports

Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies
Author: M.R. Haberfeld,Dale Sheehan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319025821
Category: Social Science
Page: 369
View: 4978
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Match –fixing has become a widespread international problem in recent years. It includes everything from bribery of players, to putting undue influences on the owners of the soccer clubs, managers, coaches and others who have the ability to affect the final scores. In addition, match-fixing spills over into the arena of illegal betting (in person and online), which creates a host of additional organized crime opportunities, including human trafficking, prostitution, drugs, extortion and even terrorism. This timely volume brings together international contributions with an aim is to increase awareness of the problems associated with match-fixing and the degree to which key agents in sport, particularly young people, are vulnerable. The contributions are based on INTERPOL’s Global Experts Meeting in Singapore, in November 2012, which brought together key speakers to discuss issues surrounding match-fixing and how to combat corruption in football through channels of education. The purpose of this meeting was to identify ways that academia can play a role in developing and implementing training modules and academic courses, including certification procedures, to prevent match-fixing and develop lines of study at all educational levels. This unique work reflects the gravity of the situation around the world together with possible solutions.

Foundations of the Islamic State

Management, Money, and Terror in Iraq, 2005-2010
Author: Patrick B. Johnston,Jacob N. Shapiro,Howard J. Shatz,Benjamin Bahney,Danielle F. Jung,Patrick K. Ryan,Jonathan Wallace
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833091794
Category: Political Science
Page: 348
View: 5094
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Drawing from 140 recently declassified documents, this report comprehensively examines the organization, territorial designs, management, personnel policies, and finances of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) and al-Qa‘ida in Iraq. Analysis of the Islamic State predecessor groups is more than a historical recounting. It provides significant understanding of how ISI evolved into the present-day Islamic State and how to combat the group.