Democracy and the Nature of American Influence in Iran, 1941-1979


Author: David R. Collier
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 0815653972
Category: Political Science
Page: 417
View: 8157
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Collier presents a timely and fresh reexamination of one of the most important bilateral relationships of the last century. He delves deeply into the American desire to promote democracy in Iran from the 1940s through the early 1960s and examines the myriad factors that contributed to their success in exerting a powerful influence on Iranian politics. By creating a framework to understand the efficacy of external pressure, Collier explains how the United States later relinquished this control during the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, the shah emerged as a dominant and effective political operator who took advantage of waning American influence to assert his authority. Collier reveals how this shifting power dynamic transformed the former client-patron relationship into one approaching equality.

Democracy and the Nature of American Influence in Iran, 1941-1979


Author: David R. Collier
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815635123
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 9703
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Collier presents a timely and fresh reexamination of one of the most important bilateral relationships of the last century. He delves deeply into the American desire to promote democracy in Iran from the 1940s through the early 1960s and examines the myriad factors that contributed to their success in exerting a powerful influence on Iranian politics. By creating a framework to understand the efficacy of external pressure, Collier explains how the United States later relinquished this control during the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, the shah emerged as a dominant and effective political operator who took advantage of waning American influence to assert his authority. Collier reveals how this shifting power dynamic transformed the former client-patron relationship into one approaching equality.

Democracy and the Nature of American Influence in Iran, 1941-1979


Author: David R. Collier
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815634973
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 6629
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Collier presents a timely and fresh reexamination of one of the most important bilateral relationships of the last century. He delves deeply into the American desire to promote democracy in Iran from the 1940s through the early 1960s and examines the myriad factors that contributed to their success in exerting a powerful influence on Iranian politics. By creating a framework to understand the efficacy of external pressure, Collier explains how the United States later relinquished this control during the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, the shah emerged as a dominant and effective political operator who took advantage of waning American influence to assert his authority. Collier reveals how this shifting power dynamic transformed the former client-patron relationship into one approaching equality.

Iran Between Two Revolutions


Author: Ervand Abrahamian
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691101347
Category: History
Page: 561
View: 1066
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In this examination of the social bases of Iranian politics, Professor Abrahamian draws on archives of the British Foreign Office and India Office that have only recently been opened; newspaper, memoirs and biographies published in Tehran between 1906 and 1980; proceedings of the Iranian Majles and Senate; interviews with retired and active politicians and pamphlets, books and periodicals distributed by exiled groups in Europe and North America in the period between 1953 and 1980.

U.S.-Iran Relations


Author: Avery Elizabeth Hurt
Publisher: Greenhaven Publishing LLC
ISBN: 1534501363
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 160
View: 2882
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The modern history of U.S.-Iran relations is a collection of iconic images: the Shah in regal glory on his throne; the Shah fleeing his country; the rapturous welcome of Ayatollah Khomeini; the parading of blindfolded American hostages; the burning wreckage of American rescue helicopters; Oliver North testifying on the Iran-Contra scandal; the volatile defiance of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad; the hope of the Green Movement; and the persistent gloom of Ali Khameini. Yet behind these images are decades worth of diplomatic efforts, policy statements, official speeches, and passionate opinion pieces written by politicians, policymakers, human rights activists, and engaged citizens. Readers who examine these disparate viewpoints will gain a deep understanding of the vital, urgent, strategic importance of this long fraught relationship.

Democracy in Iran

History and the Quest for Liberty
Author: Ali Gheissair,Vali Nasr,Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195396960
Category: History
Page: 214
View: 5253
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Today Iran is once again in the headlines. Reputed to be developing nuclear weapons, the future of Iraq's next-door neighbor is a matter of grave concern both for the stability of the region and for the safety of the global community. President George W. Bush labeled it part of the "Axis of Evil," and rails against the country's authoritarian leadership. Yet as Bush trumpets the spread of democracy throughout the Middle East, few note that Iran has one of the longest-running experiences with democracy in the region. In this book, Ali Gheissari and Vali Nasr look at the political history of Iran in the modern era, and offer an in-depth analysis of the prospects for democracy to flourish there. After having produced the only successful Islamist challenge to the state, a revolution, and an Islamic Republic, Iran is now poised to produce a genuine and indigenous democratic movement in the Muslim world. Democracy in Iran is neither a sudden development nor a western import, Gheissari and Nasr argue. The concept of democracy in Iran today may appear to be a reaction to authoritarianism, but it is an old idea with a complex history, one that is tightly interwoven with the main forces that have shaped Iranian society and politics, institutions, identities, and interests. Indeed, the demand for democracy first surfaced in Iran a century ago at the end of the Qajar period, and helped produce Iran's surprisingly liberal first constitution in 1906. Gheissari and Nasr seek to understand why democracy failed to grow roots and lost ground to an autocratic Iranian state. Why was democracy absent from the ideological debates of the 1960s and 1970s? Most important, why has it now become a powerful social, political, and intellectual force? How have modernization, social change, economic growth, and the experience of the revolution converged to make this possible?

Foucault and the Iranian Revolution

Gender and the Seductions of Islamism
Author: Janet Afary,Kevin B. Anderson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226007878
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 6586
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In 1978, as the protests against the Shah of Iran reached their zenith, philosopher Michel Foucault was working as a special correspondent for Corriere della Sera and le Nouvel Observateur. During his little-known stint as a journalist, Foucault traveled to Iran, met with leaders like Ayatollah Khomeini, and wrote a series of articles on the revolution. Foucault and the Iranian Revolution is the first book-length analysis of these essays on Iran, the majority of which have never before appeared in English. Accompanying the analysis are annotated translations of the Iran writings in their entirety and the at times blistering responses from such contemporaneous critics as Middle East scholar Maxime Rodinson as well as comments on the revolution by feminist philosopher Simone de Beauvoir. In this important and controversial account, Janet Afary and Kevin B. Anderson illuminate Foucault's support of the Islamist movement. They also show how Foucault's experiences in Iran contributed to a turning point in his thought, influencing his ideas on the Enlightenment, homosexuality, and his search for political spirituality. Foucault and the Iranian Revolution informs current discussion on the divisions that have reemerged among Western intellectuals over the response to radical Islamism after September 11. Foucault's provocative writings are thus essential for understanding the history and the future of the West's relationship with Iran and, more generally, to political Islam. In their examination of these journalistic pieces, Afary and Anderson offer a surprising glimpse into the mind of a celebrated thinker.

Iran's Political, Demographic, and Economic Vulnerabilities


Author: Keith Crane,Rollie Lal,Jeffrey Martini
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833043048
Category: History
Page: 128
View: 7615
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Iran is one of the most important U.S. foreign policy concerns but is extraordinarily difficult to engage. The authors assess current political, ethnic, demographic, and economic trends and vulnerabilities in Iran, then offer recommendations on U.S. policies that might foster the trends beneficial to U.S. interests. However, if these trends do take root in Iran, seeing them come to fruition will take time and, therefore, patience.

Imagining Iran

The Tragedy of Subaltern Nationalism
Author: Majid Sharifi
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739179454
Category: Political Science
Page: 396
View: 3110
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The thematic focus of this book is the tragic yet inevitable effects of subaltern nationalism. The book covers the systemic challenges that all modern Iranian regimes have faced in establishing a sovereign, developed, democratic, and constitutional nation-state.

Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah

The United States and Iran in the Cold War
Author: Roham Alvandi
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
ISBN: 0199375690
Category: History
Page: 255
View: 4059
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Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah offers a detailed account of three key historical episodes in the Nixon-Kissinger-Pahlavi partnership that shaped the global Cold War far beyond Iran's borders. It examines the emergence of Iranian primacy in the Persian Gulf as the Nixon administration looked to the shah to fill the vacuum created by the British withdrawal from the region in 1971. It then turns to the peak of the parnership after Nixon and Kissinger's historic 1972 visit to Iran, when the shah succeeded in drawing the United States into his covert war against Iraq in Kurdistan. Finally, it focuses on the decline of the partnership under Nixon's successor, Gerald Ford, through a history of the failed negotiations from 1974 to 1976 for an agreement on U.S. nuclear exports to Iran. Taken together, these episodes map the rise of the fall of Iran's Cold War partnership with the United States during the decade of superpower détente, Vietnam, and Watergate.

All the Shah's Men

An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror
Author: Stephen Kinzer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047018549X
Category: History
Page: 258
View: 5878
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A new edition of the best-selling study of the Iran-U.S. conflict traces the events leading to the 1953 coup in Iran, noting the reasons behind the U.S.'s covert operations under the joint authority of Eisenhower and Churchill, the orchestrations of prime minister Mossadegh and CIA officer Kermit Roosevelt, the coup's ongoing consequences, and future conflict. Original.

Reading Lolita in Tehran

A Memoir in Books
Author: Azar Nafisi
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 9781588360793
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 384
View: 9141
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We all have dreams—things we fantasize about doing and generally never get around to. This is the story of Azar Nafisi’s dream and of the nightmare that made it come true. For two years before she left Iran in 1997, Nafisi gathered seven young women at her house every Thursday morning to read and discuss forbidden works of Western literature. They were all former students whom she had taught at university. Some came from conservative and religious families, others were progressive and secular; several had spent time in jail. They were shy and uncomfortable at first, unaccustomed to being asked to speak their minds, but soon they began to open up and to speak more freely, not only about the novels they were reading but also about themselves, their dreams and disappointments. Their stories intertwined with those they were reading—Pride and Prejudice, Washington Square, Daisy Miller and Lolita—their Lolita, as they imagined her in Tehran. Nafisi’s account flashes back to the early days of the revolution, when she first started teaching at the University of Tehran amid the swirl of protests and demonstrations. In those frenetic days, the students took control of the university, expelled faculty members and purged the curriculum. When a radical Islamist in Nafisi’s class questioned her decision to teach The Great Gatsby, which he saw as an immoral work that preached falsehoods of “the Great Satan,” she decided to let him put Gatsby on trial and stood as the sole witness for the defense. Azar Nafisi’s luminous tale offers a fascinating portrait of the Iran-Iraq war viewed from Tehran and gives us a rare glimpse, from the inside, of women’s lives in revolutionary Iran. It is a work of great passion and poetic beauty, written with a startlingly original voice. From the Hardcover edition.

Women and Politics in Iran

Veiling, Unveiling, and Reveiling
Author: Hamideh Sedghi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139463721
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 2898
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Why were urban women veiled in the early 1900s, unveiled from 1936 to 1979, and reveiled after the 1979 revolution? This question forms the basis of Hamideh Sedghi's original and unprecedented contribution to politics and Middle Eastern studies. Using primary and secondary sources, Sedghi offers new knowledge on women's agency in relation to state power. In this rigorous analysis she places contention over women at the centre of the political struggle between secular and religious forces and demonstrates that control over women's identities, sexuality, and labor has been central to the consolidation of state power. Sedghi links politics and culture with economics to present an integrated analysis of the private and public lives of different classes of women and their modes of resistance to state power.

Fiasco

The American Military Adventure in Iraq
Author: Thomas E. Ricks
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781594201035
Category: History
Page: 482
View: 7092
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An assessment of America's role in the Iraq War as viewed from the perspectives of senior military officers argues that the guerrilla insurgency after the fall of Saddam Hussein was avoidable and that officers who spoke against the war did so at the costof their careers.

Climate Crisis and the Democratic Prospect

Participatory Governance in Sustainable Communities
Author: Frank Fischer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192525735
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 6677
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Can contemporary democratic governments tackle climate crisis? Some argue that democracy has to be a central part of a strategy to deal with climate change. Others argue that experience shows it not to be up to the challenge in the time frame available-that it will require a stronger hand, even a form of eco-authoritarianism. A question that does not lend itself to an easy assessment, this volume seeks to out and assess the competing answers. While the book supports the case for environmental democracy, it argues that establishing and sustaining democratic practices will be difficult during the global climate turmoil ahead, especially in the face of state of emergencies. This inquiry undertakes a search for an appropriate political-ecological strategy for preserving a measure of democratic governance during hard times. Without ignoring the global dimensions of the crisis, the analysis finds an alternative path in the theory and practices participatory environmental governance embodied in a growing relocalization movement, and global eco-localism generally. Although such movements largely operate under the radar of the social sciences, the media and the political realm generally, these vibrant socio-ecological movements not only speak to the crisis ahead, but are already well established and thriving on the ground, including ecovillages, eco-communes, eco-neighborhoods, and local transition initiatives. With the help of these ideas and projects, the task is to influence the discourse of environmental political theory in ways that can be of assistance to those who will face climate crisis in its full magnitude.

The Pragmatic Superpower: Winning the Cold War in the Middle East


Author: Ray Takeyh,Steven Simon
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393285561
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 1278
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A bold reexamination of U.S. influence in the Middle East during the Cold War. The Arab Spring, Iran’s nuclear ambitions, the Iraq war, and the Syrian civil war—these contemporary conflicts have deep roots in the Middle East’s postwar emergence from colonialism. In The Pragmatic Superpower, foreign policy experts Ray Takeyh and Steven Simon reframe the legacy of U.S. involvement in the Arab world from 1945 to 1991 and shed new light on the makings of the contemporary Middle East. Cutting against conventional wisdom, the authors argue that, when an inexperienced Washington entered the turbulent world of Middle Eastern politics, it succeeded through hardheaded pragmatism—and secured its place as a global superpower. Eyes ever on its global conflict with the Soviet Union, America shrewdly navigated the rise of Arab nationalism, the founding of Israel, and seminal conflicts including the Suez War and the Iranian revolution. Takeyh and Simon reveal that America’s objectives in the region were often uncomplicated but hardly modest. Washington deployed adroit diplomacy to prevent Soviet infiltration of the region, preserve access to its considerable petroleum resources, and resolve the conflict between a Jewish homeland and the Arab states that opposed it. The Pragmatic Superpower provides fascinating insight into Washington’s maneuvers in a contest for global power and offers a unique reassessment of America’s cold war policies in a critical region of the world. Amid the chaotic conditions of the twenty-first century, Takeyh and Simon argue that there is an urgent need to look back to a period when the United States got it right. Only then will we better understand the challenges we face today.

The Eagle and the Lion

The Tragedy of American-Iranian Relations
Author: James A. Bill
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300044126
Category: Political Science
Page: 520
View: 6679
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A leading scholar of Iran relates the reasons that helped to destroy the American-Iranian relationship and outlines measures to improve future foreign policy-making

Blinders, Blunders, and Wars

What America and China Can Learn
Author: David C. Gompert,Hans Binnendijk,Bonny Lin
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833087789
Category: History
Page: 328
View: 7284
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The history of wars caused by misjudgments, from Napoleon’s invasion of Russia to America’s invasion of Iraq, reveals that leaders relied on cognitive models that were seriously at odds with objective reality. Blinders, Blunders, and Wars analyzes eight historical examples of strategic blunders regarding war and peace and four examples of decisions that turned out well, and then applies those lessons to the current Sino-American case.

The Naked Communist

Exposing Communism and Restoring Freedom
Author: W. Cleon Skousen
Publisher: Izzard Ink
ISBN: 1630720585
Category: Political Science
Page: 394
View: 2600
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A timely update to the phenomenal national bestseller. Soon after its quiet release during the height of the Red Scare in 1958, The Naked Communist exploded in popularity, selling almost two million copies to date and finding its way into the libraries of the CIA, the FBI, the White House, and homes all across the United States. From the tragic falls of China, Korea, Russia, and the UN, to the fascinating histories of Alger Hiss, Whittaker Chambers, Elizabeth Bentley, and General MacArthur, The Naked Communist lays out the entire graphic story of communism, its past, present, and future. After searching unsuccessfully for a concise literature on the communist threat, W. Cleon Skousen saw the urgent need for a comprehensive book that could guide the American conversation. So he distilled his FBI experience, decades of research, and more than one hundred communist books and treatises into one clarifying, readable volume that became a touchstone of American values and earned praise from the likes of President Ronald Reagan, Glenn Beck, and Ben Carson. Lauded by one reviewer as “the most powerful book on communism since J. Edgar Hoover’s Masters of Deceit,” this text draws a detailed picture of the communist as he sees himself: stripped of propaganda and pretense. Readers gain a unique insight into the inner workings of communism—its appeal, its history, its basic and unchanging concepts, even its secret timetable of conquest. Among the many questions The Naked Communist answers are: * Who gave the United States’ nuclear secrets to the Russians? * How did the FBI fight communism after it was forced underground in 1918? * Why did the West lose 600 million allies after World War II? * What really happened in Korea? * What is communism’s great secret weapon? * What lies ahead? * What can I do to stop communism? * How can we fight communism without a major war? Now updated for 2017, this edition includes a chapter on the forty-five Communist Goals, detailing how forty-four of those goals have been achieved in the U.S. already, as well as a chapter on the making of The Naked Communist, shedding light on how this book has sold almost two million copies. As relevant now as it was sixty years ago, Skousen’s groundbreaking work provides a renewed understanding of one of the greatest threats facing America today. Praise for W. Cleon Skousen: “No one is better qualified to discuss the threat to this nation from communism. You will be alarmed, you will be informed, and you’ll be glad you heard him.”—President Ronald Reagan “I have never given any volume such an unqualified endorsement.”—CBS national broadcaster Paul Harvey “I went back and I read The Naked Communist, and at the end of that, Skousen predicted [that] someday soon you won’t be able to find the truth in schools or in libraries or anywhere else because it won’t be in print anymore. So you must collect those books. It’s an idea I read from Cleon Skousen from his book in the 1950s, The Naked Communist, where he talked about [how] someday the history of this country’s going to be lost because it’s going to be hijacked by intellectuals and communists and everything else. And I think we’re there.”—Glenn Beck, host of the nationally syndicated Glenn Beck Radio Program “The Naked Communist lays out the whole progressive plan. It is unbelievable how fast it has been achieved.”—Dr. Ben Carson (The Sean Hannity Show; May 23, 2014) “I feel certain that your efforts on this important subject will receive widespread attention and consideration.”—J. Edgar Hoover, first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation “We believe in a moral code. Communism denies innate right or wrong. As W. Cleon Skousen has said in his timely book, The Naked Communist: The communist ‘has convinced himself that nothing is evil which answers the call of expediency.’ This is a most damnable doctrine. People who truly accept such a philosophy have neither conscience nor honor. Force, trickery, lies, broken promises are wholly justified.”—Ezra Taft Benson, United States Secretary of Agriculture under President Eisenhower

Research Handbook on Transitional Justice


Author: D Jacobs
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 178195531X
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 2767
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Providing detailed and comprehensive coverage of the transitional justice field, this Research Handbook brings together leading scholars and practitioners to explore how societies deal with mass atrocities after periods of dictatorship or conflict. Situating the development of transitional justice in its historical context, social and political context, it analyses the legal instruments that have emerged.