Wissenschaftstheorie, Sprachkritik und Wittgenstein

In memoriam Elisabeth und Werner Leinfellner
Author: Walter Feigl,Sascha Windholz
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 311031987X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 273
View: 6254
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Die Gedenkschrift zu Ehren von Elisabeth und Werner Leinfellner spannt einen Bogen von aktuellen philosophischen Diskursen zum Werk und Leben des 2010 verstorbenen Wissenschaftler-Ehepaares. Für viele sind beide untrennbar mit der Österreichischen Ludwig Wittgenstein Gesellschaft (ÖLWG) und dem Internationalen Wittgenstein Symposien in Kirchberg am Wechsel verbunden. Die Artikel in diesem Band befassen sich mit aktueller Wittgensteinforschung und der Sprachkritik (Mauthner und Wittgenstein) ebenso wie dem Wirken von Elisabeth und Werner Leinfellner. Darüber hinaus geben sie Einblicke in das Werden der ÖLWG und das österreichische Geistesleben in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jhdts. Mitarbeiter des Buches: Marco Bastianelli, Christian Erbacher, Johann Götschl, Peter Kampits, Christian Kanzian, Peter Keicher, Eckehart Köhler, Camilla R. Nielsen, Klaus Puhl, Mary Snell-Hornby, Ilse Somavilla, Joseph Wang, Anja Weiberg, Paul Weingartner und Franz M. Wuketits. Herausgeber sind Sascha Windholz und Walter Feigl.

Decision Making and Change in Human Affairs

Proceedings of the Fifth Research Conference on Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making, Darmstadt, 1–4 September, 1975
Author: H. Jungermann,G. De Zeeuw
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401012768
Category: Social Science
Page: 528
View: 4230
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It is only just recently that people have the tools to judge how well they are doing when making decisions. These tools were conceptualized in the seventeenth century. Since then many people have worked to sharpen the concepts, and to explore how these can be applied further. The problems of decision-making and the theory developed correspondingly have drawn the interest of mathematicians, psychologists, statisticians, economists, philosophers, organizational experts, sociologists, not only for their general relevance, but also for a more intrinsic fascination. There are quite a few institutionalized activities to disseminate results and stimulate research in decision-making. For about a decade now a European organizational structure, centered mainly around the psy chological interest in decision-making. There have been conferences in Hamburg, Amsterdam, Uxbridge, Rome and Darmstadt. Conference papers have been partly published+. The organization has thus stabilized, and its re latively long history makes it interesting to see what kind of developments occurred, within the area of interest.

Social Action


Author: Gottfried Seebaß,R. Tuomela
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400952635
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 4444
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The papers contained in this volume are based on the contributions to an international, interdisciplinary Symposium entitled 'Analytical and Sociologi cal Action Theories' which took place in Berlin (West) on September 1-3, 1982. Each part comprises a main paper followed by two (in Part IV three) papers commenting on it. On the whole there is an equal division into philo sophical and sociological papers. In particular each main paper receives both inter- and innerdisciplinary comments. The Berlin Symposium was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Bonn) and, to a smaller extent, by the Freie UniversiHit Berlin; both grants are acknowledged gratefully. Berlin and Helsinki, May 1984 GOTTFRIED SEEBASS RAIMO TUOMELA vii GOTTFRIED SEEBASS INTRODUCTION I. It is a striking fact that the extended efforts of both sociologists and analytical philosophers to work out what is termed a 'theory of action' have taken little, if any, account of each other. Yet of the various reasons for this that come to mind none appears to be such as to foil any hopes for fruitful interdisciplinary exchange. Being concerned, apparently, with the same set of phenomena, viz. individual and social actions, the two theories can reasonably be expected to be partially overlapping as well as competitive and complementary. Accordingly each can eventually be shown by the other to need completion or revision. Whether or to what extent this is the case is subject to inquiry and discussion.

Social System Accounts

Linking Social and Economic Indicators through Tangible Behavior Settings
Author: K. Fox
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400953828
Category: Social Science
Page: 224
View: 1518
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This book results from a research program on which I have spent most of my time since 1974. It addresses two of the major problems facing social system account ing: how to measure and account for nonmarket activities and how to combine social and economic indicators. The solution I propose is accounts based on behavior settings, a concept originated by Roger G. Barker more than thirty years ago. Behavior settings are the natural units of social activity into which people sort themselves to get on with the busi ness of daily life--grocery stores, school classes, reI i gious services, meetings, athletic events, and so on. The descriptive power of behavior settings has been established in surveys of complete communities in the United States and England, of high schools ranging in size from fewer than 100 to more than 2000 students, of rehabilitation centers in hospitals, and of several other types of organizations. Behavior settings are empirical facts of everyday life. A description of a community or an organization in terms of behavior settings corresponds to common experi ence. In many cases, small establishments are behavior settings; the paid roles in behavior settingsare occupa tions; and the buildings and equipment of establishments are the buildings and equipment of behavior settings.

Essays on Ethics, Social Behaviour, and Scientific Explanation


Author: J.C. Harsanyi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940109327X
Category: Social Science
Page: 278
View: 9621
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When John Harsanyi came to Stanford University as a candidate for the Ph.D., I asked him why he was bothering, since it was most un likely that he had anything to learn from us. He was already a known scho lar; in addition to some papers in economics, the first two papers in this vol ume had already been published and had dazzled me by their originality and their combination of philosophical insight and technical competence. However, I am very glad I did not discourage him; whether he learned any thing worthwhile I don't know, but we all learned much from him on the foundations of the theory of games and specifically on the outcome of bar gaining. The central focus of Harsanyi's work has continued to be in the theory of games, but especially on the foundations and conceptual problems. The theory of games, properly understood, is a very broad approach to social interaction based on individually rational behavior, and it connects closely with fundamental methodological and substantive issues in social science and in ethics. An indication of the range of Harsanyi's interest in game the ory can be found in the first paper of Part B -though in fact his owncontri butions are much broader-and in the second paper the applications to the methodology of social science. The remaining papers in that section show more specifically the richness of game theory in specific applications.

Politics as Rational Action

Essays in Public Choice and Policy Analysis
Author: L. Lewin,E. Vedung
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400989555
Category: Social Science
Page: 276
View: 6002
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One of the most promising trends in modem political science is the develop ment of a theory of politics as rational action. Focussing on choice as the central topic of study, rational choice theorists set out to specify what alter native an actor should prefer if he has some given knowledge of the conse quences of each alternative and wants to see his preference system as fully realized as possible. But rational choice theory is not confmed to the norma tive sphere of science. It can also be used for explanatory purposes. Then, the alternatives actually chosen are specified and the task is to explain the decisions by fmding out what considerations lay behind them. The starting point for an emerging research program at the Department of Government, Uppsala University, on 'Politics as Rational Action' is to describe the major choices in fifteen different policy areas of Swedish domes tic politics and explain why they were made.

Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences


Author: Alexander L. George,Andrew Bennett,Sean M. Lynn-Jones,Steven E. Miller
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262572224
Category: Political Science
Page: 331
View: 3351
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A text that emphasizes the importance of case studies in social science scholarship and shows how to make case study practices more rigorous.

Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1619054949
Category: Education
Page: 19
View: 1140
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Facts101 is your complete guide to Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Decision Theory

Principles and Approaches
Author: Giovanni Parmigiani,Lurdes Inoue
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047074667X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 402
View: 1656
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Decision theory provides a formal framework for making logical choices in the face of uncertainty. Given a set of alternatives, a set of consequences, and a correspondence between those sets, decision theory offers conceptually simple procedures for choice. This book presents an overview of the fundamental concepts and outcomes of rational decision making under uncertainty, highlighting the implications for statistical practice. The authors have developed a series of self contained chapters focusing on bridging the gaps between the different fields that have contributed to rational decision making and presenting ideas in a unified framework and notation while respecting and highlighting the different and sometimes conflicting perspectives. This book: Provides a rich collection of techniques and procedures. Discusses the foundational aspects and modern day practice. Links foundations to practical applications in biostatistics, computer science, engineering and economics. Presents different perspectives and controversies to encourage readers to form their own opinion of decision making and statistics. Decision Theory is fundamental to all scientific disciplines, including biostatistics, computer science, economics and engineering. Anyone interested in the whys and wherefores of statistical science will find much to enjoy in this book.

Determinants and Controls of Scientific Development


Author: K.D. Knorr,H. Strasser,H.G. Zilian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401018316
Category: Social Science
Page: 460
View: 5285
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This book constitutes the outcome of an international conference held at the Otto-Mobes-Volkswirtschaftsschule, Graz-Stifting( Austria), from June 16 to 22, 1974. The conference was initiated by a project group working on determinants and controls of social science development at the In stitute for Advanced Studies and Scientific Research in Vienna and or ganized by the editors of this volume. It was held under the auspices of the Austrian Ministry of Science and Research. The main topics of the conference were those at the forefront of the 'state of argumentation' (to borrow from one of our contributors) in philosophy and sociology of science ever since the controversy between Thomas S. Kuhn and Sir Karl R. Popper has sharpened our awareness for the methodological and substantial presuppositions involved with questions of growth and development in science. Let us give two examples of those topics. The borderline between sociology of science and philo sophy of science has become more and more unclear; while the work of at least some philosophers of science comes to have an empirical flavour, sociologists of science are increasingly apt to include logical and methodo logical components of the research process as their objects of examina tion. Papers included in this volume testify to both tendencies.

Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View


Author: R. Hegselmann,Ulrich Mueller,Klaus G. Troitzsch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401586861
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 9598
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Model building in the social sciences can increasingly rely on well elaborated formal theories. At the same time inexpensive large computational capacities are now available. Both make computer-based model building and simulation possible in social science, whose central aim is in particular an understanding of social dynamics. Such social dynamics refer to public opinion formation, partner choice, strategy decisions in social dilemma situations and much more. In the context of such modelling approaches, novel problems in philosophy of science arise which must be analysed - the main aim of this book. Interest in social simulation has recently been growing rapidly world- wide, mainly as a result of the increasing availability of powerful personal computers. The field has also been greatly influenced by developments in cellular automata theory (from mathematics) and in distributed artificial intelligence which provided tools readily applicable to social simulation. This book presents a number of modelling and simulation approaches and their relations to problems in philosophy of science. It addresses sociologists and other social scientists interested in formal modelling, mathematical sociology, and computer simulation as well as computer scientists interested in social science applications, and philosophers of social science.

Methodology of Social Sciences

Max Weber
Author: Henry A. Finch
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412843839
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 7557
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Max Weber wrote these methodological essays in the closest intimacy with actual research and against a background of constant and intensive meditation on substantive problems in the theory and strategy of the social sciences. They were written between 1903 and 1917, the most productive of Max Weber's life, when he was working on his studies in the sociology of religion and Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Weber had done important work in economic and legal history and had taught economic theory. On the basis of original investigations, he had acquired a specialist's knowledge of the details of German economic and social structure. His always vital concern for the political prosperity of Germany among the nations thrust him deeply into discussion of political ideals and programs. Weber's methodology still holds interest for us. Some of its shortcomings, from the contemporary viewpoint, may be attributed to the fact that some of the methodological problems that he treated could not be satisfactorily resolved prior to certain actual developments in research technique. These few qualifications aside, the work remains a pioneering work in large scale social research, from one of the field's masters.

Knowledge into Action: Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science

Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science
Author: Danny P. Wallace,Connie J Van Fleet
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610692667
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 388
View: 4301
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The only book currently available that comprehensively integrates research and evaluation for evidence-based library and information science practice.

Navigating the Maze of Research - E-Book

Enhancing Nursing and Midwifery Practice
Author: Sally Borbasi,Debra Jackson
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0729580903
Category: Medical
Page: 288
View: 1649
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A new third edition of this essential research E-book for Australian and New Zealand nursing and midwifery students. This third edition of Navigating the Maze of Research: Enhancing Nursing and Midwifery Practice is the ideal tool for nursing and midwifery students in Australia and New Zealand. Learning to access, evaluate and apply research findings in everyday clinical practice can be difficult. This excellent introductory E-book presents concepts in an accessible and engaging manner; demonstrating how to use research and, importantly, which research to use. Authors Sally Borbasi and Debra Jackson have also introduced a wealth of new content while continuing to provide the E-book’s inimitable balance of theory and activities. All chapters have been significantly revised and updated to reflect current nursing and midwifery research theory and practice, and midwifery students will welcome the increased focus on midwifery specific research. Additional new content in this E-edition of Navigating the Maze of Research includes an increased focus on developing an evidence-based culture in the nursing workplace; a new chapter on applying the research process; a more explicit discussion of nursing ethics; case studies linking practice to research; and increased detail on sampling techniques and reliability and validity. Additional online resources are available for lecturers and students via Elsevier’s Evolve platform. Content is presented in an accessible and engaging manner. Consistent format that makes the text easy to navigate Chapter features include: - Abstract - Key terms - Hints - Student Challenges - Tips for International Students - Other boxed information - Evolve icons indicated throughout the text Resources kit References Evolve eBook and online resources including Power point slides, test banks, activities and weblinks An increased focus on evidence-based practice throughout An increased focus on research specific to Midwives A more explicit discussion of ethical principles A new chapter on Applying the Research Process More detail on sampling techniques, reliability and validity Case studies linking research to practice

Neurobiology of Psychiatric Disorders


Author: Thomas E Schlaepfer,Charles B. Nemeroff
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444535004
Category: Science
Page: 762
View: 2479
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This new volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology presents a comprehensive review of the fundamental science and clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders. Advances in neuroscience have allowed for dramatic advances in the understanding of psychiatric disorders and treatment. Brain disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are the leading cause of disability worldwide. It is estimated that over 25% of the adult population in North America are diagnosed yearly with at least one mental disorder and similar results hold for Europe. Now that neurology and psychiatry agree that all mental disorders are in fact, "brain diseases," this volume provides a foundational introduction to the science defining these disorders and details best practices for psychiatric treatment. Provides a comprehensive review of the scientific foundations of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric treatment Includes detailed results from genetics, molecular biology, brain imaging, and neuropathological, immunological, epidemiological, metabolic, therapeutic and historical aspects of the major psychiatric disorders A "must have" reference and resource for neuroscientists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists as well as all research scientists investigating disorders of the brain

Decision Theory and Social Ethics

Issues in Social Choice
Author: H.W. Gottinger,W. Leinfellner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400998384
Category: Social Science
Page: 351
View: 1857
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Ethics, as one of the most respectable disciplines of philosophy, has undergone a drastic and revolutionary change in recent time. There are three main trends of this development. The first trend can be described as a tendency towards a rigorous formal and analytical language. This means simply that ethics has created beside its own formalized set theoretical language a variety of new formalized, logical and mathemati cal methods and concepts. Thus ethics has become a formalized meta or epidiscipline which is going to replace the traditional concepts, principles and ethical methods in the realm of social sciences. It is clear that a formalized form of ethics can be used more easily in social, economic and political theories if there are ethical conflicts to be solved. This first trend can be regarded as a conditio sine qua non for application in, and imposing ethical solutions on, social scientific theories. The second trend may be characterized as an association- or unification-tendency of a formalized and analytical ethics with decision theory. Decision theory as a new interdiscipline of social sciences is actually an assemblage of a variety of subtheories such as value-utility theory, game theory, collective decision theory, etc. Harsanyi has called this complex of subtheories a general theory of human behavior. Analytical or formal ethics is actually using this general theory of human behavior as a vehicle simply because this theory deals from the beginning with conflict solution, i. e.

Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology

An Epistemology of the Applied and Social Sciences
Author: Richard Mattessich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027708373
Category: Social Science
Page: 396
View: 3550
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This book has been written primarily for the applied and social scientist and student who longs for an integrated picture of the foundations on which his research must ultimately rest; but hopefully the book may also serve philosophers interested in applied disciplines and in systems methodology. If integration was the major motto, the need for a method ology, appropriate to the teleological peculiarities of all applied sciences, was the main impetus behind the conception of the present work. This need I felt a long time ago in my own area of analytical and empirical research in accounting theory and management science; later I had the opportunity to teach, for almost a decade, graduate seminars in Methodology which offered particular insight into the methodological needs of students of such applied disciplines as business administration, education, engineering, infor matics, etc. Out of this effort grew the present book which among other things tries, on one side, to illuminate the difference and relationship between methods of cognition and methods of decision and on the other, to sketch a framework suitable for depicting means-end relationships in a holistic setting. I believe that a systems methodology which incorporates recent endeavours of deontic logic, decision theory, information economics and related areas would be eminently suited to break the ground for such a future framework. Yet systems theory has two major shortcomings which might prevent it from evolving into the desired methodology of applied science.

The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development


Author: Peter K. Smith,Craig H. Hart
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444390919
Category: Psychology
Page: 712
View: 6962
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The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development, Second Edition presents an authoritative and up-to-date overview of research and theory concerning a child's social development from pre-school age to the onset of adolescence. Presents the most up-to-date research and theories on childhood social development Features chapters by an international cast of leaders in their fields Includes comprehensive coverage of a range of disciplinary perspectives Offers all new chapters on children and the environment, cultural influences, history of childhood, interventions, and neuro-psychological perspectives Represents an essential resource for students and researchers of childhood social development

Social Sciences and Modern States

National Experiences and Theoretical Crossroads
Author: Peter Wagner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521381987
Category: History
Page: 374
View: 4560
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Modern social sciences have, over the past forty years, been committed to the improvement of public policy. More recently, however, doubts have arisen about the possibility and desirability of a policy-oriented social science. In this book, leading specialists in the field analyze both the development and failings of policy-oriented social science. In contrast to other writings on the subject, this volume presents a distinctively historical and comparative approach. By looking at earlier periods, the contributors demonstrate how policy orientation has been central to the emergence and evolution of the social sciences as a form of professional activity. Case studies of rarely examined societies such as Poland, Brazil and Japan further demonstrate the various ways in which intellectual developments have been shaped by the societal contexts in which they have emerged and how they have taken part in the shaping of these societies.

Politics and Change in Developing Countries

Studies in the Theory and Practice of Development
Author: Colin Leys
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521144483
Category: Political Science
Page: 302
View: 1467
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This 1969 work gathers together essays on Third World development by nine social scientists with diverse academic interests. These contributions are united by a relative uncertainty in relation to development, derived from the contemporary critical reappraisal of the area, together with a need to create fresh methodologies for the advancement of their respective fields.