Cryocoolers ...

A Publication of the International Cryocooler Conference
Author: Ronald G. Ross
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: N.A
View: 5034
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Cryocoolers 9


Author: Ronald G.Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461558697
Category: Science
Page: 967
View: 7677
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Proceedings of the 9th International Conference held in Waterville Valley, New Hampshire, June 25-27, 1996

Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference/International Cryogenic Materials Conference


Author: T. Haruyama,T. Mitsui,K. Yamafuji
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080539751
Category: Science
Page: 766
View: 1611
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This book contains the proceedings of the 16th ICEC/ICMC Conference, held in Kitakyushu, Japan, on 20th-24th May 1996. The Proceedings are presented in three volumes containing a total of 476 papers from 1484 authors. The proceedings covers the main areas of: Large Scale Refrigeration. Cryocoolers. Cryogenic Engineering. Space Cryogenics. Application of Superconductivity. Oxide Superconductors. Metallic Superconductors. Metallic Materials. Non Metallic Materials. In addition there are seven Plenary Lectures covering such diverse topics as commercialization of high-Tc superconductors, the continuing development of the Maglev system in Japan, and the Large Hadron Collider project. The Proceedings comprise an excellent and up-to-date summary of research and development in the fields of Cryogenics and Superconductivity.

Cryocoolers 11


Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306471124
Category: Science
Page: 825
View: 9667
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Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, this valuable collection reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.

Cryocoolers 12


Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306479192
Category: Science
Page: 825
View: 7603
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The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. One class of pulse tubes that has reached maturity is referred to as “Stirling type” because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide cooling in the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate at frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. The other type of pulse tube cooler making great advances is the so-called “Gifford-McMahon type. ” Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. Nearly a third of this proceedings covers these new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tubes is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials and Gifford-McMahon coolers. These technologies continue to make great progress in opening up the 2 - 4 K market. Also in the commercial sector, continued interest is being shown in the development of long-life, low-cost cryocoolers for the emerging high temperature superconductor electronics market, particularly the cellular telephone base-station market. At higher temperature levels, closed-cycle J-T or throttle-cycle refrigerators are taking advantage of mixed refrigerant gases to achieve low-cost cryocooler systems in the 65 to 80 K temperature range.

Stirling and Pulse-tube Cryo-coolers


Author: Allan J. Organ
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781860584619
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 448
View: 4981
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Modern technology calls increasingly for provision of cooling at cryogenic temperatures: super-conductivity research; imaging equipment for search-and-rescue; contemporary diagnostic medicine (MRI – magnetic resonance imaging); space exploration; advanced computer hardware; military defence systems. Where it is desirable to generate the cooling effect close to the point of heat removal, electrically powered Stirling and pulse-tube machines offer advantages over traditional, passive systems (Leidenfrost and Joule-Thomson). Until now there has been no agreed approach to the thermodynamic design of either type. In particular, the choice of regenerator packing has remained a matter for time-consuming – and thus expensive – trial-and-error development. There has been no way of knowing whether an existing ‘fully developed’ unit is performing to the limit of its thermodynamic potential. Stirling and Pulse-tube Cryo-coolers addresses these problems. Features include: An ideal cycle for the pulse-tube yielding heat, mass-flow and work; Previously unseen phenomena of real gas behaviour; Pictorial reliefs of pressure wave interactions; Multiple wave reflections in graphic perspective First solution of the ‘regenerator problem ‘ by a full, unsteady gas dynamics treatment; First ever depiction of pulse-tube boundary-layer events (heat conduction, ‘streaming’) driven by interacting left-and right-running pressure waves First analysis of the graded regenerator and optimisation of gas path design; Embryonic ‘cook-book’ method of ab initio cooler design based on dynamic similarity and thermodynamic scaling. Stirling and Pulse-tube Cryo-coolers raises the threshold from which first-principles design of regenerative cryo-coolers may start. Those wishing to extend their study of the subject beyond the well-trodden, ideal gas/quasi-steady-state rationalisations will require this book.

Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling

Principles and Practice
Author: Ben-Zion Maytal,John M. Pfotenhauer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 144198285X
Category: Science
Page: 382
View: 8593
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This book is the first in English being entirely dedicated to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. The category of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us back to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of these cryocoolers is compact, lacks moving parts, and sustains a large heat flux extraction at a steady temperature. Potentially, they cool down unbeatably fast. For example, cooling to below 100 K (minus 173 Celsius) might be accomplished within only a few seconds by liquefying argon. A level of about 120 K can be reached almost instantly with krypton. Indeed, the species of coolant plays a central role dictating the size, the intensity and the level of cryocooling. It is the JT effect that drives these cryocoolers and reflects the deviation of the "real" gas from the ideal gas properties. The nine chapters of the book are arranged in five parts. •The Common Principle of Cyrocoolers shared across the broad variety of cryocooler types •Theoretical Aspects: the JT effect and its inversion, cooling potential of coolants, the liquefaction process, sizing of heat exchangers, level of pressurization, discharge of pressure vessels • Practical Aspects: modes of operation (fast cooldown, continuous, multi-staging, hybrid cryocoolers), pressure sources, configuration, construction and technologies, flow adjustment, MEMS, open and closed cycle, cooldown process and similarity, transient behavior • Mixed Coolant cryocooling: theory, practice and applications • Special Topics: real gas choked flow rates, gas purity, clog formation, optimal fixed orifice, modeling, cryosurgical devices, warming by the inverse JT effect The theoretical aspects may be of interest not only to those working with cryocoolers but also for others with a general interest in "real" gas thermodynamics, such as, for example, the inversion of the JT effect in its differential and integral forms, and the exceptional behavior of the quantum gases. A detailed list of references for each chapter comprises a broad literature survey. It consists of more than 1,200 relevant publications and 450 related patents. The systematically organized content, arranged under a thorough hierarchy of headings, supported by 227 figures and 41 tables, and accompanied by various chronological notes of evolution, enables readers a friendly interaction with the book. Dr. Ben-Zion Maytal is a Senior Researcher at Rafael-Advanced Defense Systems, Ltd., and an Adjunct Senior Teaching Fellow at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. Prof. John M. Pfotenhauer holds a joint appointment in the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Physics at the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

Cryocoolers

Part 2: Applications
Author: Graham Walker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468444301
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 7577
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The rapidly expanding use of very low temperatures in research and high technology during the last several decades and the concurrent high degree of activity in cryogenic engineering have mutually supported each other, each improvement in refrigeration technique making possible wider oppor tunities for research and each new scientific discovery creating a need for a refrigerator with special features. In this book, Professor Walker has provided us with an excellent exposition of the achievements of this period, the fundamental principles involved, and a critical examination of the many different cryogenic systems which have led to a new era of low-level refrigeration. I feel fortunate to have had a part in the developments discussed in this book. During the early 1930s I constructed several rotary engines using leather vanes. Their performance was not good, but I was able to liquefy air. I had been impressed by the usefulness of leather cups in tire pumps and in Claude-type engines for air liquefaction. I was trying to find a way to avoid that part of the friction generated by a leather cup as a result of the radial force of the working gas on the cylindrical part of the cup. During the 1950s I built two efficient helium liquefiers in which essentially leather pistons were used.

Cryocoolers 13


Author: Ronald G. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387275339
Category: Science
Page: 726
View: 9714
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The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. New this year are papers de scribing the development of very large pulse tube cryocoolers to provide up to 1500 watts of cooling for industrial applications such as cooling the superconducting magnets of Mag-lev trains, coolmg superconducting cables for the power mdustry, and liquefymg natural gas. Pulse tube coolers can be driven by several competing compressor technologies. One class of pulse tube coolers is referred to as "Stirling type" because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide coolmg m the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate ^t frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. A second type of pulse tube cooler is the so-called "Gifford-McMahon type. " Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation (~1 Hz) to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. The third type of pulse tube cooler is driven by a thermoacoustic oscillator, a heat engine that functions well in remote environments where electricity is not readily available. All three types are described, and in total, nearly half of this proceedings covers new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tube and Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials.

Cryocoolers: Fundamentals


Author: Graham Walker
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
ISBN: 9780306407154
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 365
View: 2081
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Cryogenic Technology and Applications


Author: A.R. Jha
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080457975
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 1253
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Cryogenic Technology and Applications describes the need for smaller cryo-coolers as a result of the advances in the miniaturization of electrical and optical devices and the need for cooling and conducting efficiency. Cryogenic technology deals with materials at low temperatures and the physics of their behavior at these temps. The book demonstrates the ongoing new applications being discovered for cryo-cooled electrical and optical sensors and devices, with particular emphasis on high-end commercial applications in medical and scientific fields as well as in the aerospace and military industries. This book summarizes the important aspects of cryogenic technology critical to the design and development of refrigerators, cryo-coolers, and micro-coolers needed by various commercial, industrial, space and military systems. Cryogenic cooling plays an important role in unmanned aerial vehicle systems, infrared search and track sensors, missile warning receivers, satellite tracking systems, and a host of other commercial and military systems. * Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology * Includes the latest information on micro-coolers for military and space applications * Offers detailed information on high-capacity cryogenic refrigerator systems used in applications such as food storage, high-power microwave and laser sensors, medical diagnostics, and infrared detectors

Physics of Cryogenics

An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon
Author: Bahman Zohuri
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 012814520X
Category: Science
Page: 726
View: 6924
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Physics of Cryogenics: An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon discusses the significant number of advances that have been made during the last few years in a variety of cryocoolers, such as Brayton, Joule-Thomson, Stirling, pulse tube, Gifford-McMahon and magnetic refrigerators. The book reviews various approaches taken to improve reliability, a major driving force for new research areas. The advantages and disadvantages of different cycles are compared, and the latest improvements in each of these cryocoolers is discussed. The book starts with the thermodynamic fundamentals, followed by the definition of cryogenic and the associated science behind low temperature phenomena and properties. This book is an ideal resource for scientists, engineers and graduate and senior undergraduate students who need a better understanding of the science of cryogenics and related thermodynamics. Defines the fundamentals of thermodynamics that are associated with cryogenic processes Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology Includes new, low temperature tables written by the author Deals with the application of cryogenics to preserve objects at very low temperature Explains how cryogenic phenomena work for human cell and human body preservations and new medical approaches

Proceedings of the Twentieth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC20)


Author: Liang Zhang
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080480398
Category: Science
Page: 1092
View: 2130
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Proceedings of the 20th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference

Low Temperature Electronics

Physics, Devices, Circuits, and Applications
Author: Edmundo A. Gutierrez-D,Jamal Deen,Cor Claeys
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080510507
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 964
View: 6373
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Low Temperature Electronics: Physics, Devices, Circuits, and Applications summarizes the recent advances in cryoelectronics starting from the fundamentals in physics and semiconductor devices to electronic systems, hybrid superconductor-semiconductor technologies, photonic devices, cryocoolers and thermal management. Furthermore, this book provides an exploration of the currently available theory, research, and technologies related to cryoelectronics, including treatment of the solid state physical properties of the materials used in these systems. Current applications are found in infrared systems, satellite communications and medical equipment. There are opportunities to expand in newer fields such as wireless and mobile communications, computers, and measurement and scientific equipment. Low temperature operations can offer certain advantages such as higher operational speeds, lower power dissipation, shorter signal transmission times, higher semiconductor and metal thermal conductivities, and improved digital and analog circuit performance. The computer, telecommunication, and cellular phone market is pushing the semiconductor industry towards the development of very aggressive device and integrated circuit fabrication technologies. This is taking these technologies towards the physical miniaturization limit, where quantum effects and fabrication costs are becoming a technological and economical barrier for further development. In view of these limitations, operation of semiconductor devices and circuits at low temperature (cryogenic temperature) is studied in this book. * It is a book intended for a wide audience: students, scientists, technology development engineers, private companies, universities, etc. * It contains information which is for the first time available as an all-in-one source; Interdisciplinary material is arranged and made compatible in this book * It is a must as reference source

Advances in Cryogenic Engineering


Author: Peter Kittel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461525225
Category: Science
Page: 1012
View: 9011
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The Albuquerque Convention Center was the venue for the 1993 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. The meeting was held jointly with the International Cryogenic Materials Conference. Walter F. Stewart, of Los Alamos National Laboratory, was conference chairman. Albuquerque is near Los Alamos National Laboratory which has been a significant contributor to the cryogenics community since the early days of the Manhattan Project. Albuquerque is also the home of the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory which has a lead role in developing cryocoolers. The program consisted of 322 CEC papers, more than a 30% increase from CEC-91 and 20% more than CEC-89. This was the largest number of papers ever submitted to the CEC. Of these, 249 papers are published here, in Volume 39 of Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. Once again the volume is published in two books. This volume includes a cumulative index for the CEC volumes from 1975-1993 (volumes 21,23,25,27,29,31,33,35,37, and 39 of Advances in Cryogenic Engineering). The first 20 volumes are indexed in Volume 20. A companion cumulative index for the ICMC volumes (volumes 22 through 40) appears in Volume 40. This is my first volume as editor. I would not have been able to have done it without the assistance of the many reviewers. Especially appreciated was the instruction manual left me by the previous editor, Ron Fast.

Low-capacity Cryogenic Refrigeration


Author: Graham Walker,Edward Reid Bingham
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198517603
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 302
View: 3677
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In the early 1980s, Graham Walker wrote his classic two-volume monograph Cryocoolers. Records show that sections of this work have been referenced more often and by more authors than any other cryogenic paper published in the mid-1980s. Nevertheless, the significant time lapse in so dynamic a field and Walker and Bingham's experience of teaching short courses has revealed the need for a more up-to-date book - one that is more compact, lower in cost, and embraces more topics. Low-capacity Cryogenic Refrigeration provides an elementary yet comprehensive introduction to the subject, with diverse applications in scientific, medical, educational, military, and civil systems. It is complementary to the earlier two-volume work, but covers a wider field and has a wealth of information about the new developments in the last fifteen years. In addition to descriptions of all the principal methods to achieve low-capacity cryogenic refrigeration, this new volume contains a valuableguide to the literature sources and references more advanced works.

Electronic Processes in Organic Electronics

Bridging Nanostructure, Electronic States and Device Properties
Author: Hisao Ishii,Kazuhiro Kudo,Takashi Nakayama,Nobuo Ueno
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431552065
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 5980
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The book covers a variety of studies of organic semiconductors, from fundamental electronic states to device applications, including theoretical studies. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques, e.g., ultrahigh sensitivity photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and a material processing method with optical-vortex and polarization-vortex lasers, are introduced. As this book is intended to serve as a textbook for a graduate level course or as reference material for researchers in organic electronics and nanoscience from electronic states, fundamental science that is necessary to understand the research is described. It does not duplicate the books already written on organic electronics, but focuses mainly on electronic properties that arise from the nature of organic semiconductors (molecular solids). The new experimental methods introduced in this book are applicable to various materials (e.g., metals, inorganic and organic materials). Thus the book is also useful for experts working in physics, chemistry, and related engineering and industrial fields.

Applications of Cryogenic Technology


Author: J. Patrick Kelley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475792328
Category: Science
Page: 332
View: 729
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Applications of Cryogenic Technology, Vol. 10, is the proceedings from the portion of the conference CRYO-90 sponsored by the Cryogenic Society of America (CSA). CRYO-90, held on the campus of the State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, was an unusual interdisciplinary event, drawing from the life sciences as well as the physical science and engineering areas of the low temperature community. Co-sponsoring CRYO-90 with CSA were the Society for Cryobiology and the Symposium on Invertebrate and Plant Cold Hardiness. These latter two organizations brought an exciting developing field to the conference, a field whose exploration will lead to the betterment of all mankind through improved cryosurgical and organ preservation techniques in addition to improved agricultural and herd yields under extreme conditions. Specific goals of the cryobiological community are cryopreservation, the arrest and recovery of living processes of cells, tissues and organs; and cryosurgery - the local cryodestruction of diseased cells while preserving the healthy surrounding tissue. These goals present great technological challenges. The technological requirements of the cryobiologist include the ability to cool tissues 6 at rates of 10 degrees per second (vitrification), to thaw frozen tissue without damaging the delicate cells, to freeze dry tissue using molecular distillation (vacuum) drying, to supercool cell structures below O°C without freezing, and to successfully store the preserved tissues and organs for any required length of time.

Cryogenic Engineering

Fifty Years of Progress
Author: Klaus D. Timmerhaus,Richard Reed
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 038746896X
Category: Science
Page: 374
View: 2218
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This is a benchmark reference work on Cryogenic Engineering which chronicles the major developments in the field. Starting with an historical background, this book reviews the development of data resources now available for cryogenic fields and properties of materials. It presents the latest changes in cryopreservation and the advances over the past 50 years. The book also highlights an exceptional reference listing to provide referral to more details.

Cryogenic Mixed Refrigerant Processes


Author: Gadhiraju Venkatarathnam
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387785141
Category: Science
Page: 262
View: 7541
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Most conventional cryogenic refrigerators and liquefiers operate with pure fluids, the major exception being natural gas liquefiers that use mixed refrigerant processes. The fundamental aspects of mixed refrigerant processes, though very innovative, have not received the due attention in open literature in view of commercial interests. Hundreds of patents exist on different aspects of mixed refrigerant processes. However, it is difficult to piece together the existing information to choose an appropriate process and an optimum composition or a given application. The aim of the book is to teach (a.) the need for refrigerant mixtures, (b.) the type of mixtures that can be used for different refrigeration and liquefaction applications, (c.) the different processes that can be used and (d.) the methods to be adopted for choosing the components of a mixture and their concentration for different applications.