Decolonization since 1945

The Collapse of European Overseas Empires
Author: John Springhall
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 1137234318
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 9433
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One of the most significant changes of the post-1945 world has been the decline and final dismemberment of European colonial empires in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Pacific and the Caribbean. In 1939, roughly a third of the world's entire population lived under colonial rule. At the end of the century, less than one per cent do so. In this study, each major European overseas colony, rather than being subject to chronological or thematic subdivision, receives separate, extensive and consecutive treatment.

Union Education in Nigeria

Labor, Empire, and Decolonization since 1945
Author: H. Tijani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137003596
Category: History
Page: 176
View: 2014
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This book aims to fill some of the gaps in historical narrative about labor unions, Nigerian leftists, and decolonization during the twentieth century. It emphasizes the significance of labor union education in British decolonization, labor unionism, and British efforts at modernizing the human resources of Nigeria.

Decolonisation

The British Experience since 1945
Author: Nicholas White
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317701801
Category: History
Page: 222
View: 1409
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This updated Seminar Study provides an overview of the process of British decolonisation. The eclipse of the British Empire has been one of the central features of post-war international history. At the end of the Second World War the empire still spanned the globe and yet by the mid-1960s most of Britain’s major dependencies had achieved independence. Concisely and accessibly, the book introduces students to this often dramatic story of colonial wars and emergencies, and fraught international relations. Although a relatively recent phenomenon, the end of the British Empire continues to spawn a lively and voluminous historical debate. Dr. White provides a synthesis of recent approaches, specially updated and expanded for this edition, by looking at the demise of British imperial power from three main perspectives the shifting emphases of British overseas policy the rise of populist, anti-colonial nationalism the international political, strategic, and economic environment dominated by the USA and the USSR. The book also examines the British experience within the context of European decolonisation as a whole. Supporting the text are a range of useful tools, including maps, a chronology of independence, a guide to the main characters involved, and an extensive bibliography (specially expanded for the new edition. Decolonisation: the British Experience since 1945 is ideal for students and interested readers at all levels, providing a diverse range of primary sources and the tools to unlock them.

War Crimes Trials in the Wake of Decolonization and Cold War in Asia, 1945-1956

Justice in Time of Turmoil
Author: Kerstin von Lingen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319429876
Category: History
Page: 290
View: 3784
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This book investigates the political context and intentions behind the trialling of Japanese war criminals in the wake of World War Two. After the Second World War in Asia, the victorious Allies placed around 5,700 Japanese on trial for war crimes. Ostensibly crafted to bring perpetrators to justice, the trials intersected in complex ways with the great issues of the day. They were meant to finish off the business of World War Two and to consolidate United States hegemony over Japan in the Pacific, but they lost impetus as Japan morphed into an ally of the West in the Cold War. Embattled colonial powers used the trials to bolster their authority against nationalist revolutionaries, but they found the principles of international humanitarian law were sharply at odds with the inequalities embodied in colonialism. Within nationalist movements, local enmities often overshadowed the reckoning with Japan. And hovering over the trials was the critical question: just what was justice for the Japanese in a world where all sides had committed atrocities?

European Colonialism Since 1700


Author: James R. Lehning
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521518709
Category: History
Page: 310
View: 7770
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This masterful synthesis provides a much-needed, complete survey of European colonialism from 1700 to decolonization in the twentieth century. Written by an award-winning author, this advanced undergraduate and graduate level textbook bridges, for the first time, the early modern Atlantic empires and the later Asian and African empires of 'high imperialism'. Viewing colonialism as a phenomenon of contact between Europe and the rest of the world, the author takes an 'entangled histories' approach, considering the surprising ways in which the imperial powers of Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, France and the Netherlands displayed their identities in colonial settings, as much as in their imperial capitals. The author illuminates for students the common themes of colonial government, economic development and cultural contact across empires, and reveals the ways in which these themes played out, through contrast of the differing development, structure and impact of each empire.

Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa

Future Imperfect?
Author: Andrew W.M. Smith,Chris Jeppesen
Publisher: UCL Press
ISBN: 1911307746
Category: History
Page: 254
View: 2503
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Looking at decolonization in the conditional tense, this volume teases out the complex and uncertain ends of British and French empire in Africa during the period of ‘late colonial shift’ after 1945. Rather than view decolonization as an inevitable process, the contributors together explore the crucial historical moments in which change was negotiated, compromises were made, and debates were staged. Three core themes guide the analysis: development, contingency and entanglement. The chapters consider the ways in which decolonization was governed and moderated by concerns about development and profit. A complementary focus on contingency allows deeper consideration of how colonial powers planned for ‘colonial futures’, and how divergent voices greeted the end of empire. Thinking about entanglements likewise stresses both the connections that existed between the British and French empires in Africa, and those that endured beyond the formal transfer of power.

The World Since 1945

An International History
Author: P. M. H. Bell,Mark Gilbert
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472534425
Category: History
Page: 584
View: 564
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A masterly synthesis of the history of the contemporary world, The World Since 1945 offers the ideal introduction to the events of the period between the end of the Second World War and the present day. P. M. H. Bell and Mark Gilbert balance a clear narrative with in-depth analysis to guide the reader through the aftermath of the Second World War, the Cold War, decolonization, Détente and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, up to the on-going ethnic strife and political instability of the 21st century. The new edition has been thoroughly revised to fully reflect developments in the history and historiography of the post-war world, and features five new chapters on the post-Cold War world, covering topics including: - The rise and fall of American hegemony - The decline of Europe - The rise of Asia - Political Islam as a global force - The role of human rights The World Since 1945 challenges us to better understand what happened and why in the post-war period and shows the ways in which the past continues to exercise a profound influence on the present. It is essential reading for any student of contemporary history.

Decolonization and African Society

The Labor Question in French and British Africa
Author: Frederick Cooper
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521566001
Category: History
Page: 677
View: 9956
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Large-scale comparative study of African labor and colonial policy.

Crisis and Crossfire

The United States and the Middle East Since 1945
Author: Peter L. Hahn
Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.
ISBN: 1597973475
Category: Political Science
Page: 244
View: 765
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Although it seems almost incredible today, the United States had relatively little interest in the Middle East before 1945. But the dynamics and outcome of World War II elevated the importance of the Middle East in the American mind, and the United States has viewed the region with vital interest to its security and economy ever since. The projection of American power into the region has had consequences that have forever changed the United States and the Middle East, with the rise of al Qaeda and the turbulent occupation of Iraq being the latest examples. Crisis and Crossfire surveys and analyzes the broad contours of U.S. involvement in the region. It probes the reasons why the United States implemented various policies and assesses the wisdom of American leaders as they accepted greater responsibilities for preserving stability and security in the Middle East. Major themes include U.S.-Middle East policy in the context of the Cold War, the rise of Arab and Iranian nationalism, decolonization, the U.S. approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict, the politics of Western dependence on Middle Eastern oil, and America's military interventions, particularly its two wars against Iraq. This book's concise narrative and selection of primary-source documents make it an ideal introduction to U.S.-Middle East relations for students and for anyone with an interest in understanding the history behind today's events.

The Politics of Self-determination

Beyond the Decolonisation Process
Author: Kristina Roepstorff
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415520649
Category: Political Science
Page: 193
View: 7194
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Since the formation of the UN in 1945 the international community has witnessed a number of violent self-determination conflicts such as the disintegration of Yugoslavia, Chechnya, Kashmir, and South Sudan that have been a major cause of humanitarian crises and destruction. This book examines the scope and applicability of political self-determination beyond the decolonisation process. Explaining the historical evolution of self-determination, this book provides a theoretical examination of the concept and background. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, the author analyses self-determination in relation to contemporary conflicts, which inform and drive a coherent theoretical framework for international responses to claims for self-determination. Built upon an examination of the conceptual foundations of self-determination, this book presents a new understanding and application of self-determination. It addresses the important question of whether self-determination claims legitimate armed violence, either by the self-determining group’s right to rebel, or by the international community in the form of humanitarian intervention. The Politics of Self-Determinationwill be of interest to students and scholars of political science, international relations, security studies and conflict studies.

Epic Encounters

Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East since1945
Author: Melani McAlister
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520932013
Category: History
Page: 426
View: 9792
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Epic Encounters examines how popular culture has shaped the ways Americans define their "interests" in the Middle East. In this innovative book—now brought up-to-date to include 9/11 and the Iraq war—Melani McAlister argues that U.S. foreign policy, while grounded in material and military realities, is also developed in a cultural context. American understandings of the region are framed by narratives that draw on religious belief, news media accounts, and popular culture. This remarkable and pathbreaking book skillfully weaves lively and accessible readings of film, media, and music with a rigorous analysis of U.S. foreign policy, race politics, and religious history. The new chapter, titled "9/11 and After: Snapshots on the Road to Empire," considers and brilliantly analyzes five images that have become iconic: (1) New York City firemen raising the American flag out of the rubble of the World Trade Center, (2) the televised image of Osama bin-Laden, (3) Afghani women in burqas, (4) the statue of Saddam Hussein being toppled in Baghdad, and (5) the hooded and wired prisoner in Abu Ghraib. McAlister's singular achievement is to illuminate the contexts of these five images both at the time they were taken and as they relate to current events, an accomplishment all the more remarkable since—to paraphrase her new preface—we are today struggling to look backward at something that is still rushing ahead.

Britain and Decolonisation

The Retreat from Empire in the Post-War World
Author: John Darwin
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 1349195472
Category: Great Britain
Page: 400
View: 9438
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In the 25 years after 1945 Britain's worldwide empire fell to piece and Britain ceased to be a great power. Britain abandoned her Indian Empire, gave up her rule over the African and Asian Colonies, surrendered her premier position in the Middle East and withdrew from almost all the bases - like Aden and Singapore - which had once been the 'tollgates and barbicans of empire'. At the same time, she gave up the long tradition of aloofness from Europe and entered the EEC. How did these vast changes in Britain's world position come about? Was Britain driven into imperial retreat by the main force of Afro-Asian nationalism and superpower pressure? Were the colonial transfers of power a noble and timely recognition or the political maturity of the colonial peoples, as Harold Macmillan once claimed? Or had Britain weighed the costs and benefits of empire in an age of rapid economic and international change, and decided that the colonial game was not worth the financial candle? If so, how are the apparent contradictions in British policy to be explained - the dangerous adventure at Suez, the extensive commitments East of Suez not terminated until 1971 and the Falklands war? How far indeed were the British able to control events in their colonial territories? And why did some colonies become independent so much earlier than others? This book describes the aims and policies which the British tried to pursue in their last imperial age and examines the conflicting explanations put forward for Britain's part in decolonisation - that great reordering of world politics that has taken place since 1945.

British Government Policy and Decolonisation, 1945-1963

Scrutinising the Official Mind
Author: Frank Heinlein
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780714652207
Category: Political Science
Page: 337
View: 386
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Examine the views of the Empire and Commonwealth held by British policy makers during the two decades after World War II, arguing that the institutional framework of the formal and informal empire and the Commonwealth was considered necessary and useful to promote British interests.

A Concise History of the World Since 1945

States and Peoples
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 0230211208
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 8686
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Africa since 1940

The Past of the Present
Author: Frederick Cooper
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107651344
Category: History
Page: 230
View: 9960
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Frederick Cooper's book on the history of decolonization and independence in Africa is part of the textbook series New Approaches to African History. This text will help students understand the historical process out of which Africa's position in the world has emerged. Bridging the divide between colonial and post-colonial history, it allows readers to see just what political independence did and did not signify and how men and women, peasants and workers, religious leaders and local leaders sought to refashion the way they lived, worked, and interacted with each other.

A Companion to Europe Since 1945


Author: Klaus Larres
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444308617
Category: History
Page: 536
View: 5220
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A Companion to Europe Since 1945 provides a stimulating guide to numerous important developments which have influenced the political, economic, social, and cultural character of Europe during and since the Cold War. Includes 22 original essays by an international team of expert scholars Examines the social, intellectual, economic, cultural, and political changes that took place throughout Europe in the Cold War and Post Cold War periods Discusses a wide range of topics including the Single Market, European-American relations, family life and employment, globalization, consumption, political parties, European decolonization, European identity, security and defence policies, and Europe's fight against international terrorism Presents Europe in a broad geographical conception, to give equal weighting to developments in the Eastern and Western European states

Decolonization

A Short History
Author: Jan C. Jansen,Jürgen Osterhammel
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400884888
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 3652
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A concise and accessible history of decolonization in the twentieth century The end of colonial rule in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean was one of the most important and dramatic developments of the twentieth century. In the decades after World War II, dozens of new states emerged as actors in global politics. Long-established imperial regimes collapsed, some more or less peacefully, others amid mass violence. This book takes an incisive look at decolonization and its long-term consequences, revealing it to be a coherent yet multidimensional process at the heart of modern history. Jan Jansen and Jürgen Osterhammel trace the decline of European, American, and Japanese colonial supremacy from World War I to the 1990s. Providing a comparative perspective on the decolonization process, they shed light on its key aspects while taking into account the unique regional and imperial contexts in which it unfolded. Jansen and Osterhammel show how the seeds of decolonization were sown during the interwar period and argue that the geopolitical restructuring of the world was intrinsically connected to a sea change in the global normative order. They examine the economic repercussions of decolonization and its impact on international power structures, its consequences for envisioning world order, and the long shadow it continues to cast over new states and former colonial powers alike. Concise and authoritative, Decolonization is the essential introduction to this momentous chapter in history, the aftershocks of which are still being felt today.

The Invention of Decolonization

The Algerian War and the Remaking of France
Author: Todd Shepard
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801443602
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 4211
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In this account of the Algerian War's effect on French political structures and notions of national identity, Todd Shepard asserts that the separation of Algeria from France was truly a revolutionary event with lasting consequences for French social and political life. For more than a century, Algeria had been legally and administratively part of France; after the bloody war that concluded in 1962, it was other--its eight million Algerian residents deprived of French citizenship while hundreds of thousands of French pieds noirs were forced to return to a country that was never home. This rupture violated the universalism that had been the essence of French republican theory since the late eighteenth century. Shepard contends that because the amputation of Algeria from the French body politic was accomplished illegally and without explanation, its repercussions are responsible for many of the racial and religious tensions that confront France today. In portraying decolonization as an essential step in the inexorable "tide of history," the French state absolved itself of responsibility for the revolutionary change it was effecting. It thereby turned its back not only on the French of Algeria--Muslims in particular--but also on its own republican principles and the 1958 Constitution. From that point onward, debates over assimilation, identity, and citizenship--once focused on the Algerian "province/colony"--have troubled France itself. In addition to grappling with questions of race, citizenship, national identity, state institutions, and political debate, Shepard also addresses debates in Jewish history, gender history, and queer theory.

Civilising Subjects

Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination 1830-1867
Author: Catherine Hall
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226313344
Category: History
Page: 556
View: 3942
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How did the English get to be English? In Civilising Subjects, Catherine Hall argues that the idea of empire was at the heart of mid-nineteenth-century British self-imagining, with peoples such as the "Aborigines" in Australia and the "negroes" in Jamaica serving as markers of difference separating "civilised" English from "savage" others. Hall uses the stories of two groups of Englishmen and -women to explore British self-constructions both in the colonies and at home. In Jamaica, a group of Baptist missionaries hoped to make African-Jamaicans into people like themselves, only to be disappointed when the project proved neither simple nor congenial to the black men and women for whom they hoped to fashion new selves. And in Birmingham, abolitionist enthusiasm dominated the city in the 1830s, but by the 1860s, a harsher racial vocabulary reflected a new perception of the nonwhite subjects of empire as different kinds of men from the "manly citizens" of Birmingham. This absorbing study of the "racing" of Englishness will be invaluable for imperial and cultural historians.