Disasters by Design

A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States
Author: Dennis Mileti
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309132664
Category: Science
Page: 371
View: 954
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Disasters by Design provides an alternative and sustainable way to view, study, and manage hazards in the United States that would result in disaster-resilient communities, higher environmental quality, inter- and intragenerational equity, economic sustainability, and improved quality of life. This volume provides an overview of what is known about natural hazards, disasters, recovery, and mitigation, how research findings have been translated into policies and programs; and a sustainable hazard mitigation research agenda. Also provided is an examination of past disaster losses and hazards management over the past 20 years, including factors--demographic, climate, social--that influence loss. This volume summarizes and sets the stage for the more detailed books in the series.

Displaced by Disaster

Recovery and Resilience in a Globalizing World
Author: Ann-Margaret Esnard,Alka Sapat
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135006423
Category: Architecture
Page: 268
View: 3102
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Displacement has traditionally been conceptualized as a phenomenon that results from conflict or other disruptions in developing or unstable countries. Hurricane Katrina shattered this notion and highlighted the various dilemmas of population displacement in the United States. The dilemmas stem from that of inconsistent terminology and definitions; lack of efforts to quantify displacement risk potential and that factor displacement vulnerability into community plans; lack of understanding of differential needs of "displacees" especially during long-term recovery periods; and policy and institutional responses (or lack thereof) especially as it relates to post-disaster sheltering and housing. Incorporating relevant examples, cases, and policies Esnard and Sapat look at the experience of other countries and how the international community has dealt with hundreds of thousands of individuals who have been forced to leave their homes. Displaced by Disaster addresses such issues from a planning and policy perspective informed by scholarship in disciplines such as emergency management; political science; sociology and anthropology. It is ideal for students and practitioners working in the areas of disaster management, planning, public administration and policy, housing, and the many disciplines connected to disaster issues.

The Environment as Hazard


Author: Ian Burton
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 9780898621594
Category: Science
Page: 290
View: 3263
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The Environment as Hazard offers an understanding of how people around the world deal with dramatic fluctuations in the local natural systems of air, water, and terrain. Reviewing recent theoretical and methodological changes in the investigation of natural hazards, the authors describe how research findings are being incorporated into public policy, particularly research on slow cumulative events, technological hazards, the role played by social systems, and the relation of hazards theory to risk analysis. Through vivid examples from a broad sample of countries, this volume illuminates the range of experiences associated with natural hazards. The authors show how modes of coping change with levels of economic development by contrasting hazards in developing countries with those in high income countries - comparing the results of hurricanes in Bangladesh and the United States, and earthquakes in Nicaragua and California. In new introductory and concluding chapters that supplement the original text, the authors present new global data sets, as well as a trenchant discussion of implications of hazards research for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and for attempts by the world community to come to grips with the threats of climate change.

Post-Tsunami Recovery in Thailand

Socio-cultural responses
Author: Monica Lindberg Falk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317690125
Category: Social Science
Page: 218
View: 8967
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Of all the huge natural disasters that claimed the lives of thousands in Asia, the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 was the largest, estimated to have killed more than 230,000 people. The scope of damage brought about by this natural disaster urges focus on recovery and post-disaster reconstruction from several perspectives. Here we find an in-depth ethnography of Thailand and the role of culture and religion as an underpinning issue in post-disaster recovery. Following the post-tsunami recovery over five years, the book provides knowledge on socio-cultural responses from affected local communities after natural hazards, and is based on original material collected in Thailand after the 2004 tsunami. With a focus on how culture and religion interplay in the processes of building resilience and decreasing vulnerability, it gives a deeper understanding of how disasters are experienced and dealt with on a local level. It examines survivors’ experiences of rituals and ceremonies that became a part of the survivors’ lives in new ways after the tsunami, offering psychological reassurance and religious efficaciousness as well as communication links between themselves and the deceased. Using observations, narratives and material from in-depth interviews with survivors, relatives, relief workers, officials and Buddhist monks and nuns, this book contributes to the research on anthropology of disaster and to the development of research on cultural resilience and religion in post-disaster recovery. It will be of interest to scholars of Disaster Studies, Buddhist Studies and Asian Studies.

Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice

Proceedings of ESREL 2016 (Glasgow, Scotland, 25-29 September 2016)
Author: Lesley Walls,Matthew Revie,Tim Bedford
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 149878898X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 486
View: 3811
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The safe and reliable performance of many systems with which we interact daily has been achieved through the analysis and management of risk. From complex infrastructures to consumer durables, from engineering systems and technologies used in transportation, health, energy, chemical, oil, gas, aerospace, maritime, defence and other sectors, the management of risk during design, manufacture, operation and decommissioning is vital. Methods and models to support risk-informed decision-making are well established but are continually challenged by technology innovations, increasing interdependencies, and changes in societal expectations. Risk, Reliability and Safety contains papers describing innovations in theory and practice contributed to the scientific programme of the European Safety and Reliability conference (ESREL 2016), held at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland (25—29 September 2016). Authors include scientists, academics, practitioners, regulators and other key individuals with expertise and experience relevant to specific areas. Papers include domain specific applications as well as general modelling methods. Papers cover evaluation of contemporary solutions, exploration of future challenges, and exposition of concepts, methods and processes. Topics include human factors, occupational health and safety, dynamic and systems reliability modelling, maintenance optimisation, uncertainty analysis, resilience assessment, risk and crisis management.

Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief


Author: K. Bradley Penuel,Matt Statler
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452266395
Category: Political Science
Page: 984
View: 7475
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Request a FREE 30-day online trial to this title at www.sagepub.com/freetrial! This encyclopedia covers response to disasters around the world, from governments to NGOs, from charities to politics, from refugees to health, and from economics to international relations, covering issues in both historical and contemporary context. The volumes include information relevant to students of sociology, national security, economics, health sciences, political science, emergency preparedness, history, agriculture, and many other subjects. The goal is to help readers appreciate the importance of the effects, responsibilities, and ethics of disaster relief, and to initiate educational discussion brought forth by the specific cultural, scientific, and topical articles contained within the work. Including 425 signed entries in a two-volume set presented in A-to-Z format, and drawing contributors from varied academic disciplines, this encyclopedia also features a preface by Thomas H. Kean and Lee H. Hamilton of the 9/11 Commission. This reference resource examines disaster response and relief in a manner that is authoritative yet accessible, jargon-free, and balanced to help readers better understand issues from varied perspectives. Key Themes - Geography - Government and International Agencies - History - Human-induced Disasters - Infrastructure - Local Response - Major Disasters (Relief Case Studies) - Medicine and Psychology - Methods and Practices - Mitigation - Natural Disasters (Overviews) - Politics and Funding - Preparedness - Recovery - Response - Science and Prediction - Sociology - U.S. Geographical Response

Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters in China, Japan and Beyond


Author: Adenrele Awotona
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443861170
Category: Social Science
Page: 460
View: 2177
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This volume examines lessons learned in reducing the impact of disasters on communities in China, Japan and other countries world-wide. Asia is the most disaster-prone continent. The 2012 data on natural disasters in 28 Asian countries, released by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Belgian-based Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters on December 11th, 2012 showed that, from 1950 to 2011, nine out of ten people affected by disasters globally were in Asia; that of the top five disasters that created the most damage in 2012, three were in China; that China led the list of most disasters in 2012; and, that China was the only “multi-hazard”-prone country. Similarly, the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake was the greatest known earthquake ever to have hit Japan and one of the five strongest ever recorded earthquakes in the world since 1900. Subsequently, the Center for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters at the University of Massachusetts Boston organized a conference in November 2012 to survey the best practices in post-disaster rebuilding efforts in China and Japan. This edited book consists of selected papers from the proceedings of that event and previously invited contributions from leading scholars in post-disaster rebuilding in China, Japan and Namibia.

Catastrophe in the Making

The Engineering of Katrina and the Disasters of Tomorrow
Author: William R. Freudenburg,Robert B. Gramling,Shirley Laska,Kai Erikson
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610911563
Category: Architecture
Page: 224
View: 649
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When houses are flattened, towns submerged, and people stranded without electricity or even food, we attribute the suffering to “natural disasters” or “acts of God.” But what if they’re neither? What if we, as a society, are bringing these catastrophes on ourselves? That’s the provocative theory of Catastrophe in the Making, the first book to recognize Hurricane Katrina not as a “perfect storm,” but a tragedy of our own making—and one that could become commonplace. The authors, one a longtime New Orleans resident, argue that breached levees and sloppy emergency response are just the most obvious examples of government failure. The true problem is more deeply rooted and insidious, and stretches far beyond the Gulf Coast. Based on the false promise of widespread prosperity, communities across the U.S. have embraced all brands of “economic development” at all costs. In Louisiana, that meant development interests turning wetlands into shipping lanes. By replacing a natural buffer against storm surges with a 75-mile long, obsolete canal that cost hundreds of millions of dollars, they guided the hurricane into the heart of New Orleans and adjacent communities. The authors reveal why, despite their geographic differences, California and Missouri are building—quite literally—toward similar destruction. Too often, the U.S. “growth machine” generates wealth for a few and misery for many. Drawing lessons from the most expensive “natural” disaster in American history, Catastrophe in the Making shows why thoughtless development comes at a price we can ill afford.

Educational Facilities and Risk Management Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters
Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 926402834X
Category:
Page: 120
View: 7212
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Earthquakes and other natural disasters are unpredictable, and often deadly. In developed and developing countries alike, the cost in human life and infrastructure is very high. The danger to schools is of particular concern, given the concentration ...

Vital Signs 2000


Author: The Worldwatch Institute
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610916611
Category: Nature
Page: 190
View: 6782
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The global trends documented in Vital Signs 2000--from the rapid rise in the sales of energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps to the worldwide overpumping of growndwater--will play a large role in determining the quality of our lives and our children's lives in the next decade.

Disaster Diplomacy

How Disasters Affect Peace and Conflict
Author: Ilan Kelman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136653724
Category: Political Science
Page: 184
View: 6329
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When an earthquake hits a war zone or cyclone aid is flown in by an enemy, many ask: Can catastrophe bring peace? Disaster prevention and mitigation provide similar questions. Could setting up a flood warning system bring enemy countries together? Could a regional earthquake building code set the groundwork for wider regional cooperation? This book examines how and why disaster-related activities do and do not create peace and reduce conflict. Disaster-related activities refer to actions before a disaster such as prevention and mitigation along with actions after a disaster such as emergency response, humanitarian relief, and reconstruction. This volume investigates disaster diplomacy case studies from around the world, in a variety of political and disaster circumstances, from earthquakes in Greece and Turkey affecting these neighbours’ bilateral relations to volcanoes and typhoons influencing intra-state conflict in the Philippines. Dictatorships are amongst the case studies, such as Cuba and Burma, along with democracies such as the USA and India. No evidence is found to suggest that disaster diplomacy is a prominent factor in conflict resolution. Instead, disaster-related activities often influence peace processes in the short-term—over weeks and months—provided that a non-disaster-related basis already existed for the reconciliation. That could be secret negotiations between the warring parties or strong trade or cultural links. Over the long-term, disaster-related influences disappear, succumbing to factors such as a leadership change, the usual patterns of political enmity, or belief that an historical grievance should take precedence over disaster-related bonds. This is the first book on disaster diplomacy. Disaster-politics interactions have been studied for decades, but usually from a specific political framing, covering a specific geographical area, or from a specific disaster framing. As well, plenty of quantitative work has been completed, yet the data limitations are rarely admitted openly or thoroughly analysed. Few publications bring together the topics of disasters and politics in terms of a disaster diplomacy framework, yielding a grounded, qualitative, scientific point of view on the topic.

Flirting with Disaster

Public Management in Crisis Situations
Author: Saundra K. Schneider
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 9781563245701
Category: Political Science
Page: 187
View: 440
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An examination of governmental performance during natural disaster situations. It seeks to explain why some governmental responses to disasters are regarded as successful while others are considered failures.

Assessment of NASA's Draft 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy

Letter Report
Author: Space Studies Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030956137X
Category: Science
Page: 19
View: 3553
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Hydrometeorological Hazards

Interfacing Science and Policy
Author: Philippe Quevauviller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111862954X
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 3584
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Recent hydrometeorological extreme events have highlighted the increased exposure and vulnerability of societies and the need to strengthen the knowledge-base of related policies. Current research is focused on improving forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities in order to improve the assessment of vulnerability and risks linked to extreme climatic events. Hydrometeorological Hazards: Interfacing science and policy is the first volume of a series which will gather scientific and policy-related knowledge related to climate-related extreme events. Invited authors are internationally recognized experts in their respective fields. This volume reflects the most recent advances in science and policy within this field and takes a multidisciplinary approach. The book provides the reader with a state-of-the art account on flash floods, droughts, storms, and a comprehensive discussion focused on the cost of natural hazards, resilience and adaptation. This book will be an invaluable reference for advanced undergraduates taking courses with a focus on natural hazards including climate-related extreme events. The book will also be of interest to postgraduates, researchers and policy makers in this field looking for an overview of the subject.

Key Concepts in Measurement


Author: Brian E. Perron,David F. Gillespie
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190235977
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 7841
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Measurement refers generally to the process of assigning a numeric value to, or ordering characteristics or traits of, entities under study. Measurement is necessary for building and testing theory, specifying problems, and defining goals. It is arguably one of the most important and diffcult tasks in social work research. Social work researchers who are not expert in developing, selecting, and using measures will not be able to contribute maximally to the social work knowledge base. Such knowledge and skills related to measurement ultimately determines the extent to which social work research can effectively inform social policy and social work interventions. This book is to serve as a guide for developing, selecting, and using measures in social work research. In particular, this book provides a detailed review of contemporary validity theory; an update on the major issues of reliability; common errors in measurement of latent variables; and suggestions on measurement of social networks and collectives. An important theme of this book is the focus on the creative potential of measurement - that is, helping social work researchers think about the wide variety of ways that social work concepts can be measured. Reflecting on these differences raises questions about underlying assumptions that in turn inspires creative theoretical insights. Rather than seeing measurement as simply a task to be completed in the research process, we will encourage the reader to think creatively about measurement and theory. This book also addresses the interdependency of measurement and theory construction. In other words, this book covers how measurement and theory are connected in two different ways. First, every measure has its own working theory that relates the measure to the concept being measured. Second, theory construction is dependent on measurement. What we learn using a given measure could be different if a concept was measured in a different way.

At Risk

Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters
Author: Piers M. Blaikie
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415084772
Category: Catastrophes naturelles
Page: 284
View: 7221
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At Risk reasserts the significance of the human factor in disasters. Establishing that the social, political and economic environment is as much a cause of disasters as the natural environment, the book argues that disaster mitigation is rooted in the potential humans have to understand their vulnerability and to take common action. Famines and drought, biological hazards, floods, coastal storms, earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides: At Risk draws practical and policy conclusions with a view to disaster reduction and the promotion of a safer environment.

Fatal Isolation

The Devastating Paris Heat Wave of 2003
Author: Richard C. Keller
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022625643X
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 8716
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In a cemetery on the southern outskirts of Paris lie the bodies of nearly a hundred of what some have called the first casualties of global climate change. They were the so-called abandoned victims of the worst natural disaster in French history, the devastating heat wave that struck in August 2003, leaving 15,000 dead. They died alone in Paris and its suburbs, and were then buried at public expense, their bodies unclaimed. They died, and to a great extent lived, unnoticed by their neighbors--their bodies undiscovered in some cases until weeks after their deaths. Fatal Isolation tells the stories of these victims and the catastrophe that took their lives. It explores the multiple narratives of disaster--the official story of the crisis and its aftermath, as presented by the media and the state; the life stories of the individual victims, which both illuminate and challenge the ways we typically perceive natural disasters; and the scientific understandings of disaster and its management. Fatal Isolation is both a social history of risk and vulnerability in the urban landscape and a story of how a city copes with emerging threats and sudden, dramatic change.

Environmental Change and Globalization: Double Exposures


Author: Robin Leichenko,Karen O'Brien
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199884269
Category: Science
Page: 192
View: 7659
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This book explores the connections between two of the most transformative processes of the twenty-first century, namely climate change and globalization. In this book, Leichenko and O'Brien present a conceptual framework for analyzing the interactions between these two processes, and illustrate, through case studies, how these interactions create situations of "double exposure." Drawing upon prominent recent and current climate-related events -- Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, recurring droughts in India, and the melting of Arctic sea ice -- the case studies each demonstrate a different pathway of interaction between globalization and global environmental change. Through exploration of these pathways of double exposure, the book also shows how broader human security concerns including growing inequalities, growing vulnerabilities, and unsustainable rates of development are integrally connected to both processes of global change. The double exposure framework not only sheds light on the challenges raised by these two global processes, but also reveals possibilities for using the interactions to generate positive opportunities for action.

Site Analysis

Informing Context-Sensitive and Sustainable Site Planning and Design
Author: James A. LaGro, Jr.
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118416260
Category: Architecture
Page: 384
View: 1889
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The process-oriented guide to context-sensitive site selection, planning, and design Sustainable design is responsive to context. And each site has a unique set of physical, biological, cultural, and legal attributes that presents different opportunities and constraints for alternative uses of the site. Site analysis systematically evaluates these on-site and off-site factors to inform the design of places—including neighborhoods and communities—that are attractive, walkable, and climate-resilient. This Third Edition of Site Analysis is fully updated to cover the latest topics in low-impact, location-efficient design and development. This complete, user-friendly guide: Blends theory andpractice from the fields of landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, geography, and urban design Addresses important sustainability topics, including LEED-ND, Sustainable Sites, STAR community index, and climate adaptation Details the objectives and visualization methods used in each phase of the site planning and design process Explains the influence of codes, ordinances, and site plan approval processes on the design of the built environment Includes more than 200 illustrations and eight case studies of projects completed by leading planning and design firms Site Analysis, Third Edition is the ideal guide for students taking courses in site analysis, site planning, and environmental design. New material includes review questions at the end of each chapter for students as well as early-career professionals preparing for the ARE, LARE, or AICP exams.

The Utah Landslides, Debris Flows, and Floods of May and June 1983


Author: N.A
Publisher: National Academies
ISBN: N.A
Category: Floods
Page: 96
View: 3837
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