Desert Arthropods: Life History Variations


Author: Fred Punzo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662040905
Category: Science
Page: 230
View: 6368
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It is difficult for me to recollect a time when I was not fascinated with the very notion of a desert. Walt Disney's film, The Living Desert, which I initially saw when I was 8 years of age, provided me with my first glimpse of this wondrous yet seemingly ho stile environment. The images were hypnotic and captivating. I looked on in amazement at the promenade Cl deux of the male and female scorpions during courtship. Their rhythmic and coordinated movements as they grasped one another made them appear to glide in unis on over the surface of the sand, each individual totally absorbed with its partner. In the next minute the fern ale had suddenly and utterly transformed herself like some Jekyll and Hyde act, into an aggressive predator whose prior gregarious embrace was now a hold of death for the male. The indomitable desert grasshopper mouse, the ever sentient kit fox, the graceful shovel-nosed snake swimming in an endless sea of sand.

The Biology of Camel-Spiders

Arachnida, Solifugae
Author: Fred Punzo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461557275
Category: Science
Page: 301
View: 9080
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My initial interest in the Solifugae (camel-spiders) stems from an incident that occurred in the summer of 1986. I was studying the behavioral ecology of spider wasps of the genus Pepsis and their interactions with their large theraphosid (tarantula) spider hosts, in the Chihuahuan Desert near Big Bend National Park, Texas. I was monitoring a particular tarantula burrow one night when I noticed the resident female crawl up into the burrow entrance. Hoping to take some photographs of prey capture, I placed a cricket near the entrance and waited for the spider to pounce. Suddenly, out of the comer of my eye appeared a large, rapidly moving yellowish form which siezed the cricket and quickly ran off with it until it disappeared beneath a nearby mesquite bush. So suddenly and quickly had the sequence of events occurred, that I found myself momentarily startled. With the aid of a headlamp I soon located the intruder, a solifuge, who was already busy at work macerating the insect with its large chelicerae (jaws). When I attempted to nudge it with the edge of my forceps, it quickly moved to another location beneath the bush. When I repeated this maneuver, the solifuge dropped the cricket and lunged at the forceps, gripping them tightly in its jaws, refusing to release them until they were forcefully pulled away.

What Can Live in a Desert?


Author: Sheila Anderson
Publisher: Lerner Publications
ISBN: 1541503015
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 24
View: 4866
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How do animals like snakes, roadrunners, and scorpions survive in the desert? Discover their adaptations and see!

Desert Ecology

An Introduction to Life in the Arid Southwest
Author: John Sowell
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Nature
Page: 193
View: 9294
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"Unlike books that merely identify which plants and animals live in the desert, Desert Ecology explores how these organisms live where they do.

Nomadic Desert Birds


Author: W. Richard J. Dean
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 366208984X
Category: Science
Page: 185
View: 1860
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My interest in the behaviour and movements of birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems began when my wife, Sue Milton, and I were Roy Siegfried, Director, at that time, of the Percy approached by Prof. FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, to set up a project to investigate granivory in the South African Karoo. Sue and I spent some time finding a suitable study site, setting up accommodations and an automatic weather station at Tierberg, in the southern Karoo near the village of Prince Albert, and planning projects. Among our first projects was a transect where we noted plant phe nology, measured seed densities on the soil surface, counted birds, observed ant activity, measured soil surface temperatures and col lected whatever climate data we could at 40 sites along a 200-km oval route. Along the way, we became interested in the marked presence and absence of birds at certain sites - abundant birds one day, and very few birds at the same site a month later. Subsequent counts along fixed transects through shrublands confirmed that a number of bird species were highly nomadic over short and long distances, locally and regionally, leading to speculation on how widespread these movements were in the arid ecosystems of the world.

Behavioural Adaptations of Desert Animals


Author: Giovanni Costa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642793568
Category: Science
Page: 198
View: 5513
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After a brief survey of biotopic and vegetational features and an account of the main groups of desert animals, the most unusual patterns of the behaviour of the xerophilous fauna are examined. The importance of the thermohygric regulation and self-protective and locomotor mechanisms to the survival of arid-adapted animals is emphasized and various adaptations in the alimentary, reproductive and social spheres are analyzed. The clear and fluent treatment will awaken the interest of the reading public, from the amateur naturalists to research scientists.

Adaptation and Natural Selection

A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought
Author: George C. Williams
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691185506
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 2860
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Biological evolution is a fact—but the many conflicting theories of evolution remain controversial even today. When Adaptation and Natural Selection was first published in 1966, it struck a powerful blow against those who argued for the concept of group selection—the idea that evolution acts to select entire species rather than individuals. Williams’s famous work in favor of simple Darwinism over group selection has become a classic of science literature, valued for its thorough and convincing argument and its relevance to many fields outside of biology. Now with a new foreword by Richard Dawkins, Adaptation and Natural Selection is an essential text for understanding the nature of scientific debate.

Aristotle's De Motu Animalium

Text with Translation, Commentary, and Interpretive Essays
Author: Aristotle,Martha Craven Nussbaum
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691020353
Category: Philosophy
Page: 430
View: 8854
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The aim of this book is to ask through a study of one of his most complicated treatises on explanation, how far, and in what sense, the demands of the 'scientific person' are Aristotle's.

Encyclopedia of Insects


Author: Vincent H. Resh,Ring T. Cardé
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080920900
Category: Science
Page: 1168
View: 5185
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Awarded Best Reference by the New York Public Library (2004), Outstanding Academic Title by CHOICE (2003), and AAP/PSP 2003 Best Single Volume Reference/Sciences by Association of American Publishers' Professional Scholarly Publishing Division, the first edition of Encyclopedia of Insects was acclaimed as the most comprehensive work devoted to insects. Covering all aspects of insect anatomy, physiology, evolution, behavior, reproduction, ecology, and disease, as well as issues of exploitation, conservation, and management, this book sets the standard in entomology. The second edition of this reference will continue the tradition by providing the most comprehensive, useful, and up-to-date resource for professionals. Expanded sections in forensic entomology, biotechnology and Drosphila, reflect the full update of over 300 topics. Articles contributed by over 260 high profile and internationally recognized entomologists provide definitive facts regarding all insects from ants, beetles, and butterflies to yellow jackets, zoraptera, and zygentoma. * 66% NEW and revised content by over 200 international experts * New chapters on Bedbugs, Ekbom Syndrome, Human History, Genomics, Vinegaroons * Expanded sections on insect-human interactions, genomics, biotechnology, and ecology * Each of the 273 articles updated to reflect the advances which have taken place in entomology research since the previous edition * Features 1,000 full-color photographs, figures and tables * A full glossary, 1,700 cross-references, 3,000 bibliographic entries, and online access save research time * Updated with online access

Survival Strategies of Annual Desert Plants


Author: Yitzchak Gutterman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642559743
Category: Science
Page: 348
View: 668
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Annual desert plant species of unrelated taxa in the Negev Desert of Israel have developed complementary sets of adaptations and survival strategies as ecological equivalents with physiological, morphological and anatomical resemblances, in the various stages of their life cycles. After 40 years of research in hot deserts Yitzchak Gutterman provides a comprehensive treatise of such adaptations and strategies. In doing so he covers the following topics: post-maturation primary seed dormancy, which prevents germination of maturing seeds before the summer; seed dispersal mechanisms with escape or protection strategies; cautious or opportunistic germination strategies; seedling drought tolerance. The day-length is an important factor in regulating flowering as well as the phenotypic plasticity of seed germination which is also affected by maternal factors.

Nomadic Desert Birds

With 32 Tables
Author: W. Richard J. Dean
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540403937
Category: Science
Page: 185
View: 9849
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There are two basic strategies for coping with life in the desert. The first involves withstanding the extreme conditions using behavioural or physiological tactics. The second strategy is to be a migrant and to opportunistically or seasonally move to where the necessary resources are. Nomadism, i.e. the opportunistic and irregular movements from resource-poor to resource-rich patches, is a tactic that birds, with their mobility, can use, and it is explored by W.R.J. Dean in this volume. For many bird species, such movements between habitats or across landscapes to find patches of resources are essential for their continued existence. The relationship between climate, habitat and movements in the avifauna of arid and semi-arid regions and the advantages and disadvantages of a seasonally migratory or opportunistically nomadic lifestyle are elucidated.

Arthropod Diversity and Conservation in the Tropics and Sub-tropics


Author: Akshay Kumar Chakravarthy,Shakunthala Sridhara
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981101518X
Category: Science
Page: 435
View: 7768
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Arthropods are invertebrates that constitute over 90% of the animal kingdom, and their bio-ecology is closely linked with global functioning and survival. Arthropods play an important role in maintaining the health of ecosystems, provide livelihoods and nutrition to human communities, and are important indicators of environmental change. Yet the population trends of several arthropods species show them to be in decline. Arthropods constitute a dominant group with 1.2 million species influencing earth’s biodiversity. Among arthropods, insects are predominant, with ca. 1 million species and having evolved some 350 million years ago. Arthropods are closely associated with living and non-living entities alike, making the ecosystem services they provide crucially important. In order to be effective, plans for the conservation of arthropods and ecosystems should include a mixture of strategies like protecting key habitats and genomic studies to formulate relevant policies for in situ and ex situ conservation. This two-volume book focuses on capturing the essentials of arthropod inventories, biology, and conservation.Further, it seeks to identify the mechanisms by which arthropod populations can be sustained in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and by means of which certain problematic species be managed without producing harmful environmental side-effects. This edited compilation includes chapters contributed by over 80 biologists on a wide range of topics embracing the diversity, distribution, utility and conservation of arthropods and select groups of insect taxa. More importantly, it describes in detail the mechanisms of sustaining arthropod ecosystems, services and populations. It addresses the contribution of modern biological tools such as molecular and genetic techniques regulating gene expression, as well as conventional, indigenous practices in arthropod conservation. The contributors reiterate the importance of documenting and understanding the biology of arthropods from a holistic perspective before addressing conservation issues at large. This book offers a valuable resource for all zoologists, entomologists, ecologists, conservation biologists, policy makers, teachers and students interested in the conservation of biological resources.

What Can Live in the Ocean?


Author: Sheila Anderson
Publisher: Lerner Publications
ISBN: 1541503112
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 24
View: 4177
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Discover how adaptations make the ocean a perfect habitat for whales, lobsters, sea horses, and many, many more animals.

Survival! Desert


Author: William B. Rice
Publisher: Teacher Created Materials
ISBN: 9781433348181
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 48
View: 956
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Shares the necessary skills needed to survive in the desert, including digging into a dry streambed to find water, building a solar still, and using desert plants and animals as food sources.

The Energetics of Mangrove Forests


Author: Daniel Alongi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140204271X
Category: Science
Page: 216
View: 1728
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Despite their importance in sustaining livelihoods for many people living along some of the world’s most populous coastlines, tropical mangrove forests are disappearing at an alarming rate. Occupying a crucial place between land and sea, these tidal ecosystems provide a valuable ecological and economic resource as important nursery grounds and breeding sites for many organisms, and as a renewable source of wood and traditional foods and medicines. Perhaps most importantly, they are accumulation sites for sediment, contaminants, carbon and nutrients, and offer significant protection against coastal erosion. This book presents a functional overview of mangrove forest ecosystems; how they live and grow at the edge of tropical seas, how they play a critical role along most of the world’s tropical coasts, and how their future might look in a world affected by climate change. Such a process-oriented approach is necessary in order to further understand the role of these dynamic forests in ecosystem function, and as a first step towards developing adequate strategies for their conservation and sustainable use and management. The book will provide a valuable resource for researchers in mangrove ecology as well as reference for resource managers.

Scorpion Biology and Research


Author: Philip Brownell,Gary A. Polis
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195084344
Category: Nature
Page: 431
View: 6612
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This comprehensive survey demonstrates the value of scorpions as model systems for investigating a wide range of biological questions, from neurobiology to evolutionary ecology.

Seasonal Adaptations of Insects


Author: Maurice J. Tauber,Catherine A. Tauber,Shinzō Masaki
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195036352
Category: Religion
Page: 411
View: 761
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Insect adaptations to environmental changes; The course of diapause; The diapause syndrome; Environmental regulation of seasonal cycles; Seasonal adaptations: Spacial cases (parasitoids); Variability and genetics of seasonal adaptations; Evolution of seasonal cycles; Seasonality, the evaluation of life history, and speciation; Seasonality and insect pest management.

Ecophysiology of Desert Arthropods and Reptiles


Author: John L. Cloudsley-Thompson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364275337X
Category: Science
Page: 203
View: 1985
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Ecophysiology of Desert Arthropods and Reptiles starts with a new classification of the world's deserts, based upon the type of precipitation and the effect on their faunas of arthropods and reptiles. This is followed by an account of microclimates and the avoidance of environmental extremes. Whereas thermoregulation is primarily behavioural, responses to water shortage are largely physiological. Seasonal activity and phenology are described, adaptations for burrowing, the avoidance of enemies, and defence, are also outlined. A comparative account of interspecific relationships, feeding specializations, and species diversity in the two taxa is described. The purpose of the book is to provide a new and up-to-date analysis that will stimulate further research along these lines.

Zoo Animal Welfare


Author: Terry Maple,Bonnie M Perdue
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642359558
Category: Science
Page: 209
View: 4418
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Zoo Animal Welfare thoroughly reviews the scientific literature on the welfare of zoo and aquarium animals. Maple and Perdue draw from the senior author’s 24 years of experience as a zoo executive and international leader in the field of zoo biology. The authors’ academic training in the interdisciplinary field of psychobiology provides a unique perspective for evaluating the ethics, practices, and standards of modern zoos and aquariums. The book offers a blueprint for the implementation of welfare measures and an objective rationale for their widespread use. Recognizing the great potential of zoos, the authors have written an inspirational book to guide the strategic vision of superior, welfare-oriented institutions. The authors speak directly to caretakers working on the front lines of zoo management, and to the decision-makers responsible for elevating the priority of animal welfare in their respective zoo. In great detail, Maple and Perdue demonstrate how zoos and aquariums can be designed to achieve optimal standards of welfare and wellness.

Arthropod Diversity and Conservation


Author: David L. Hawksworth,Alan T. Bull
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402052049
Category: Science
Page: 525
View: 8846
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This collection of more than 30 peer-reviewed papers focuses on the diversity and conservation of arthropods, whose species inhabit virtually every recess and plane – and feature in virtually every food web – on the planet. Highlighting issues ranging from large-scale disturbance to local management, from spatial heterogeneity to temporal patterns, these papers reflect exciting new research – and take the reader to some of the most biodiverse corners of the planet.