Engineering a Safer World

Systems Thinking Applied to Safety
Author: Nancy G. Leveson
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262297302
Category: Science
Page: 560
View: 3919
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Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineering techniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, have changed very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a new approach to safety -- more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world -- based on modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950s aerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively on real-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, less expensive, and easier to use than current techniques.Arguing that traditional models of causality are inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes, or STAMP), then then shows how the new model can be used to create techniques for system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safety in operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques to real-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first Gulf War; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a public water supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering, offering techniques for "reengineering" any large sociotechnical system to improve safety and manage risk.

Engineering a Safer World

Systems Thinking Applied to Safety
Author: Nancy Leveson
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262016621
Category: Science
Page: 534
View: 2086
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Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineeringtechniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, havechanged very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a newapproach to safety--more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world--basedon modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950saerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively onreal-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, lessexpensive, and easier to use than current techniques. Arguing that traditional models of causalityare inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic AccidentModel and Processes, or STAMP), then then shows how the new model can be used to create techniquesfor system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safetyin operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques toreal-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first GulfWar; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a publicwater supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering,offering techniques for "reengineering" any large sociotechnical system to improve safetyand manage risk.

Engineering a Safer World

Systems Thinking Applied to Safety
Author: Nancy G. Leveson
Publisher: Engineering Systems
ISBN: 9780262533690
Category: Science
Page: 560
View: 7622
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Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineering techniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, have changed very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a new approach to safety -- more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world -- based on modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950s aerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively on real-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, less expensive, and easier to use than current techniques. Arguing that traditional models of causality are inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes, or STAMP), then then shows how the new model can be used to create techniques for system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safety in operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques to real-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first Gulf War; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a public water supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering, offering techniques for "reengineering" any large sociotechnical system to improve safety and manage risk.

SafeWare

System Safety and Computers
Author: Nancy Leveson
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 680
View: 4873
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We are building systems today--and using computers to control them--that have the potential for large-scale destruction of life and environment. More than ever, software engineers and system developers, as well as their managers, must understand the issues and develop the skills needed to anticipate and prevent accidents before they occur. Professionals should not require a catastrophe to happen before taking action. Addressing this need in her long-awaited book, Nancy Levenson examines what is currently known about building safe electromagnetic systems and looks at past accidents to see what practical lessons can be applied to new computer-controlled systems.Software Demonstrates the importance of integrating software safety efforts with system safety engineering Describes models of accidents and human error that underlie particular approaches to safety problems Presents the elements of a software program, including management, hazard analysis, requirements analysis, design for safety, design of the human-machine interface, and verification 0201119722B04062001

Flexibility in Engineering Design


Author: Richard de Neufville,Stefan Scholtes
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262297337
Category: Science
Page: 312
View: 3115
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Project teams can improve results by recognizing that the future is inevitably uncertain and that by creating flexible designs they can adapt to eventualities. This approach enables them to take advantage of new opportunities and avoid harmful losses. Designers of complex, long-lasting projects -- such as communication networks, power plants, or hospitals -- must learn to abandon fixed specifications and narrow forecasts. They need to avoid the "flaw of averages," the conceptual pitfall that traps so many designs in underperformance. Failure to allow for changing circumstances risks leaving significant value untapped. This book is a guide for creating and implementing value-enhancing flexibility in design. It will be an essential resource for all participants in the development and operation of technological systems: designers, managers, financial analysts, investors, regulators, and academics.The book provides a high-level overview of why flexibility in design is needed to deliver significantly increased value. It describes in detail methods to identify, select, and implement useful flexibility. The book is unique in that it explicitly recognizes that future outcomes are uncertain. It thus presents forecasting, analysis, and evaluation tools especially suited to this reality. Appendixes provide expanded explanations of concepts and analytic tools.

System Safety Primer


Author: Clifton A. Ericson, II
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
ISBN: 9781466345393
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 152
View: 931
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System safety is an engineering discipline that is applied during the design and development of a product or system to identify and eliminate/mitigate hazards, thereby preventing potential mishaps and accidents. System safety is ultimately about savings lives. It is a proven technique that is currently applied on a diversity of systems, such as commercial aircraft, military aircraft, ships, trains, automobiles, nuclear power plants, weapon systems, chemical processing plants, mining, software, and medical devices. The lack of system safety costs millions of dollars in damages and loss of lives every year due to preventable mishaps. The purpose of this book is to provide an introduction to the system safety process; it presents the tools, techniques and processes involved in the system safety discipline. This book is intended for persons from various industries who are interested in making safe products and systems. It should be very useful to those individuals new to the system safety discipline with a desire to understand the basic methodology. It is also intended as a refresher for system safety practitioners that already apply the system safety process in their daily job. This book is for engineers, analysts and managers who are confronted with the responsibility of developing safe systems and products.

Toward Zero-defect Programming


Author: Allan M. Stavely
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 240
View: 8955
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This text describes how to write (nearly) bug-free programs. It shows how methods can be applied in three key areas of software development: specification, verification and testing. Examples are written in a number of languages to explain different points.

Model-Driven Engineering Languages and Systems

17th International Conference, MODELS 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 283– October 4, 2014. Proceedings
Author: Juergen Dingel,Wolfram Schulte,Isidro Ramos,Silvia Abrahao,Emilio Insfran
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319116533
Category: Computers
Page: 688
View: 5650
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2014, held in Valencia, Spain, in September/October 2014. The 41 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 126 submissions. The scope of the conference series is broad, encompassing modeling languages, methods, tools, and applications considered from theoretical and practical angles and in academic and industrial settings. The papers report on the use of modeling in a wide range of cloud, mobile, and web computing, model transformation behavioral modeling, MDE: past, present, future, formal semantics, specification, and verification, models at runtime, feature and variability modeling, composition and adaptation, practices and experience, modeling for analysis, pragmatics, model extraction, manipulation and persistence, querying, and reasoning.

Entertainment Engineering


Author: John W. Wesner
Publisher: Lulu.com
ISBN: 1304351831
Category: Education
Page: 214
View: 6641
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Engineering lies behind almost every type of entertainment, from the press that printed this book, through special effects in many movies, to the creation of ""rides"" based upon flight simulators and industrial robots.

Flirting with Disaster

Why Accidents are Rarely Accidental
Author: Marc S. Gerstein,Michael Ellsberg,Daniel Ellsberg
Publisher: Union Square Press
ISBN: 1402753039
Category: Social Science
Page: 340
View: 6078
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Analyzes major disasters in recent history and explains how their deep financial, emotional, and historical impacts could have been avoided.

Laboratory Biorisk Management

Biosafety and Biosecurity
Author: Reynolds M. Salerno,Jennifer Gaudioso
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498749747
Category: Medical
Page: 264
View: 2969
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Over the past two decades bioscience facilities worldwide have experienced multiple safety and security incidents, including many notable incidents at so-called "sophisticated facilities" in North America and Western Europe. This demonstrates that a system based solely on biosafety levels and security regulations may not be sufficient. Setting the stage for a substantively different approach for managing the risks of working with biological agents in laboratories, Laboratory Biorisk Management: Biosafety and Biosecurity introduces the concept of biorisk management—a new paradigm that encompasses both laboratory biosafety and biosecurity. The book also provides laboratory managers and directors with the information and technical tools needed for its implementation. The basis for this new paradigm is a three-pronged, multi-disciplinary model of assessment, mitigation, and performance (the AMP model). The application of the methodologies, criteria, and guidance outlined in the book helps to reduce the risk of laboratories becoming the sources of infectious disease outbreaks. This is a valuable resource for those seeking to embrace and implement biorisk management systems in their facilities and operations, including the biological research, clinical diagnostic, and production/manufacturing communities.

Engineering a Learning Healthcare System:

A Look at the Future: Workshop Summary
Author: Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Engineering
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309120640
Category: Medical
Page: 340
View: 1983
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Improving our nation's healthcare system is a challenge which, because of its scale and complexity, requires a creative approach and input from many different fields of expertise. Lessons from engineering have the potential to improve both the efficiency and quality of healthcare delivery. The fundamental notion of a high-performing healthcare system--one that increasingly is more effective, more efficient, safer, and higher quality--is rooted in continuous improvement principles that medicine shares with engineering. As part of its Learning Health System series of workshops, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Value and Science-Driven Health Care and the National Academy of Engineering, hosted a workshop on lessons from systems and operations engineering that could be applied to health care. Building on previous work done in this area the workshop convened leading engineering practitioners, health professionals, and scholars to explore how the field might learn from and apply systems engineering principles in the design of a learning healthcare system. Engineering a Learning Healthcare System: A Look at the Future: Workshop Summary focuses on current major healthcare system challenges and what the field of engineering has to offer in the redesign of the system toward a learning healthcare system.

Systems Engineering for Commercial Aircraft


Author: Scott Jackson
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472439236
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 314
View: 2875
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The key principle of systems engineering is that an aircraft should be considered as a whole and not as a collection of parts. Another principle is that the requirements for the aircraft and its subsystems emanate from a logical set of organized functions and from economic or customer-oriented requirements as well as the regulatory requirements for certification. The resulting process promises to synthesize and validate the design of aircraft which are higher in quality, better meet customer requirements and are most economical to operate. This book is more of a how and a why guide rather than a what guide. It stresses systems engineering is an integrated technical-managerial process that can be adapted without sacrificing quality in which risk handling and management is a major part. It explains that the systems view applies to both the aircraft and the entire air transport system. The book emphasizes that system engineering is not an added layer of processes on top of the existing design processes; it is the glue that holds all the other processes together. The readership includes the aircraft industry, suppliers and regulatory communities, especially technical, program and procurement managers; systems, design and specialty engineers (human factors, reliability, safety, etc.); students of aeronautical and systems engineering and technical management; and government agencies such as FAA and JAA.

Safety-I and Safety-II

The Past and Future of Safety Management
Author: Professor Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472423070
Category: Political Science
Page: 200
View: 4743
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Safety has traditionally been defined as a condition where the number of adverse outcomes was as low as possible (Safety-I). From a Safety-I perspective, the purpose of safety management is to make sure that the number of accidents and incidents is kept as low as possible, or as low as is reasonably practicable. This means that safety management must start from the manifestations of the absence of safety and that - paradoxically - safety is measured by counting the number of cases where it fails rather than by the number of cases where it succeeds. This unavoidably leads to a reactive approach based on responding to what goes wrong or what is identified as a risk - as something that could go wrong. Focusing on what goes right, rather than on what goes wrong, changes the definition of safety from ‘avoiding that something goes wrong’ to ‘ensuring that everything goes right’. More precisely, Safety-II is the ability to succeed under varying conditions, so that the number of intended and acceptable outcomes is as high as possible. From a Safety-II perspective, the purpose of safety management is to ensure that as much as possible goes right, in the sense that everyday work achieves its objectives. This means that safety is managed by what it achieves (successes, things that go right), and that likewise it is measured by counting the number of cases where things go right. In order to do this, safety management cannot only be reactive, it must also be proactive. But it must be proactive with regard to how actions succeed, to everyday acceptable performance, rather than with regard to how they can fail, as traditional risk analysis does. This book analyses and explains the principles behind both approaches and uses this to consider the past and future of safety management practices. The analysis makes use of common examples and cases from domains such as aviation, nuclear power production, process management and health care. The final chapters explain the theoretical and practical consequences of the new perspective on the level of day-to-day operations as well as on the level of strategic management (safety culture). Safety-I and Safety-II is written for all professionals responsible for their organisation's safety, from strategic planning on the executive level to day-to-day operations in the field. It presents the detailed and tested arguments for a transformation from protective to productive safety management.

Systems Engineering and Safety

Building the Bridge
Author: Peter J. Glismann
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466552131
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 132
View: 2620
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Enhancing awareness of the interdependence of systems engineering and safety, Systems Engineering and Safety: Building the Bridge covers systems engineering methodology, safety tools, and the management needed to build the bridge between these two disciplines. It underscores the relationship between the disciplines and how understanding the relationship can benefit your organization and industry. The book lays out the purpose of the methodology of systems engineering and the tools of safety. It identifies the importance of management and the culture, commitment, communication, and coordination that management must provide. The author describes the systems engineering methodology: the lifecycle, processes, and management and the technical processes that systems engineers and safety professionals must be familiar with. He merges management, systems engineering, and safety into the lifecycle through project processes. Using real-world examples, he also examines the roles and responsibilities of management, and a breakdown theory of safety in the management processes: The Glismann Effect. The strength of this book is that it can be read, understood, and hopefully acted upon by the chief executive officer of a corporation, right down to the line manager of systems engineering or the subject matter expert in the safety department. This value can be measured in cost savings, be it in the form of human, social, or financial capital.

Systems Thinking for Health Systems Strengthening


Author: Don De Savigny,Taghreed Adam,World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241563893
Category: Education
Page: 107
View: 7207
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This report investigates how systems thinking can deepen the conceptual and practical underpinnings of system strengthening initiatives. This Flagship Report from the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research makes the case for systems thinking in an easily accessible form for a broad interdisciplinary audience, including health system stewards, programme implementers, researchers, evaluators and funding partners. It presents: What systems thinking is, and what it means for the health system; A health systems case illustration that demonstrates the "Ten Steps to Systems Thinking" - practical guidance in applying the systems perspective; The challenges and opportunities to applying systems thinking in real-world settings; An agenda for expanding the use of systems thinking for health systems strengthening.

The Measurement and Monitoring of Safety

Drawing Together Academic Evidence and Practical Experience to Produce a Framework for Safety Measurement and Monitoring
Author: Dr. Charles Vincent,Susan Burnett,Jane Carthey
Publisher: The Health Foundation
ISBN: 1906461449
Category: Health facilities
Page: 79
View: 9057
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Challenging the Safety Quo


Author: Craig Marriott
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351364669
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 168
View: 2811
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Safety is broken. The people who are responsible for helping you stay safe should be at the top of your Christmas card list but all too often they are despised, ridiculed and ignored. But safety management is beginning to be challenged. Businesses have begun to realise that what they have been doing is no longer providing any additional value. The same issues are repeatedly raised by corporate leadership: How do we get our workforce engaged in safety? How do we improve safety systems to gain commitment from all employees? How do we improve safety understanding to make the case for change? How do we embed safety as an integral part of culture in an environment of ongoing change and cost pressure? Challenging the Safety Quo makes the case for change based on stagnating performance, identifies areas where there are problems and proposes alternative ways to progress. Provocative but practical, it outlines the business benefits to be gained from putting in place the right approaches to managing safety, although not in the way traditionally presented by most safety managers. This book translates theory into practice; putting an accessible, practical and usable spin on cutting edge thinking in safety.

Systems Engineering

A 21st Century Systems Methodology
Author: Derek K. Hitchins
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470518755
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 528
View: 6665
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This book conceives, presents and exemplifies a contemporary, general systems methodology that is straightforward and accessible, providing guidance in practical application, as well as explaining concept and theory. The book is presented both as a text for students, with topic assignments, and as a reference for practitioners, through case studies. Utilizing recent research and developments in systems science, methods and tools, Hitchins has developed a unified systems methodology, employable when tackling virtually any problem, from the small technological, to the global socioeconomic. Founded in the powerful ‘systems approach’, Hitchins’ systems methodology brings together both soft and hard system scientific methods into one methodological framework. This can be applied when addressing complex problems, issues and situations, and for creating robust, provable solutions, resolutions and dissolutions to those problems – supposing such to exist. This book details and explores: the systems approach, using theory and method to reveal systems engineering as applied systems science, bridging the gulf between Problem and Solution Spaces; a ‘universal’ Systems Methodology (including an extensive view of systems engineering, embracing both soft and hard systems) which encompasses all five stages of Hitchins’ 5-layer Systems Engineering Model (artifact, project, enterprise, industry and socio-economy); case studies illustrating how the systems methodology may be used to address a diverse range of situations and issues, including conceiving a new defense capability, proposing a feasible way to tackle global warming, tackling enterprise interventions, how and why things can go wrong, and many more. Systems Engineering will give an immeasurable advantage to managers, practitioners and consultants in a wide range of organizations and fields including police, defense, procurement, communications, transport, management, electrical, electronic, aerospace, requirements, software and computer engineering. It is an essential reference for researchers seeking ‘systems enlightenment’, including graduate students who require a comprehensive reference text on the subject, and also government departments and systems engineering institutions

Beyond Blame

Learning From Failure and Success
Author: Dave Zwieback
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
ISBN: 1491914467
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 92
View: 1446
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Failure is inevitable and a postmortem analysis, conducted in an open, blameless way, is the best way for IT techs and managers to learn from outages and near-misses. But when the "root cause" is determined to be "human error" (or worse, particular humans), the real causes and conditions are lost. In this insightful book, IT veteran Dave Zwieback shows you an approach for making postmortems blameless, so you can focus instead on addressing areas of fragility within systems and organizations. If you’re involved with assessing why something goes wrong on a project or at your company—as a system administrator, developer, team manager, or executive—the concrete steps in this guide will help you find a real solution that works. Recognize and mitigate the effects of stress during outages Learn how to communicate effectively in a charged, high-stakes postmortem conversation Collect the necessary data before the postmortem begins Focus on determining the actual causes and conditions of an outage Learn techniques for writing up a postmortem for either internal or external use