21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook


Author: J. Mitchell Miller
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1506320589
Category: Social Science
Page: 960
View: 7335
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Criminology has experienced tremendous growth over the last few decades, evident, in part, by the widespread popularity and increased enrollment in criminology and criminal justice departments at the undergraduate and graduate levels across the U.S. and internationally. Evolutionary paradigmatic shift has accompanied this surge in definitional, disciplinary and pragmatic terms. Though long identified as a leading sociological specialty area, criminology has emerged as a stand-alone discipline in its own right, one that continues to grow and is clearly here to stay. Criminology, today, remains inherently theoretical but is also far more applied in focus and thus more connected to the academic and practitioner concerns of criminal justice and related professional service fields. Contemporary criminology is also increasingly interdisciplinary and thus features a broad variety of ideological orientations to and perspectives on the causes, effects and responses to crime. 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook provides straightforward and definitive overviews of 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a "first-look" reference source for most criminological inquires. Both connected to the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and masters theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source from which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology. This two-volume set in the SAGE 21st Century Reference Series is intended to provide undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that will serve their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but not so much jargon, detail, or density as a journal article or research handbook chapter. 100 entries or "mini-chapters" highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. Curricular-driven, chapters provide students with initial footholds on topics of interest in researching term papers, in preparing for GREs, in consulting to determine directions to take in pursuing a senior thesis, graduate degree, career, etc. Comprehensive in coverage, major sections include The Discipline of Criminology, Correlates of Crime, Theories of Crime & Justice, Measurement & Research, Types of Crime, and Crime & the Justice System. The contributor group is comprised of well-known figures and emerging young scholars who provide authoritative overviews coupled with insightful discussion that will quickly familiarize researchers, students, and general readers alike with fundamental and detailed information for each topic. Uniform chapter structure makes it easy for students to locate key information, with most chapters following a format of Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References. Availability in print and electronic formats provides students with convenient, easy access wherever they may be.

Place Matters


Author: David Weisburd,Cody W. Telep,Breanne Cave,Kate Bowers,John E. Eck,Gerben Bruinsma,Charlotte Gill,Elizabeth Groff,Julie Hibdon,Joshua C. Hinkle,Shane D. Johnson,Brian Lawton,Cynthia Lum,Jerry Ratcliffe,George Rengert,Travis Taniguchi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110702952X
Category: Political Science
Page: 200
View: 1565
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The book summarizes what we know about crime and place, and provides an agenda for future research in this area.

Innovation Policy Challenges for the 21st Century


Author: Deborah Cox,John Rigby
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136190368
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 308
View: 5732
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As the economies of western countries move from primarily resource-based to knowledge-based, and trade liberalization limits what governments can do through direct action, the landscape of innovation is changing and policymakers must react accordingly. This exciting new book examines the challenges that policy makers face in responding to a new environment. The book addresses how governments are now seeking to drive innovation through new forms of R&D policies, through public procurement, skills development, entrepreneurship and innovation culture to name but a few of the approaches. Innovation Policy Challenges for the 21st Century explores these and other contemporary issues in innovation, reviewing the state of the art literature and consolidating current thinking at the frontiers of innovation. The volume debates and presents scattered and anonymous material in a coherent way, with a particular focus is on ‘hot topics’ in the field of innovation studies that have been previously under-researched. The book is divided into four key themes: government as a key actor in the innovation process, entrepreneurs as innovators, skills and competences required to maintain and improve innovation performance in Europe and finally, the wider context in which innovation policy develops.

Criminal Justice Today

An Introductory Text for the 21st Century
Author: Frank Schmalleger
Publisher: Pearson
ISBN: 0134156307
Category: Social Science
Page: 720
View: 2242
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This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book. The gold standard for introductory criminal justice texts. Best-selling and time-tested, Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century,continues to lead the field as the gold-standard for introductory criminal justice texts. Its comprehensive coverage focuses on the crime picture in America and on the three traditional elements of the criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections. Building upon the theme of individual freedom versus personal security, it challenges students to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the American justice system as it adapts to the needs of a complex and rapidly changing society. An instructor and student favorite, the Fourteenth Edition continues its tradition of thorough analysis of today’s issues in an easy-to-read format. Criminal Justice Today, 14/e is also available via REVEL™, an interactive learning environment that enables students to read, practice, and study in one continuous experience. Learn more.

Greening Criminology in the 21st Century

Contemporary debates and future directions in the study of environmental harm
Author: Matthew Hall,Tanya Wyatt,Nigel South,Angus Nurse,Gary Potter,Jennifer Maher
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317124510
Category: Law
Page: 240
View: 8688
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In the 21st century, environmental harm is an ever-present reality of our globalised world. Over the last 20 years, criminologists, working alongside a range of other disciplines from the social and physical sciences, have made great strides in their understanding of how different institutions in society, and criminal justice systems in particular – respond – or fail to respond – to the harm imposed on ecosystems and their human and non-human components. Such research has crystallised into the rapidly evolving field of green criminology. This pioneering volume, with contributions from leading experts along with younger scholars, represents the state of the art in criminologists’ pursuit of understanding in the environmental sphere while at the same time challenging academics, lawmakers and policy developers to explore new directions in the study of environmental harm.

Forensic Science in Court

Challenges in the Twenty First Century
Author: Donald Hon. Shelton, Chief Judge
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 1442201894
Category: Law
Page: 196
View: 3233
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Forensic Science in Court explores the legal implications of forensic science—an increasingly important and complex part of the legal system. Judge Donald Shelton provides an accessible overview of the legal issues, then examines the strengths and limitations of various kinds of forensic science, including DNA, fingerprints, handwriting, hair, bite marks, tool marks, firearms and bullets, fire and arson investigation, and bloodstain evidence. Case studies illustrate the issues and their application in depth.

Human Security in Turkey

Challenges for the 21st century
Author: Alpaslan Özerdem,Füsun Özerdem
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136658106
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 9369
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This edited volume explores human security challenges in the context of Turkey. Turkey occupies a critical geopolitical position between Europe, the Middle East and the Caucasus. It is an important peace-broker in regional conflicts and a leading country in peacekeeping operations, and has been a generous donor for disaster response around the world. However, Turkey is also facing a number of fundamental sociocultural and development challenges and its internal stability is affected by a protracted armed conflict based on Kurdish separatism. In other words, Turkey is at a crossroads in its transformation from a state-centred security perspective to one based on human security. To explore selected human security challenges within a wider context of peace and development, this volume focuses on a number of key issues in relation to democratization and social cohesion, before going on to investigate the role of Turkey as an agent of peace in the international context. Written by academics from the fields of peace studies, international relations, politics and development studies, the discussions examine and highlight the issues that Turkey must overcome if it is to successfully strengthen its human security trajectories in the near future. This book will be of much interest to students of human security, Turkish politics, conflict management, peace studies and IR in general.

Community Mental Health

Challenges for the 21st Century
Author: Samuel J. Rosenberg,Jessica Rosenberg
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317426835
Category: Psychology
Page: 358
View: 8002
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The newest edition of Community Mental Health continues to be at the leading edge of the field, providing the most up-to-date research and treatment models that encompass practice in community settings. Experts from a wide range of fields explore the major trends, best practices, and policy issues shaping community mental health services today. New sections address the role of spirituality, veterans and the military, family treatment, and emerging new movements. An expanded view of recovery ensures that a thorough conversation about intersectionality and identity runs throughout the book.

Religion in the 21st Century

Challenges and Transformations
Author: Lisbet Christoffersen,Margit Warburg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317067509
Category: Religion
Page: 248
View: 423
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In spite of the debate about secularization or de-secularization, the existential-bodily need for religion is basically the same as always. What have been changed are the horizons within which religions are interpreted and the relationships within which religions are integrated. This book explores how religions continue to challenge secular democracy and science, and how religions are themselves being challenged by secular values and practices. All traditions - whether religious or secular - experience a struggle over authority, and this struggle seems to intensify with globalization, as it has brought people around the world in closer contact with each other. In this book internationally leading scholars from sociology, law, political science, religious studies, theology and the religion and science debate, take stock of the current interdisciplinary research on religion and open new perspectives at the cutting edge of the debate on religion in the 21st century.

The Future of Intelligence

Challenges in the 21st century
Author: Isabelle Duyvesteyn,Ben de Jong,Joop van Reijn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135095647
Category: Political Science
Page: 182
View: 3856
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This volume discusses the challenges the future holds for different aspects of the intelligence process and for organisations working in the field. The main focus of Western intelligence services is no longer on the intentions and capabilities of the Soviet Union and its allies. Instead, at present, there is a plethora of threats and problems that deserve attention. Some of these problems are short-term and potentially acute, such as terrorism. Others, such as the exhaustion of natural resources, are longer-term and by nature often more difficult to foresee in their implications. This book analyses the different activities that make up the intelligence process, or the ‘intelligence cycle’, with a focus on changes brought about by external developments in the international arena, such as technology and security threats. Drawing together a range of key thinkers in the field, The Future of Intelligence examines possible scenarios for future developments, including estimations about their plausibility, and the possible consequences for the functioning of intelligence and security services. This book will be of much interest to students of intelligence studies, strategic studies, foreign policy, security studies and IR in general.

Canadian Policing in the 21st Century

A Frontline Officer on Challenges and Changes
Author: Robert Chrismas
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 0773589368
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 6581
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How can police remain effective and vital in an era of unprecedented technological advances, access to information, and the global transformation of crime? Written by a long-serving officer, Canadian Policing in the 21st Century offers a rare look at street-level police work and the hidden culture behind the badge. Robert Chrismas shares experiences from his years of service to highlight areas where police can more effectively enforce laws and improve relations with the communities they serve. He proposes tactics for addressing widespread social issues such as gang and domestic violence and strategies for cooperating in international networks tackling human trafficking, internet-based child exploitation, organized crime, and terrorism. Chrismas stresses how changing demographics related to age, gender and racial diversity, and increased dangers and demands, require intensified training and higher education in policing. He highlights the need for more effective collaborative relationships between police and local, provincial, and federal governments, non-government agencies, and their communities. While the principles and goals of policing remain largely unchanged, police challenges, tools, and strategies have evolved dramatically. Chrismas's vantage point as an officer and a scholar provides an illuminating account of the Canadian justice system, and road-maps to future success.

Criminology and the Anthropocene


Author: Cameron Holley,Clifford Shearing
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134889232
Category: Social Science
Page: 204
View: 8445
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The Anthropocene signals a new age in Earth’s history, a human age, where we are revealed as a powerful force shaping planetary systems. What might criminology be in the Anthropocene? What does the Anthropocene suggest for future theory and practice of criminology? This book seeks to contribute to this research agenda by examining, contrasting and interrogating different vantage points, aspects and thinking within criminology. Bringing together a range of multidisciplinary chapters at the cutting edge of thinking and environmental rethinking in criminology, this book explores a mix of key intractable problems of the Anthropocene, including climate change and overexploitation of natural resources that cause environmental insecurities; crime and corruption; related human insecurity and fortressed spaces; and the rise of new risks and social harms. Of interest to scholars in the fields of criminology, sociology and environmental studies, this book provides readers with a basis for analysing the challenges of, and possible approaches to, the Anthropocene at all levels (local, national, regional and international) and discusses the future(s) of criminology for improving social policies and practices.

Global Ageing in the Twenty-First Century

Challenges, Opportunities and Implications
Author: Zachary Zimmer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317128168
Category: Social Science
Page: 344
View: 9277
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Population ageing - a growth in the proportion of a population that is in older age - is now occurring in every region and nearly every country of the world. Indeed, the growth of older populations is among the important global phenomena of the twenty-first century. It poses both opportunities and challenges for societies and policy makers, but these are far from uniform worldwide. Dynamic factors are at work impacting on how ageing will influence people, places and policies and there are large variations in the rate and timing of population ageing across countries, owing to differing social, health and economic circumstances and a variety of policy options from which to choose. Given this variation in the context of global ageing as a backdrop, this edited book focuses on three overarching themes that are among the most critical to understand if societies are to age successfully in the twenty-first century and beyond: Healthy ageing and health care; the ageing workforce, retirement and the provision of pensions; shifting intergenerational relations. These three themes are cross-cut by other dimensions that are intertwined with the dynamic processes of ageing, such as immigration/emigration, contrasting policy regimes and global and national economic forces. This ground-breaking book will be of interest to all scholars, students and policy-makers working within this area of study.

Digital Criminology

Crime and Justice in Digital Society
Author: Anastasia Powell,Gregory Stratton,Robin Cameron
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351795058
Category: Social Science
Page: 210
View: 3158
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The infusion of digital technology into contemporary society has had significant effects for everyday life and for everyday crimes. Digital Criminology: Crime and Justice in Digital Society is the first interdisciplinary scholarly investigation extending beyond traditional topics of cybercrime, policing and the law to consider the implications of digital society for public engagement with crime and justice movements. This book seeks to connect the disparate fields of criminology, sociology, legal studies, politics, media and cultural studies in the study of crime and justice. Drawing together intersecting conceptual frameworks, Digital Criminology examines conceptual, legal, political and cultural framings of crime, formal justice responses and informal citizen-led justice movements in our increasingly connected global and digital society. Building on case study examples from across Australia, Canada, Europe, China, the UK and the United States, Digital Criminology explores key questions including: What are the implications of an increasingly digital society for crime and justice? What effects will emergent technologies have for how we respond to crime and participate in crime debates? What will be the foundational shifts in criminological research and frameworks for understanding crime and justice in this technologically mediated context? What does it mean to be a ‘just’ digital citizen? How will digital communications and social networks enable new forms of justice and justice movements? Ultimately, the book advances the case for an emerging digital criminology: extending the practical and conceptual analyses of ‘cyber’ or ‘e’ crime beyond a focus foremost on the novelty, pathology and illegality of technology-enabled crimes, to understandings of online crime as inherently social.

Eco-global Crimes

Contemporary Problems and Future Challenges
Author: Ragnhild Sollund
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317146379
Category: Law
Page: 332
View: 695
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Building on knowledge within the fields of green and eco-global criminology, this book uses empirical and theoretical arguments to discuss the multi-dimensional character of eco-global crime. It provides an overview of eco-global crimes and discusses them from a justice perspective. The persistence of animal abuse and speciesism are also examined together with policies aimed at controlling the natural world and plant species. Pollution by large corporations, rights of indigenous peoples and the damage caused by the mineral extraction are also considered. Providing new ideas and insights which will be relevant on a global scale, this book is an interesting and useful study of the exploitation of nature and other species. It will be invaluable for students and scholars globally, working within or connected to the field of green and eco-global criminology. The book will also be important for the participants of various social movements, especially the environmental and animal advocacy movements.

The Crime of All Crimes

Toward a Criminology of Genocide
Author: Nicole Rafter
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479805963
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 6614
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Cambodia. Rwanda. Armenia. Nazi Germany. History remembers these places as the sites of unspeakable crimes against humanity, and indisputably, of genocide. Yet, throughout the twentieth century, the world has seen many instances of violence committed by states against certain groups within their borders—from the colonial ethnic cleansing the Germans committed against the Herero tribe in Africa, to the Katyn Forest Massacre, in which the Soviets shot over 20,000 Poles, to anti-communist mass murders in 1960s Indonesia. Are mass crimes against humanity like these still genocide? And how can an understanding of crime and criminals shed new light on how genocide—the “crime of all crimes”—transpires? In The Crime of All Crimes, criminologist Nicole Rafter takes an innovative approach to the study of genocide by comparing eight diverse genocides--large-scale and small; well-known and obscure—through the lens of criminal behavior. Rafter explores different models of genocidal activity, reflecting on the popular use of the Holocaust as a model for genocide and ways in which other genocides conform to different patterns. For instance, Rafter questions the assumption that only ethnic groups are targeted for genocidal “cleansing," and she also urges that actions such as genocidal rape be considered alongside traditional instances of genocidal violence. Further, by examining the causes of genocide on different levels, Rafter is able to construct profiles of typical victims and perpetrators and discuss means of preventing genocide, in addition to delving into the social psychology of genocidal behavior and the ways in which genocides are brought to an end. A sweeping and innovative investigation into the most tragic of events in the modern world, The Crime of All Crimes will fundamentally change how we think about genocide in the present day.

Our Bodies, Our Crimes

The Policing of Women's Reproduction in America
Author: Jeanne Flavin
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814727913
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 3238
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Drawing on surveys and interviews with almost 300 female military personnel, Melissa Herbert explores how women's everyday actions, such as choice of uniform, hobby, or social activity, involve the creation and re-creation of what it means to be a woman, and particularly a woman soldier. Do women feel pressured to be "more masculine," to convey that they are not a threat to men's jobs or status and to avoid being perceived as lesbians? She also examines the role of gender and sexuality in the maintenance of the male-defined military institution, proposing that, more than sexual harassment or individual discrimination, it is the military's masculine ideology--which views military service as the domain of men and as a mechanism for the achievement of manhood--which serves to limit women's participation in the military has increased dramatically. In the wake of armed conflict involving female military personnel and several sexual misconduct scandals, much attention has focused on what life is like for women in the armed services. Few, however, have examined how these women negotiate an environment that has been structured and defined as masculine.

21st Century Security and CPTED

Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Crime Prevention, Second Edition
Author: Randall I. Atlas
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880220
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 954
View: 6104
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The concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) has undergone dramatic changes over the last several decades since C. Ray Jeffery coined the term in the early 1970s, and Tim Crowe wrote the first CPTED applications book. The second edition of 21st Century Security and CPTED includes the latest theory, knowledge, and practice of CPTED as it relates to the current security threats facing the modern world: theft, violent crime, terrorism, gang activity, and school and workplace violence. This significantly expanded edition includes the latest coverage of proper lighting, building design—both the interior and exterior—physical security barriers, the usage of fencing, bollards, natural surveillance, landscaping, and landscape design. Such design concepts and security elements can be applied to address a wide variety of threats including crime prevention, blast mitigation, and CBRNE threat protection. Authored by one of the U.S.’s renowned security experts—and a premiere architect and criminologist—the book is the most comprehensive examination of CPTED and CPTED principles available. This edition includes a complete update of all chapters in addition to five new chapters, over 700 figure illustrations and photos, numerous tables and checklists, and a 20-page color plate section. This latest edition: Features five new chapters including green and sustainable buildings, infrastructure protection, and premises liability Presents step-by-step guidelines and real-world applications of CPTED concepts, principles and processes—from risk assessment to construction and post-occupancy evaluation Outlines national building security codes and standards Examines architectural surety from the perspective of risk analysis and premises liability Demonstrates CPTED implementation in high-security environments, such as hospitals, parks, ATMs, schools, and public and private sector buildings A practical resource for architects, urban planners and designers, security managers, law enforcement, CPTED practitioners, building and property managers, homeland security professionals, and students, 21st Century Security and CPTED, Second Edition continues to serve as the most complete and up-to-date reference available on next-generation CPTED practices today.

Smart Decarceration

Achieving Criminal Justice Transformation in the 21st Century
Author: Matthew Epperson,Carrie Pettus-Davis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190653094
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 6935
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Smart Decarceration is a forward-thinking, practical volume that provides innovative concepts and concrete strategies for ushering in an era of decarceration -- a proactive and effective undoing of the era of mass incarceration. The text grapples with tough questions and takes up the challenge of transforming America's approach to criminal justice in the 21st century. This timely work consists of chapters written from multiple perspectives and disciplines including advocates, researchers, academics, practitioners, and persons with incarceration histories who are now leaders in the movement. The primary purpose of this book is to inform both academic and public understanding -- to place the challenge of smart decarceration at the center of the current national discourse, taking into account the realities of the current sociopolitical context -- and to propose beginning action steps. This is achieved by first outlining and addressing questions such as: What if incarceration were not an option for most?; Whose voices are essential in this era of decarceration?; What is the state of evidence for solutions?; How do we generate and adopt empirically driven reforms?; How do we redefine and rethink justice in the United States? Smart Decarceration offers a way forward in building a field for decarceration through provocative but reasoned challenges to existing approaches to criminal justice reforms, lively focus on potential solutions, and action steps for reform.

Justice and Security in the 21st Century

Risks, Rights and the Rule of Law
Author: Barbara Hudson,Synnove Ugelvik
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136451021
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 1467
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This book examines the question of whether justice or security is the primary virtue of 21st-century society. The issue of enhancing security without undermining justice – managing risk without undermining the rule of law – has always been problematic. However, recent developments such as new counter-terrorism measures, the expanding scope of criminal law, harsher migration control and an increasingly pronounced concern with public safety, have posed new challenges. The key element of these contemporary challenges is that of membership and exclusion: that is, who is to be included within the community of justice, and against whom is the just community aiming to defend itself? Justice and Security in the 21st Century brings together researchers from various academic disciplines and different countries in order to explore these developments. It attempts to chart the complex landscapes of justice, human rights and the rule of law in an era when such ideals are challenged by increasing demands for efficiency, effectiveness, public safety and security. This edited volume will be of much interest to students of critical legal studies, criminology, critical security studies, human rights, sociology and IR in general.