Crisis and Crossfire

The United States and the Middle East Since 1945
Author: Peter L. Hahn
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1597973475
Category: Political Science
Page: 244
View: 3467
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Although it seems almost incredible today, the United States had relatively little interest in the Middle East before 1945. But the dynamics and outcome of World War II elevated the importance of the Middle East in the American mind, and the United States has viewed the region with vital interest to its security and economy ever since. The projection of American power into the region has had consequences that have forever changed the United States and the Middle East, with the rise of al Qaeda and the turbulent occupation of Iraq being the latest examples. Crisis and Crossfire surveys and analyzes the broad contours of U.S. involvement in the region. It probes the reasons why the United States implemented various policies and assesses the wisdom of American leaders as they accepted greater responsibilities for preserving stability and security in the Middle East. Major themes include U.S.-Middle East policy in the context of the Cold War, the rise of Arab and Iranian nationalism, decolonization, the U.S. approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict, the politics of Western dependence on Middle Eastern oil, and America's military interventions, particularly its two wars against Iraq. This book's concise narrative and selection of primary-source documents make it an ideal introduction to U.S.-Middle East relations for students and for anyone with an interest in understanding the history behind today's events.

Crisis and Crossfire

The United States and the Middle East Since 1945
Author: Peter L. Hahn
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1574888196
Category: History
Page: 223
View: 6552
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Provides a concise and insightful introduction to the turbulent history of U.S.-Middle East relations

Missions Accomplished?

The United States and Iraq Since World War I
Author: Peter L. Hahn
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 9780195333381
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 878
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Author Peter L. Hahn is the first to synthesize the entire complicated, power-driven relationship between the United States and Iraq over the last ninety years. This book takes a straightforward, chronological approach, emphasizing the formulation of U.S. policy toward Iraq in its political, strategic, and military dimensions. Hahn boldly identifies the key players in Washington and Baghdad, evaluating the successes of every policymaker and each mission in the history of the United States-Iraq relationship.

Caught in the Crossfire

Kids, Politics, and America's Future
Author: Lawrence Grossberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317262735
Category: Social Science
Page: 408
View: 7559
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Caught in the Crossfire reveals how the United States has been gradually changing from a society that celebrates childhood into one that is hostile to and afraid of its own children. Today kids are often seen as a threat to our social and moral values. In schools, some behavior is criminalized, and growing numbers of kids find themselves in penal and psychiatric confinement. This breakdown is often too readily attributed to bad parenting, the crisis of the family, or the greed of capitalism. Grossberg offers a new and original understanding of the changes transforming contemporary America, and of the choices Americans face about their future. He documents the relations between economic ideologies and economic realities and explores what is going on in the "culture wars" as well as on the Internet and other new media. Caught in the Crossfire argues that all of these changes and tn struggles, including those involving the state of kids, only make sense as integral parts of a larger transformation to define America's uniqueness and to develop its own sense of modern culture. Part of the Cultural Politics and the Promise of Democracy Series.

In the Crossfire

Marcus Foster and the Troubled History of American School Reform
Author: John P. Spencer
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812207661
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 312
View: 1432
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As media reports declare crisis after crisis in public education, Americans find themselves hotly debating educational inequalities that seem to violate their nation's ideals. Why does success in school track so closely with race and socioeconomic status? How to end these apparent achievement gaps? In the Crossfire brings historical perspective to these debates by tracing the life and work of Marcus Foster, an African American educator who struggled to reform urban schools in the 1960s and early 1970s. As a teacher, principal, and superintendent—first in his native Philadelphia and eventually in Oakland, California—Foster made success stories of urban schools and children whom others had dismissed as hopeless, only to be assassinated in 1973 by the previously unknown Symbionese Liberation Army in a bizarre protest against an allegedly racist school system. Foster's story encapsulates larger social changes in the decades after World War II: the great black migration from South to North, the civil rights movement, the decline of American cities, and the ever-increasing emphasis on education as a ticket to success. Well before the accountability agenda of the No Child Left Behind Act or the rise of charter schools, Americans came into sharp conflict over urban educational failure, with some blaming the schools and others pointing to conditions in homes and neighborhoods. By focusing on an educator who worked in the trenches and had a reputation for bridging divisions, In the Crossfire sheds new light on the continuing ideological debates over race, poverty, and achievement. Foster charted a course between the extremes of demanding too little and expecting too much of schools as agents of opportunity in America. He called for accountability not only from educators but also from families, taxpayers, and political and economic institutions. His effort to mobilize multiple constituencies was a key to his success—and a lesson for educators and policymakers who would take aim at achievement gaps without addressing the full range of school and nonschool factors that create them.

Winner-Take-All Politics

How Washington Made the Rich Richer--and Turned Its Back on the Middle Class
Author: Jacob S. Hacker,Paul Pierson
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1416588701
Category: Political Science
Page: 357
View: 9467
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Analyzes the growing divide between the incomes of the wealthy class and those of middle-income Americans, exonerating popular suspects to argue that the nation's political system promotes greed and under-representation.

Crossfire

The Plot That Killed Kennedy
Author: Jim Marrs
Publisher: Constellation
ISBN: 0465031803
Category: History
Page: 648
View: 2502
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Kashmir in Conflict

India, Pakistan and the Unending War
Author: Victoria Schofield
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857730789
Category: Political Science
Page: 336
View: 5753
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After 20 years of insurgency, Kashmir continues to be a major flashpoint and decisive factorin destabilising regional relations. Resolving the dispute over the state of Jammu andKashmir is crucial to achieving peace and stability, without which the US Af-Pak strategy isunlikely to succeed. With international eyes focused on South Asia, understanding what is atstake in Kashmir has never been more important. For decades, the dispute over the valley of Kashmir, famed for its beauty and tranquility, has determined much of Pakistan's and India'sforeign policy. With the state, located between two nuclear armed states and India blaming Pakistani militants for the 2008 terrorist attacks on Mumbai, the potential widerimplications of the conflict are higher than ever on the international agenda. Kashmir in Conflict offers a highly readable, carefully documented account of the origins,development and implications of this contentious issue. Beginning with the early history ofthe independent kingdom of Kashmir, Victoria Schofield traces the origins of the modernstate in the nineteenth century, including the controversial ‘sale’ by the British ofpredominantly Muslim Kashmir to a Hindu ruler. She examines the implications for thepeople when in 1947 the Maharaja chose secular, yet majority Hindu, India over Muslim Pakistan and shows why the neighbouring countries continue to argue over the status ofJammu and Kashmir which, according to recommendations passed by the UN, was to bedetermined by the will of the people. Drawing upon research in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, Pakistan, and a range ofhistorical sources, Schofield analyses critically the actions of the key players who, throughoutits history, have contributed to the current militarisation of the valley. And with the help ofnumerous interviews she takes into account the hopes and fears of all the interested parties – Pakistan, India and the people of Jammu and Kashmir who are themselves divided, not onlyby their linguistic and cultural traditions, but also in their objectives.

Living in the Crossfire

Favela Residents, Drug Dealers, and Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro
Author: Maria Alves,Philip Evanson
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 1439900051
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 5957
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Communities organizing to end Brazil's urban war on drugs

Language, Power and Pedagogy

Bilingual Children in the Crossfire
Author: Jim Cummins
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1853594741
Category: Education
Page: 309
View: 6278
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Population mobility is at an all-time high in human history. One result of this unprecedented movement of peoples around the world is that in many school systems monolingual and monocultural students are the exception rather than the rule, particularly in urban areas. This shift in demographic realities entails enormous challenges for educators and policy-makers. What do teachers need to know in order to teach effectively in linguistically and culturally diverse contexts? How long does it take second language learners to acquire proficiency in the language of school instruction? What are the differences between attaining conversational fluency in everyday contexts and developing proficiency in the language registers required for academic success? What adjustments do we need to make in curriculum, instruction and assessment to ensure that second-language learners understand what is being taught and are assessed in a fair and equitable manner? How long do we need to wait before including second-language learners in high-stakes national examinations and assessments? What role (if any) should be accorded students’ first language in the curriculum? Do bilingual education programs work well for poor children from minority-language backgrounds or should they be reserved only for middle-class children from the majority or dominant group? In addressing these issues, this volume focuses not only on issues of language learning and teaching but also highlights the ways in which power relations in the wider society affect patterns of teacher–student interaction in the classroom. Effective instruction will inevitably challenge patterns of coercive power relations in both school and society.

Major problems in American history since 1945

documents and essays
Author: Robert Griffith,Paula C. Baker
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin College Div
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 543
View: 2010
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Designed to encourage critical thinking about history, the Major Problems series introduces students to both primary sources and analytical essays on important topics in U.S. history. This reader serves as the primary anthology for the introductory survey course, covering the subject's entire chronological span. Comprehensive topical coverage includes the Cold War, the cultural and political movements of the 60s, the return of conservatism, life in the new information age, and race and ethnicity. In the Third Edition, greater emphasis is placed on social and cultural history, and a new chapter focuses on 9/11, the war on terror, and the war in Iraq. Key pedagogical elements of the Major Problems format have been retained: 14–15 chapters per volume, chapter introductions, headnotes, and suggested readings. New! A new chapter on democracy and civic life in the age of information considers the roles of media, cyberspace, and spin in the American political landscape from the 90s to the present. New! Coverage of race and ethnicity over the past ten years is highlighted in a new chapter. New! A new chapter on the economy of the 1990s examines shifting markets and socioeconomic groups, as well as the effects of technology on business during the economic boom at the end of the twentieth century.

Jordan

Living in the Crossfire
Author: Alan George
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 184813715X
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 5067
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Jordan has played a bigger role in Middle Eastern affairs than its size and economy might warrant, due to its huge Palestinian population, its strategic location between Israel, the West Bank, Syria and Iraq, and its uniquely close relationship with successive British and US administrations. Drawing on numerous visits to the country and interviews with a diversity of people from King Abdullah down, Alan George describes how its reasonably stable monarchical system, unlike that in most Arab countries, has allowed the halting development of civil society and maintained control through the skilful co-option of opponents rather than heavy-handed reliance on its secret police. What is daily life like? How do its parliamentary system and political parties work? How free are the media? What are the future prospects of this buffer 'state without a nation'?

Us versus Them

The United States, Radical Islam, and the Rise of the Green Threat
Author: Douglas Little
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 1469626810
Category: History
Page: 328
View: 6246
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In this important new book, Douglas Little explores the political and cultural turmoil that led U.S. policy makers to shift their attention from containing the "Red Threat" of international communism to combating the "Green Threat" of radical Islam after 1989. Little analyzes America's confrontation with Islamic extremism through the traditional ideological framework of "us versus them" that has historically pitted the United States against Native Americans, Mexicans, Asian immigrants, Nazis, and the Soviets. The collapse of the Soviet Union seemed to signal that the doctrine of containment had served U.S. interests in the Middle East well, preserving Western access to Persian Gulf oil while protecting Israel and preventing communist subversion. Yet, although many Americans hoped that the end of the Cold War would enable the United States to redefine its diplomatic relationships in the Middle East and elsewhere, Little demonstrates that from Operation Desert Storm in 1991 to America's battle against ISIS today, U.S. foreign policy has been governed by "us versus them" thinking, with Islamophobia supplanting the threats of yesteryear.

Ukraine in the Crossfire


Author: Chris Kaspar De Ploeg
Publisher: SCB Distributors
ISBN: 099789654X
Category: HISTORY
Page: 353
View: 2778
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"Ukraine in the Crossfire tackles the importance of ultranationalist violence during and after the EuroMaidan movement, and documents how many of these groups are heirs to former Nazi-collaborators. It shows how the Ukrainian state has seized on the ultranationalist war-rhetoric to serve its own agenda, clamping down on civil liberties on a scale unprecedented since Ukrainian independence. De Ploeg argues that Kiev itself has been the biggest obstacle to peace in Donbass, with multiple leaks suggesting that Washington is using its financial leverage to push a pro-war line in Ukraine. With the nation's eyes turned towards Russia, the EU and IMF have successfully pressured Ukraine into adopting far-reaching austerity programs, while oligarchic looting of state assets and massive tax-avoidance facilitated by Western states continue unabated. De Ploeg documents the local roots of the Donbass rebellion, the overwhelming popularity of Crimea's secession, and shows that support for Ukraine's pro-western turn remains far from unanimous, with large swathes of Ukraine's Russophone population opting out of the political process. Nevertheless, De Ploeg argues, the pro-Western and pro-Russian camps are often similar: neoliberal, authoritarian, nationalist and heavily dependent on foreign support. In a wider exploration of Russo-Western relations, he examines similarities between the contemporary Russian state and its NATO counterparts, showing how the two power blocs have collaborated in some of their worst violent excesses. A far cry from civilizational or ideological clashes, De Ploeg argues that the current tensions flow from NATO's military dominance and aggressive posture, both globally and within post-Soviet space, where Russia seeks to defend the status-quo"--Provided by publisher.

Resisting Rebellion

The History and Politics of Counterinsurgency
Author: Anthony James Joes
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
ISBN: 9780813191706
Category: History
Page: 351
View: 9553
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In Resisting Rebellion, Anthony James Joes explores insurgencies ranging across five continents and spanning more than two centuries. Analyzing examples from North and South America, Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, he identifies recurrent patterns and offers useful lessons for future policymakers. Insurgencies arise from many sources of discontent, including foreign occupation, fraudulent elections, and religious persecution, but they also stem from ethnic hostilities, the aspirations of would-be elites, and traditions of political violence. Because insurgency is as much a political phenomenon as a military one, effective counterinsurgency requires a thorough understanding of the insurgents' motives and sources of support. Clear political aims must guide military action if a counterinsurgency is to be successful and prepare a lasting reconciliation within a deeply fragmented society. The most successful counterinsurgency campaign undertaken by the United States was the one against Philippine insurgents following the Spanish-American War. But even more instructive than successful counterinsurgencies are the persistent patterns of errors revealed by Joes's comparative study. Instances include the indiscriminate destructiveness displayed by the Japanese in China and the Soviets in Afghanistan, and the torture of suspected Muslim terrorists by members of the French Army in Algeria. Joes's comprehensive twofold approach to counterinsurgency is easily applied to the U.S. The first element, developing the strategic basis for victory, emphasizes creating a peaceful path to the redress of legitimate grievances, committing sufficient troops to the counterinsurgent operation, and isolating the conflict area from outside aid. The second element aims at marginalizing the insurgents and includes fair conduct toward civilians and prisoners, systematic intelligence gathering, depriving insurgents of weapons and food, separating insurgent leaders from their followers, and offering amnesty to all but the most incorrigible. Providing valuable insights into a world of conflict, Resisting Rebellion is a thorough and readable exploration of successes and failures in counterinsurgency's long history and a strategy for the future.

Crossfire


Author: Dick Francis,Felix Francis
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1101442441
Category: Fiction
Page: 448
View: 4186
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Shell-shocked after losing a foot during his tour in Afghanistan, Captain Tom Forsyth returns to his estranged mother's house. His mother has always put horses first and family last. But now she's being blackmailed for a hefty sum every week and being forced to make her horses lose. Using the skills he honed in the military, Tom sets out to find and defeat a hidden enemy before his mother's reputation is ruined, and he ends up back in the crossfire.

Foreign Aid as Foreign Policy

The Alliance for Progress in Latin America
Author: Jeffrey Taffet
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135867879
Category: History
Page: 328
View: 4688
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Foreign Aid as Foreign Policy presents a wide-ranging, thoughtful analysis of the most significant economic-aid program of the 1960s, John F. Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress. Introduced in 1961, the program was a ten-year, multi-billion-dollar foreign-aid commitment to Latin American nations, meant to help promote economic growth and political reform, with the long-term goal of countering Communism in the region. Considering the Alliance for Progress in Chile, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Colombia, Jeffrey F. Taffet deftly examines the program’s successes and failures, providing an in-depth discussion of economic aid and foreign policy, showing how policies set in the 1960s are still affecting how the U.S. conducts foreign policy today. This study adds an important chapter to the history of US-Latin American Relations.

America's Half-Century

United States Foreign Policy in the Cold War and After
Author: Thomas J. McCormick
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801850110
Category: History
Page: 291
View: 1217
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"Incisive, eminently readable... McCormick reminds his readers of the unfashionable truths of our time: American domination of the postwar order, the weakness and conservatism of the Soviet Union, the gratuitousness of the nuclear arms race." -- The Nation

America Divided

The Civil War of the 1960s
Author: Maurice Isserman,Michael Kazin
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195091906
Category: History
Page: 358
View: 7358
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Explores the tumultuous decade in American history, covering such topics as civil rights, Vietnam, the assasination of Martin Luther King Jr. and Bobby Kennedy, the war on poverty, marijuana usage, and the policies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon.

Frontline Ukraine

Crisis in the Borderlands
Author: Richard Sakwa
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857738046
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 2482
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The unfolding crisis in Ukraine has brought the world to the brink of a new Cold War. As Russia and Ukraine tussle for Crimea and the eastern regions, relations between Putin and the West have reached an all-time low. How did we get here? Richard Sakwa here unpicks the context of conflicted Ukrainian identity and of Russo-Ukrainian relations and traces the path to the recent disturbances through the events which have forced Ukraine, a country internally divided between East and West, to choose between closer union with Europe or its historic ties with Russia. In providing the first full account of the ongoing crisis, Sakwa analyses the origins and significance of the Euromaidan Protests, examines the controversial Russian military intervention and annexation of Crimea, reveals the extent of the catastrophe of the MH17 disaster and looks at possible ways forward following the October 2014 parliamentary elections. In doing so, he explains the origins, developments and global significance of the internal and external battle for Ukraine. With all eyes focused on the region, Sakwa unravels the myths and misunderstandings of the situation, providing an essential and highly readable account of the struggle for Europe's contested borderlands.