Crisis and Crossfire

The United States and the Middle East Since 1945
Author: Peter L. Hahn
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1597973475
Category: Political Science
Page: 244
View: 6747
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Although it seems almost incredible today, the United States had relatively little interest in the Middle East before 1945. But the dynamics and outcome of World War II elevated the importance of the Middle East in the American mind, and the United States has viewed the region with vital interest to its security and economy ever since. The projection of American power into the region has had consequences that have forever changed the United States and the Middle East, with the rise of al Qaeda and the turbulent occupation of Iraq being the latest examples. Crisis and Crossfire surveys and analyzes the broad contours of U.S. involvement in the region. It probes the reasons why the United States implemented various policies and assesses the wisdom of American leaders as they accepted greater responsibilities for preserving stability and security in the Middle East. Major themes include U.S.-Middle East policy in the context of the Cold War, the rise of Arab and Iranian nationalism, decolonization, the U.S. approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict, the politics of Western dependence on Middle Eastern oil, and America's military interventions, particularly its two wars against Iraq. This book's concise narrative and selection of primary-source documents make it an ideal introduction to U.S.-Middle East relations for students and for anyone with an interest in understanding the history behind today's events.

FDR and the End of Empire

The Origins of American Power in the Middle East
Author: C. O'Sullivan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137025255
Category: History
Page: 208
View: 1557
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Based upon extensive archival research in Great Britain, the United States, and the Middle East, including sources never previously utilized such as declassified intelligence records, postwar planning documents, and the personal papers of key officials, this is painstakingly researched account of the origins of American involvement in the Middle East during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It explores the effort to challenge British and French power, and the building of new relationships with Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the Levant states. It also reveals new and controversial discoveries about Roosevelt's views on Palestine, his relations with Middle East leaders, and his often bitter conflicts with Churchill and de Gaulle over European imperialism. Modern-day parallels make this story compelling for followers of current events, World War II, Franklin Roosevelt, the Middle East, or British imperialism.

War on Sacred Grounds


Author: Ron E. Hassner
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801460401
Category: Political Science
Page: 248
View: 3415
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Sacred sites offer believers the possibility of communing with the divine and achieving deeper insight into their faith. Yet their spiritual and cultural importance can lead to competition as religious groups seek to exclude rivals from practicing potentially sacrilegious rituals in the hallowed space and wish to assert their own claims. Holy places thus create the potential for military, theological, or political clashes, not only between competing religious groups but also between religious groups and secular actors. In War on Sacred Grounds, Ron E. Hassner investigates the causes and properties of conflicts over sites that are both venerated and contested; he also proposes potential means for managing these disputes. Hassner illustrates a complex and poorly understood political dilemma with accounts of the failures to reach settlement at Temple Mount/Haram el-Sharif, leading to the clashes of 2000, and the competing claims of Hindus and Muslims at Ayodhya, which resulted in the destruction of the mosque there in 1992. He also addresses more successful compromises in Jerusalem in 1967 and Mecca in 1979. Sacred sites, he contends, are particularly prone to conflict because they provide valuable resources for both religious and political actors yet cannot be divided. The management of conflicts over sacred sites requires cooperation, Hassner suggests, between political leaders interested in promoting conflict resolution and religious leaders who can shape the meaning and value that sacred places hold for believers. Because a reconfiguration of sacred space requires a confluence of political will, religious authority, and a window of opportunity, it is relatively rare. Drawing on the study of religion and the study of politics in equal measure, Hassner's account offers insight into the often-violent dynamics that come into play at the places where religion and politics collide.

Crisis and Disaster Counseling

Lessons Learned From Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters
Author: Priscilla Dass-Brailsford
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 141296508X
Category: Psychology
Page: 263
View: 8595
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Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Katrina and Other Disasters is a core textbook that addresses crisis mental health by examining three major crises/disasters that have occurred in the last decade: Hurricane Katrina, Virginia Tech, and September 11. An overview of the disaster response field is highlighted by focusing on current theoretical perspectives which have provided a framework for culturally and ecologically appropriate interventions. Case studies in each chapter discuss evidence based practice approaches that show appropriate interventions. This book features a practical, skill-building approach.

Caught in the Crossfire

Revolutions, Repression, and the Rational Peasant
Author: Thomas David Mason
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742525399
Category: Social Science
Page: 317
View: 1160
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The puzzle of revolution in the Third World -- Theories of revolution : the evolution of the field -- Dependent development and the crisis of rural stability -- Mobilizing peasant social movements -- The response of the state : reform or repression? -- State repression and the escalation of revolutionary violence -- Win, lose, or draw : how civil wars end -- Reform, repression, and revolution in El Salvador -- Peruvian land reform the rise of Sendero Luminoso -- The future of revolutions in the countryside : globalization, democratization, and peacekeeping.

Caught in the Crossfire

Kids, Politics, and America's Future
Author: Lawrence Grossberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317262735
Category: Social Science
Page: 408
View: 1430
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Caught in the Crossfire reveals how the United States has been gradually changing from a society that celebrates childhood into one that is hostile to and afraid of its own children. Today kids are often seen as a threat to our social and moral values. In schools, some behavior is criminalized, and growing numbers of kids find themselves in penal and psychiatric confinement. This breakdown is often too readily attributed to bad parenting, the crisis of the family, or the greed of capitalism. Grossberg offers a new and original understanding of the changes transforming contemporary America, and of the choices Americans face about their future. He documents the relations between economic ideologies and economic realities and explores what is going on in the "culture wars" as well as on the Internet and other new media. Caught in the Crossfire argues that all of these changes and tn struggles, including those involving the state of kids, only make sense as integral parts of a larger transformation to define America's uniqueness and to develop its own sense of modern culture. Part of the Cultural Politics and the Promise of Democracy Series.

In the Crossfire

Marcus Foster and the Troubled History of American School Reform
Author: John P. Spencer
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812207661
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 312
View: 9704
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As media reports declare crisis after crisis in public education, Americans find themselves hotly debating educational inequalities that seem to violate their nation's ideals. Why does success in school track so closely with race and socioeconomic status? How to end these apparent achievement gaps? In the Crossfire brings historical perspective to these debates by tracing the life and work of Marcus Foster, an African American educator who struggled to reform urban schools in the 1960s and early 1970s. As a teacher, principal, and superintendent—first in his native Philadelphia and eventually in Oakland, California—Foster made success stories of urban schools and children whom others had dismissed as hopeless, only to be assassinated in 1973 by the previously unknown Symbionese Liberation Army in a bizarre protest against an allegedly racist school system. Foster's story encapsulates larger social changes in the decades after World War II: the great black migration from South to North, the civil rights movement, the decline of American cities, and the ever-increasing emphasis on education as a ticket to success. Well before the accountability agenda of the No Child Left Behind Act or the rise of charter schools, Americans came into sharp conflict over urban educational failure, with some blaming the schools and others pointing to conditions in homes and neighborhoods. By focusing on an educator who worked in the trenches and had a reputation for bridging divisions, In the Crossfire sheds new light on the continuing ideological debates over race, poverty, and achievement. Foster charted a course between the extremes of demanding too little and expecting too much of schools as agents of opportunity in America. He called for accountability not only from educators but also from families, taxpayers, and political and economic institutions. His effort to mobilize multiple constituencies was a key to his success—and a lesson for educators and policymakers who would take aim at achievement gaps without addressing the full range of school and nonschool factors that create them.

Russische Archive und Geschichtswissenschaft

Rechtsgrundlagen, Arbeitsbedingungen, Forschungsperspektiven
Author: Stefan Creuzberger,Rainer Lindner
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 425
View: 7120
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Papers presented at an international conference held in 2000.

Crossfire

Philosophy and the Novel in Spain, 1900-1934
Author: Roberta Johnson
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
ISBN: 0813149673
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 248
View: 7901
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The marriage of philosophy and fiction in the first third of Spain's twentieth century was a fertile one. It produced some truly notable offspring -- novels that cross genre boundaries to find innovative forms, and treatises that fuse literature and philosophy in new ways. In her illuminating interdisciplinary study of Spanish fiction of the "Silver Age," Roberta Johnson places this important body of Spanish literature in context through a synthesis of social, literary, and philosophical history. Her examination of the work of Miguel de Unamuno, Pio Baroja, Azorin, Ramon Perez de Ayala, Juan Ramon Jimenez, Gabriel Miro, Pedro Salinas, Rosa Chacel, and Benjamin Jarnes brings to light philosophical frictions and debates and opens new interpersonal and intertextual perspectives on many of the period's most canonical novels. Johnson reformulates the traditional discussion of generations and "isms" by viewing the period as an intergenerational complex in which writers with similar philosophical and personal interests constituted dynamic groupings that interacted and constantly defined and redefined one another. Current narratological theories, including those of Todorov, Genette, Bakhtin, and Martinez Bonati, assist in teasing out the intertextual maneuvers and philosophical conflicts embedded in the novels of the period, while the sociological and biographical material bridges the philosophical and literary analyses. The result, solidly grounded in original archival research, is a convincingly complete picture of Spain's intellectual world in the first thirty years of this century. Crossfire should revolutionize thinking about the Generation of '98 and the Generation of '14 by identifying the heterogeneous philosophical sources of each and the writers' reactions to them in fiction.

Composition in the Twenty-First Century

Crisis and Change
Author: Lynn Z. Bloom,Donald A. Daiker,Edward M. White
Publisher: SIU Press
ISBN: 9780809321285
Category: Education
Page: 306
View: 9294
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The essays in this book, stemming from a national conference of the same name, focus on the single subject required of nearly all college students--composition. Despite its pervasiveness and its significance, composition has an unstable status within the curriculum. Writing programs and writing faculty are besieged by academic, political, and financial concerns that have not been well understood or addressed. At many institutions, composition functions paradoxically as both the gateway to academic success and as the gatekeeper, reducing access to academic work and opportunity for those with limited facility in English. Although writing programs are expected to provide services that range from instruction in correct grammar to assisting--or resisting--political correctness, expanding programs and shrinking faculty get caught in the crossfire. The bottom line becomes the firing line as forces outside the classroom determine funding and seek to define what composition should do. In search of that definition, the contributors ask and answer a series of specific and salient questions: What implications--intellectual, political, and institutional--will forces outside the classroom have on the quality and delivery of composition in the twenty-first century? How will faculty and administrators identify and address these issues? What policies and practices ought we propose for the century to come? This book features sixteen position papers by distinguished scholars and researchers in composition and rhetoric; most of the papers are followed by invited responses by other notable compositionists. In all, twenty-five contributors approach composition from a wide variety of contemporary perspectives: rhetorical, historical, social, cultural, political, intellectual, economic, structural, administrative, and developmental. They propose solutions applicable to pedagogy, research, graduate training of composition teachers, academic administration, and public and social policy. In a very real sense, then, this is the only book to offer a map to the future of composition.

Language, Power and Pedagogy

Bilingual Children in the Crossfire
Author: Prof. Jim Cummins
Publisher: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1847698441
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 345
View: 5145
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Population mobility is at an all-time high in human history. One result of this unprecedented movement of peoples around the world is that in many school systems monolingual and monocultural students are the exception rather than the rule, particularly in urban areas. This shift in demographic realities entails enormous challenges for educators and policy-makers. What do teachers need to know in order to teach effectively in linguistically and culturally diverse contexts? How long does it take second language learners to acquire proficiency in the language of school instruction? What are the differences between attaining conversational fluency in everyday contexts and developing proficiency in the language registers required for academic success? What adjustments do we need to make in curriculum, instruction and assessment to ensure that second-language learners understand what is being taught and are assessed in a fair and equitable manner? How long do we need to wait before including second-language learners in high-stakes national examinations and assessments? What role (if any) should be accorded students’ first language in the curriculum? Do bilingual education programs work well for poor children from minority-language backgrounds or should they be reserved only for middle-class children from the majority or dominant group? In addressing these issues, this volume focuses not only on issues of language learning and teaching but also highlights the ways in which power relations in the wider society affect patterns of teacher–student interaction in the classroom. Effective instruction will inevitably challenge patterns of coercive power relations in both school and society.

Darfur and the Crisis of Governance in Sudan

A Critical Reader
Author: Carina E. Ray
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801475948
Category: History
Page: 528
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A diverse group of academics, activists, officials and rebels contribute chapters about different aspects of conflict in the western Sudanese region of Darfur. These chapters discuss the origins and evolution of the conflict, the various ways in which the conflict has been understood and misperceived (both locally and internationally), the profoundly gendered nature of the conflict, the status of those involved with regard to the Sudanese and international law, and the ongoing struggle for peace in the region. A substantial appendix reproduces UN, ICC, and (many for the first time in English translation) Arabic-language documents to trace the history of the conflict. The book also includes a chronology of major events in Sudan.

Living in the Crossfire

Favela Residents, Drug Dealers, and Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro
Author: Maria Alves,Philip Evanson
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 1439900051
Category: History
Page: 240
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Communities organizing to end Brazil's urban war on drugs

Women and Fluid Identities

Strategic and Practical Pathways Selected by Women
Author: Haleh Afshar
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 0230314090
Category: Political Science
Page: 195
View: 8926
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This book argues that it is the fluidity of women's identities that enables them to bridge the gender divides and roles ascribed to them by society and culture with those that they have chosen for themselves whilst retaining a sense of their self.

Law and Order

Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s
Author: Michael W. Flamm
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231509723
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 5862
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Law and Order offers a valuable new study of the political and social history of the 1960s. It presents a sophisticated account of how the issues of street crime and civil unrest enhanced the popularity of conservatives, eroded the credibility of liberals, and transformed the landscape of American politics. Ultimately, the legacy of law and order was a political world in which the grand ambitions of the Great Society gave way to grim expectations. In the mid-1960s, amid a pervasive sense that American society was coming apart at the seams, a new issue known as law and order emerged at the forefront of national politics. First introduced by Barry Goldwater in his ill-fated run for president in 1964, it eventually punished Lyndon Johnson and the Democrats and propelled Richard Nixon and the Republicans to the White House in 1968. In this thought-provoking study, Michael Flamm examines how conservatives successfully blamed liberals for the rapid rise in street crime and then skillfully used law and order to link the understandable fears of white voters to growing unease about changing moral values, the civil rights movement, urban disorder, and antiwar protests. Flamm documents how conservatives constructed a persuasive message that argued that the civil rights movement had contributed to racial unrest and the Great Society had rewarded rather than punished the perpetrators of violence. The president should, conservatives also contended, promote respect for law and order and contempt for those who violated it, regardless of cause. Liberals, Flamm argues, were by contrast unable to craft a compelling message for anxious voters. Instead, liberals either ignored the crime crisis, claimed that law and order was a racist ruse, or maintained that social programs would solve the "root causes" of civil disorder, which by 1968 seemed increasingly unlikely and contributed to a loss of faith in the ability of the government to do what it was above all sworn to do-protect personal security and private property.

Critical Race, Feminism, and Education

A Social Justice Model
Author: M. Pratt-Clarke
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230115373
Category: Education
Page: 206
View: 9300
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Critical Race, Feminism, and Education provides a transformative next step in the evolution of critical race and Black feminist scholarship. Focusing on praxis, the relationship between the construction of race, class, and gender categories and social justice outcomes is analyzed. An applied transdisciplinary model - integrating law, sociology, history, and social movement theory - demonstrates how marginalized groups are oppressed by ideologies of power and privilege in the legal system, the education system, and the media. Pratt-Clarke documents the effects of racism, patriarchy, classism, and nationalism on Black females and males in the single-sex school debate.

American Orientalism

The United States and the Middle East Since 1945
Author: Douglas Little
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860648892
Category: Arab-Israeli conflict
Page: 407
View: 6561
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Terror, wars and the deepest mistrust have defined US relations with the Middle East. Why have relations between these two regions been so difficult? What needs to change? This work provides a complete history of the impassioned love-hate relationship between America and the Middle East.

The Genius and the Goddess

Arthur Miller and Marilyn Monroe
Author: Jeffrey Meyers
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252078543
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 345
View: 3510
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The 1956 wedding of Marilyn Monroe and Arthur Miller surprised the world. The Genius and the Goddess presents an intimate portrait of the prelude to and ultimate tragedy of their short marriage. Distinguished biographer Jeffrey Meyers skillfully explores why they married, what sustained them for five years, and what ultimately destroyed their marriage and her life. The greatest American playwright of the twentieth century and the most popular American actress both complemented and wounded one another. Marilyn craved attention and success but became dependent on drugs, alcohol, and sexual adventures. Miller experienced creative agony with her. Their marriage coincided with the creative peak of her career, yet private and public conflict caused both of them great anguish. Meyers has crafted a richly nuanced dual biography based on his quarter-century friendship with Miller, interviews with major players of stage and screen during the postwar Hollywood era, and extensive archival research. He describes their secret courtship. He also reveals new information about the effect of the HUAC anti-Communist witch-hunts on Miller and his friendship with Elia Kazan. The fascinating cast of characters includes Marilyn's co-stars Sir Laurence Olivier, Yves Montand, Montgomery Clift, and Clark Gable; her leading directors John Huston, Billy Wilder, and George Cukor; and her literary friends Dame Edith Sitwell, Isak Dinesen, Saul Bellow, and Vladimir Nabokov. Meyers offers the most in-depth account of the making and meaning of The Misfits. Written by Miller for Monroe, this now-classic film was a personal disaster. But Marilyn remained Miller's tragic muse and her character, exalted and tormented, lived on for the next forty years in his work.

Jordan

Living in the Crossfire
Author: Alan George
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 184813715X
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 5317
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Jordan has played a bigger role in Middle Eastern affairs than its size and economy might warrant, due to its huge Palestinian population, its strategic location between Israel, the West Bank, Syria and Iraq, and its uniquely close relationship with successive British and US administrations. Drawing on numerous visits to the country and interviews with a diversity of people from King Abdullah down, Alan George describes how its reasonably stable monarchical system, unlike that in most Arab countries, has allowed the halting development of civil society and maintained control through the skilful co-option of opponents rather than heavy-handed reliance on its secret police. What is daily life like? How do its parliamentary system and political parties work? How free are the media? What are the future prospects of this buffer 'state without a nation'?