Crime Prevention in Australia

Issues in Policy and Research
Author: Pat O'Malley,Adam Sutton
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862872301
Category: Crime analysis
Page: 295
View: 8161
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The strengths of this book, in addition to the broad and varied expertise of the contributors, are:the way in which it brings together theory, research and policy its presentation of the issues in the context of local and 'relevant' Australian developments while grounding the discussion in international trends and background.

Community and the Problem of Crime


Author: Karen Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317750853
Category: Social Science
Page: 210
View: 7385
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The relationship between crime and community has a long history in criminological thought, from the early notion of the criminogenic community developed by the Chicago sociologists through to various crime prevention models in research and policy. This book offers a useful theoretical overview of key approaches to the subject of crime and community and considers the ways in which these have been applied in more practical settings. Written by an expert in the field and drawing on a range of international case studies from Europe, North America, Australia and Asia, this book explores both why and how crime and community have been linked and the implications of their relationship within criminology and crime prevention policy. Topics covered in the book include: the different crime prevention paradigms which have been utilised in the 'fight against crime', the turn to community in crime prevention policy, which took place during the 1980s in the UK and US and its subsequent development, the particular theoretical and ideological underpinnings to crime prevention work in and with different communities, the significance and impact of fear of crime on crime prevention policy, different institutional responses to working with community in crime prevention and community safety, the ways in which the experience of the UK and US have been translated into the European context, a comparison between traditional Western responses to the growing interest in restorative and community-based approaches in other regions. This book offers essential reading for students taking courses on crime and community, crime prevention and community safety, and community corrections.

Social Dynamics of Crime and Control

New Theories for a World in Transition
Author: Kai-D. Bussmann,Susanne Karstedt
Publisher: Hart Publishing
ISBN: 1841131431
Category: Law
Page: 271
View: 3155
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This book assembles essays by leading scholars in their fields of criminology and socio-legal studies. John Braithwaite, John Hagan, Jack Katz, Nicola Lacey, Michael Levi, Joan McCord, Dario Melossi, Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld explore new directions in contemporary theorising about the impact of social and cultural dynamics on crime and social control. These essays have in common that they transcend disciplinary boundaries by combining criminological and socio-legal perspectives; in so doing they bring fresh perspectives to the analysis of crime in market societies and in the global market place. The authors do not share the apocalyptic and dramatic predictions of rising crime rates, but are aware of the "double movement" of social change and the counteracting forces that emerge in its course. These essays promote an integrative perspective that bridges the gap between etiological criminology and a constructionist approach as well as between explanatory and normative theory.

Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People's Urban Crime


Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199592845
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 479
View: 8073
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Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.

Fixing Broken Windows

Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities
Author: George L. Kelling,Catherine M. Coles
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0684837382
Category: Political Science
Page: 319
View: 6292
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Cites successful examples of community-based policing

Policing Football

Social Interaction and Negotiated Disorder
Author: M. O'Neill
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230512402
Category: Social Science
Page: 220
View: 5278
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This book presents a critical portrait of the British police through a detailed ethnography of their work at football matches. Megan O'Neill not only sheds light on a topic of intense media interest, football hooliganism, but also presents the police in a totally fresh perspective. By using the work of Erving Goffman, she demonstrates how the police are a far from unified force. Their informal interaction 'teams' divide them operationally and socially.

Unraveling the Crime-Place Connection, Volume 22

New Directions in Theory and Policy
Author: David Weisburd,John E. Eck
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351374346
Category: Social Science
Page: 300
View: 4306
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Unraveling the Crime-Place Connection examines in a new light how places enhance our understanding of crime and its control. While there has been much work in this area focused on policy, few have examined the underlying theories that inform this work. Theory has played a secondary role in the "criminology of place," and this volume brings it to the forefront of scholarly concerns. Each part and its chapters illuminate cutting-edge ideas in the etiology and control of crime at place, beginning with an introductory Part I. Crime is often concentrated in very small geographies, and Part II emphasizes the importance of capturing the dynamic nature of places in order to understand crime clustering. Part III offers integrative theories on the varying contextual arrangements of places and links theories of places to other theories of individuals, neighborhoods, and other social contexts. In Part IV, theorists ask how the actions of place owners facilitate or control crime and what policies governments can institute to regulate place management. This volume will be of interest to criminologists worldwide and useful for graduate-level or advanced undergraduate courses on environmental criminology or crime prevention.

The Criminology of Place

Street Segments and Our Understanding of the Crime Problem
Author: David Weisburd,Elizabeth R. Groff,Sue-Ming Yang
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199709106
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 7936
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The study of crime has focused primarily on why particular people commit crime or why specific communities have higher crime levels than others. In The Criminology of Place, David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang present a new and different way of looking at the crime problem by examining why specific streets in a city have specific crime trends over time. Based on a 16-year longitudinal study of crime in Seattle, Washington, the book focuses our attention on small units of geographic analysis-micro communities, defined as street segments. Half of all Seattle crime each year occurs on just 5-6 percent of the city's street segments, yet these crime hot spots are not concentrated in a single neighborhood and street by street variability is significant. Weisburd, Groff, and Yang set out to explain why. The Criminology of Place shows how much essential information about crime is inevitably lost when we focus on larger units like neighborhoods or communities. Reorienting the study of crime by focusing on small units of geography, the authors identify a large group of possible crime risk and protective factors for street segments and an array of interventions that could be implemented to address them. The Criminology of Place is a groundbreaking book that radically alters traditional thinking about the crime problem and what we should do about it.

Rural Crime and Community Safety


Author: Vania A Ceccato
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135005540
Category: Social Science
Page: 424
View: 7868
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Crime is often perceived as an urban issue rather than a problem that occurs in rural areas, but how far is this view tenable? This book explores the relationship between crime and community in rural areas and addresses the notion of safety as part of the community dynamics in such areas. Rural Crime and Community Safety makes a significant contribution to crime science and integrates a range of theories to understand patterns of crime and perceived safety in rural contexts. Based on a wealth of original research, Ceccato combines spatial methods with qualitative analysis to examine, in detail, farm and wildlife crime, youth related crimes and gendered violence in rural settings. Making the most of the expanding field of Criminology and of the growing professional inquiry into crime and crime prevention in rural areas; rural development; and the social sustainability of rural areas, this book builds a bridge by connecting Criminology and Human Geography. This book will be suitable for academics, students and practitioners in the fields of criminology, community safety, rural studies, rural development and gender studies.

The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention


Author: Brandon C. Welsh,David P. Farrington
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199396698
Category: Social Science
Page: 560
View: 4171
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How can a society prevent-not deter, not punish-but prevent crime? Criminal justice prevention, commonly called crime control, aims to prevent crime after an initial offence has been commited through anything from an arrest to a death penalty sentence. These traditional means have been frequently examined and their efficacy just as frequently questioned. Promising new forms of crime prevention have emerged and expanded as important components of an overall strategy to reduce crime. Crime prevention today has developed along three lines: interventions to improve the life chances of children and prevent them from embarking on a life of crime; programs and policies designed to ameliorate the social conditions and institutions that influence offending; and the modification or manipulation of the physical environment, products, or systems to reduce everyday opportunities for crime. Each strategy aims at preventing crime or criminal offending in the first instance - before the act has been committed. Each, importantly, takes place outside of the formal criminal justice system, representing an alternative, perhaps even socially progressive way to reduce crime. The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention is a comprehensive, up-to-date, and authoritative review of research on crime prevention. Bringing together top scholars in criminology, public policy, psychology, and sociology, this Handbook includes critical reviews of the main theories that form the basis of crime prevention, evidence-based assessments of the effectiveness of the most important interventions, and cross-cutting essays that examine implementation, evaluation methodology, and public policy. Covering the three major crime prevention strategies active today-developmental, community, and situational-this definitive volume addresses seriously and critically the ways in which the United States and the Western world have attempted, and should continue to strive for the of crime.

The Routledge Handbook of Irish Criminology


Author: Deirdre Healy,Claire Hamilton,Yvonne Daly,Michelle Butler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317698169
Category: Social Science
Page: 606
View: 9341
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The Routledge Handbook of Irish Criminology is the first edited collection of its kind to bring together the work of leading Irish criminologists in a single volume. While Irish criminology can be characterised as a nascent but dynamic discipline, it has much to offer the Irish and international reader due to the unique historical, cultural, political, social and economic arrangements that exist on the island of Ireland. The Handbook consists of 30 chapters, which offer original, comprehensive and critical reviews of theory, research, policy and practice in a wide range of subject areas. The chapters are divided into four thematic sections: Understanding crime examines specific offence types, including homicide, gangland crime and white-collar crime, and the theoretical perspectives used to explain them. Responding to crime explores criminal justice responses to crime, including crime prevention, restorative justice, approaches to policing and trial as well as post-conviction issues such as imprisonment, community sanctions and rehabilitation. Contexts of crime investigates the social, political and cultural contexts of the policymaking process, including media representations, politics, the role of the victim and the impact of gender. Emerging ideas focuses on innovative ideas that prompt a reconsideration of received wisdom on particular topics, including sexual violence and ethnicity. Charting the key contours of the criminological enterprise on the island of Ireland and placing the Irish material in the context of the wider European and international literature, this book is essential reading for those involved in the study of Irish criminology and international and comparative criminal justice.

Class, Race, Gender, and Crime

The Social Realities of Justice in America
Author: Gregg Barak,Paul Leighton,Allison Cotton
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442268891
Category: Social Science
Page: 344
View: 6657
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Class, Race, Gender, and Crime is a powerful introduction to crime and the criminal justice system through the lens of class, race, gender, and their intersections. The book explores how power and privilege shape our understanding of crime and justice. The fifth edition features new material on police violence and Black Lives Matter, disability, and more.

Deterrence and Crime Prevention

Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction
Author: David M. Kennedy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135976309
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 208
View: 8394
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Deterrence is at the heart of the preventive aspiration of criminal justice. Deterrence, whether through preventive patrol by police officers or stiff prison sentences for violent offenders, is the principal mechanism through which the central feature of criminal justice, the exercise of state authority, works – it is hoped -- to diminish offending and enhance public safety. And however well we think deterrence works, it clearly often does not work nearly as well as we would like – and often at very great cost. Drawing on a wide range of scholarly literatures and real-world experience, Kennedy argues that we should reframe the ways in which we think about and produce deterrence. He argues that many of the ways in which we seek to deter crime in fact facilitate offending; that simple steps such as providing clear information to offenders could transform deterrence; that communities may be far more effective than legal authorities in deterring crime; that apparently minor sanctions can deter more effectively than draconian ones; that groups, rather than individual offenders, should often be the focus of deterrence; that existing legal tools can be used in unusual but greatly more effective ways; that even serious offenders can be reached through deliberate moral engagement; and that authorities, communities, and offenders – no matter how divided – share and can occupy hidden common ground. The result is a sophisticated but ultimately common-sense and profoundly hopeful case that we can and should use new deterrence strategies to address some of our most important crime problems. Drawing on and expanding on the lessons of groundbreaking real-world work like Boston’s Operation Ceasefire – credited with the "Boston Miracle" of the 1990s – "Deterrence and Crime Prevention" is required reading for scholars, law enforcement practitioners, and all with an interest in public safety and the health of communities.

Social, Ecological and Environmental Theories of Crime


Author: JefferyT. Walker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351548379
Category: Social Science
Page: 560
View: 9087
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One of the oldest and most extensive forms of criminology falls within what is referred to, among other names, as social ecology. Beginning with the work of Guerry and Quetelet, this theory became the dominate paradigm in explaining crime with the work of the Chicago School in the early 1900s, social disorganization theory, and neighborhood research attempting to deal with crime in deteriorating cities. Social ecology is also the basis for the research being conducted in environmental criminology. This volume offers a selection of the most influential works in social ecology and environmental criminology. It begins with research from human ecology and the Chicago School, extending through some of the research in social disorganization theory. It encompasses some of the major journal articles from the 1980s and 1990s in neighborhoods and crime, and then addresses some of the quintessential works in environmental criminology. It ends with groundbreaking work in this area that may indicate the future direction of the field. This valuable collection includes an excellent introduction by Jeff Walker.

Policing Problem Places

Crime Hot Spots and Effective Prevention
Author: Anthony Allan Braga,David Weisburd
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195341961
Category: Social Science
Page: 299
View: 1298
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In recent years, crime scholars and practitioners have pointed to the potential benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on crime places. A number of studies suggest that crime is not spread evenly across city landscapes. Rather, there is significant clustering of crime in small places, or "hot spots," that generate a vastly disproportionate number of criminal events. Even within the most crime-ridden neighborhoods, crime clusters at a few discrete locations and other areas are relatively crime free. A number of researchers have argued that many crime problems can be addressed more efficiently if police officers focus their attention on these deviant places. The appeal of focusing limited resources on a small number of high-activity crime places is straightforward. If crime can be prevented at these problem places, then police will be well positioned to lower citywide crime rates. In Policing Problem Places, Anthony A. Braga and David L. Weisburd make the case that hotspots policing is an effective approach to crime prevention that should be engaged by police departments in the United States and other countries. There is a strong and growing body of rigorous scientific evidence that the police can control crime hot spots without simply displacing crime problems to other places. Indeed, putting police officers in high crime locations is an old and well-established idea. However, the age and popularity of this idea does not necessarily mean that it is being done properly. Police officers should strive to use problem-oriented policing and situational crime prevention techniques to address the place dynamics, situations, and characteristics that cause a "spot" to be "hot." Braga and Weisburd further suggest that the strategies used to police problem places can have more or less desirable effects on police-community relations. Particularly in minority neighborhoods where residents have long suffered from elevated crime problems and historically poorpolice service, police officers should make an effort to develop positive and collaborative relationships with residents and not engage strategies that will undermine the legitimacy of police agencies, such as indiscriminant enforcement tactics. This book argues that it is time for police departments to shift away from a focus on catching criminal offenders and move towards dealing with crime at problem places as a central crime prevention strategy.

Predictive Policing

The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations
Author: Walt L. Perry
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833081551
Category: Computers
Page: 186
View: 6656
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Predictive policing is the use of analytical techniques to identify targets for police intervention with the goal of preventing crime, solving past crimes, or identifying potential offenders and victims. These tools are not a substitute for integrated approaches to policing, nor are they a crystal ball. This guide assesses some of the most promising technical tools and tactical approaches for acting on predictions in an effective way.

Male Crime and Deviance

Exploring Its Causes, Dynamics, and Nature
Author: Ronald B. Flowers
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
ISBN: 0398074011
Category: Social Science
Page: 353
View: 3848
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This textbook analyzes the causes, dynamics, and nature of male crime and aggression. Written for both undergraduate and graduate level students, this textbook takes a multidisciplinary approach to male criminality. The study of crime and criminals has typically either focused specifically on female deviance or has offered a general analysis of crime that presumes, by and large, a male offender. This textbook explicitly analyzes male criminality, rather than implicitly studying it through a general analysis of crime. The relationship between male aggression and masculinity is explored, as is the role of testosterone and other biological factors that may play a role in male crime and violence. The textbook is divided into seven parts. Part 1 examines the biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural and masculinity theories that attempt to explain male aggression, crime, and violence. Part 2 concentrates on the dynamics of male crime and violence. Gender differences in criminal behavior are examined, as well as racial and ethnic differences in male crime. The arrest patterns and the characteristics of male inmates in adult and juvenile correctional facilities are also explored. Part 3 focuses on male crime of violence; chapters are devoted to examinations of homicide, forcible rape, domestic violence, stalking, hate crimes, workplace violence, and terrorism. Part 4 explores property offenses, such as robbery, motor vehicle theft, and carjacking. Part 5 examines male sex offenses and includes analyses of incest, child sexual abuse, prostitution-related crimes, and explores the relationship between pornography and male violence. Part 6 looks at juvenile male crime and delinquency, with a focus on youth gangs and school crime and violence. Part 7 outlines Federal legislation designed to combat criminal and violent behavior, including the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Violence Against Women Act of 2000, and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, amended in 1978. The textbook is appropriate for coursework in criminal justice, criminology, sociology, psychology, law enforcement, and other related areas of study.

Moral Issues in Intelligence-led Policing


Author: Helene Oppen Gundhus,Kira Vrist Rønn,Nick Fyfe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351864505
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 5758
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The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? What kind of challenges will this move entail? What does the criminalization of preparatory acts mean for previous distinctions between crime prevention and crime detection? What are the predominant rationales behind the proactive use of covert cohesive measures in order to prevent attacks on national security? How are new technological measures, increased private partnerships and international cooperation challenging the core nature of police services as the main providers of public safety and security? This book offers new insights by exploring dilemmas, legal issues and questions raised by the use of new policing methods and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work.

Green Crimes and Dirty Money


Author: Toine Spapens,Rob White,Daan van Uhm,Wim Huisman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351245724
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 274
View: 412
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Environmental crimes are primarily driven by financial motives. The combined financial value of illicit trade in protected wildlife, illegal logging and waste trafficking is estimated to come directly after counterfeiting, the narcotic drugs trade and illegal gambling. Logically, the proceeds of these crimes must also be laundered. Goods, however, are not the only money maker for environmental criminals. Corporations may also try to ‘save’ costs by not complying with environmental regulations and thus commit crimes of omission rather than commission. From an enforcement and compliance perspective focusing on the proceeds of crime may therefore be an effective strategy. This book brings together different perspectives on the financial aspects of environmental crime and harm from a green criminological viewpoint. It addresses the role of economic systems, the value of environmental performance for corporations, money laundering in the context of environmental crime, financial investigation and questions of regulation and penalties. Discussing these topics from the view of green criminology, sociology and governance, this book will be of great interest to all those concerned about the financial dimensions of crime and the environment.