Environmental Assessment of Estuarine Ecosystems

A Case Study
Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Philip S. Rainbow
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062618
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 368
View: 9940

Estuaries in every country exemplify the same paradox — they are among the most productive ecosystems and also among the most impacted by anthropogenic activities. And although estuarine biodiversity is key to the ecological and economic health of coastal regions, estuaries are exposed to toxic effluents transported by rivers from remote and nearby conurbations and industrial and agricultural concerns, putting them at risk. Increased attention to environmental issues highlights the fragility and importance of estuaries and brings to the forefront the need for an up-to-date assessment of techniques. Environmental Assessment of Estuarine Ecosystems: A Case Study describes a comparative, multidisciplinary ecotoxicological study of two contrasting estuaries in France. Based on the results of this study, the book presents generalizations about how different techniques might be applied and interpreted in future, similar studies assessing the ecotoxicological status of these vital coastal systems. With contributions from international experts, this reference covers all aspects of estuaries from the physiological to the economical. It introduces the state-of-the-art science required to investigate ecotoxicological problems in many estuaries all over the world. Although carefully focused on a specific region, this book covers a broad range of environmental issues and solutions, demonstrating how various pieces of information can be integrated into a sound assessment. Understanding the observations about this region and the techniques used for its assessment provide a benchmark for assessing, remediating, and applying new developments to other estuaries.

Environmental and Economic Sustainability


Author: Paul E. Hardisty
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420059521
Category: Science
Page: 337
View: 8653

Never before has the quest to balance the needs of people, the environment, and the economy been so important. While sustainability has been widely taken up by governments and business, the world has continued to move in increasingly unsustainable directions, from continued dependence on fossil energy to rising greenhouse gas emissions, and erosion of biodiversity. We know what the right thing to do is, but somehow we cannot make the changes that are needed, and so we continue with business as usual, producing business-as-usual results. Based on more than fifteen years of research and practice, Environmental and Economic Sustainability introduces the environmental and economic sustainability assessment (EESA), a new way to make decisions that meets the challenges of the 21st century. Incorporating elements of life-cycle analysis, risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis, and comprehensive sensitivity analysis, EESA provides a fully quantitative, objective, and rational way to include all of the social, environmental, and economic issues relevant to a decision into one comprehensive analysis. The author demonstrates how to apply EESA using examples across a number of major industries, including petroleum, mining, and public utilities, and covering key issues such as water, greenhouse gases, waste, contaminated sites, and renewable energy. Case studies Management of produced water in the oil and gas industry in the Middle East Management of wastewater in a water utility in Australia Power generation and carbon management in an energy utility in Australia Remediation of contaminated gas works in the UK Energy savings and carbon management in heavy oil processing Ultimately, the solutions to problems of the 21st century will come from understanding the tremendous value that the environment provides, and reflecting that value within decision-making at every level so that society as a whole thrives. This book demonstrates that while business-as-usual approaches can be sub-optimal, spending on sustainable outcomes must be balanced with anticipated benefits. It demonstrates how to communicate with stakeholders in a transparent process which provides a robust view of how various options compare over a wide range of possible future conditions, using a language that everyone understands: money.

Ecological Indicators for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Assessment

A User Guide
Author: João Carlos Marques
Publisher: WIT Press
ISBN: 1845642090
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 183
View: 5146

Ecological indicators address ecosystems structure and/or function and are commonly used to provide synoptic information about their state. Through quantitative representations of either the forces that steer ecosystems, responses to forcing functions, or of previous, current, or future states of an ecosystem, indicators are expected to reveal conditions and trends that will help in development planning and decision making processes. Ecological indicators combine numerous environmental factors in a single value, which may be useful in terms of management and in the development of ecological concepts, compliant with the general public's understanding. Nevertheless, their application is not exempt of criticisms, the first of which is that aggregation results in an oversimplification of the ecosystem under observation. Ecological indicators must therefore be handled following the right criteria and in situations that are consistent with its intended use and scope; otherwise they may drive to confusing interpretations of data.

Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants


Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Philip S. Rainbow,Michele Romeo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439817711
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 7886

Tolerance, the ability of populations to cope with the chemical stress resulting from toxic contaminants, has been described in many organisms from bacteria to fungi, from phytoplankton to terrestrial flowering plants, and from invertebrates such as worms to vertebrates like fish and amphibians. The building of tolerance, be it by physiological acclimation or genetic adaptation, can have great consequences for the local biodiversity, and hence the ecology and ecosystem functioning of many of the world’s habitats. Understanding the frequency of the occurrence of tolerance has tremendous implications for the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants takes a multidisciplinary approach across contaminant types, habitats, organisms, biological levels of organization and scientific disciplines. The book examines the general principles governing the acquisition and biological consequences of tolerance, genetically or physiologically based, at different levels of biological organization, taxonomically from bacteria and archaea to flowering plants and vertebrates, and within organisms from molecular biology and biochemistry through physiology to whole organism, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. Presenting a state-of-the-art synthesis of the many aspects of the phenomenon of tolerance to environmental contaminants, this volume covers mechanisms of defense involved in the acquisition of tolerance, different classes of environmental contaminants, positive and negative ecological consequences of tolerance and the impact of tolerance in bacteria, plants, and insects on society. The reviews presented in this book supply the tools for carrying out more informed and therefore more reliable risk-benefit analyses when assessing the ecotoxicological risks to life in any of the contaminated habitats that now surround us in our industrialized society.

Environmental Risk Assessment and Management from a Landscape Perspective


Author: Lawrence A. Kapustka,Wayne G. Landis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470593011
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 416
View: 8760

An important guide to assessing and managing the environment from a landscape perspective Ecological relationships are nested within the landscape. Identifying the relevant spatial and temporal scales is critical for an effective understanding of ecological functions that human societies depend upon. Moreover, human encroachment into natural areas, or changes in climate, can alter spatial relationships, which in turn can negatively affect vital plant and wildlife patterns—and weaken economic structures needed to sustain human societies. This book is the first to combine multiple disciplines into one cohesive strategy to study these crucial connections, and looks toward building a social paradigm that embraces the dynamics of ecological systems. This book: Integrates landscape ecology, environmental risk assessment, valuation of ecological goods and services, and environmental management decision processes into one single source Includes chapters on quantitative measures, Bayesian modeling,¿economic analysis, and sustainable landscapes Covers marine, forest, agricultural, and pharmaceutical risk assessment Has a chapter on predicting climate change risk to ecosystems Has a companion ftp site with color graphics, animations, and risk assessment tools With material that is accessible across all knowledge levels, Environmental Risk Assessment and Management from a Landscape Perspective moves beyond looking solely at chemical contaminants to diagnose environmental threats, and aims to accomplish practical risk assessment in a manner that supports long-term sustainable management.

Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment

Applications to Watershed Management
Author: Randall J. F. Bruins,Matthew T. Heberling
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203486603
Category: Science
Page: 472
View: 533

With contributions from a wide array of economists, ecologists, and government agency professionals, Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: Applications to Watershed Management provides a multidisciplinary approach to environmental decision-making at a watershed level. It introduces the fields of ecological risk assessment (ERA) and economic analysis and discusses their application to the practice of watershed management. The book presents a general framework for the integration of ERA and economic analysis to improve environmental management in a diversity of watersheds. Focusing on real-world decisions, this book describes studies conducted in six U.S. watersheds where both ecological and economic analyses were needed. Decision contexts for these studies include negotiations to satisfy Endangered Species Act requirements, natural resource damage assessment, Clean Water Act permitting, and community development planning. The success of ecological-economic integration in each study, and the contribution to decision making, is critically examined.

Issues in Risk Assessment


Author: Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology,Commission on Life Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309584906
Category: Science
Page: 355
View: 8305

The scientific basis, inference assumptions, regulatory uses, and research needs in risk assessment are considered in this two-part volume. The first part, Use of Maximum Tolerated Dose in Animal Bioassays for Carcinogenicity, focuses on whether the maximum tolerated dose should continue to be used in carcinogenesis bioassays. The committee considers several options for modifying current bioassay procedures. The second part, Two-Stage Models of Carcinogenesis, stems from efforts to identify improved means of cancer risk assessment that have resulted in the development of a mathematical dose-response model based on a paradigm for the biologic phenomena thought to be associated with carcinogenesis.

Gene Drives on the Horizon

Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Gene Drive Research in Non-Human Organisms: Recommendations for Responsible Conduct
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309437873
Category: Science
Page: 230
View: 4245

Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.

Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks
Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Jean-Claude Amiard,Catherine Mouneyrac
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128011769
Category: Science
Page: 518
View: 5278

Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess

Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health


Author: Sven E. Jorgensen,Fu-Liu Xu,Robert Costanza
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203490181
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 448
View: 7777

The field of ecosystem health explores the interactions between natural systems, human health, and social organization. As decision makers require a sound, modular approach to environmental management and sustainable development, ecosystem health assessment indicators are increasingly used across any number of applications. The Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health provides a comprehensive account and guidebook to ecological indicators for evaluating the health of a wide variety of ecosystems. The book presents a conceptual framework for selecting, evaluating, and validating ecological indicators of ecosystem health, such as thermodynamics, resilience estimates, exergy, and emergy indicators. This framework is applied in a series of chapters on major ecosystem types, including coastal areas, forests, wetlands, fisheries, and agricultural land. The authors take into account biodiversity, energy needs, ecological economics, and natural capital in their measurement of ecological health. Using material synthesized from a variety of books, journals, and private research, the book presents first-hand accounts of the indicators, used in several different types of ecosystems. Case studies highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each method as well. The Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health explains what is needed to apply the methods and indicators, including theoretical background and modeling techniques, to evaluate the state of a given ecosystem. It will be useful for a wide range of environmental managers, natural resource managers, land use planners, and policy makers in government and non-governmental organizations worldwide.

International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ecology
Page: N.A
View: 4768



Risk Assessment and Risk Management


Author: R E Hester,R M Harrison
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 184755184X
Category: Science
Page: 180
View: 5805

Risk assessment is considered by many analysts to be an objective scientific tool. It is considered to be variously influenced by broader issues which in turn have important practical implications both for risk assessors and decision makers. Risk Assessment and Risk Management examines a range of practical applications of risk assessment methods and risk management procedures in the broad context of environmental science and technology. Written by acknowledged experts in the field, the articles cover a variety of areas, with reference to subjects as diverse as BSE, the use of risk assessment in government, using computer modelling as an aid to risk assessment in the case of accidental contamination of rivers and estuaries, quantitative cancer risk assessment related to carcinogens in the environment, landfilling of household wastes, environmental risk assessment and management of chemicals, and aquatic risk assessment and management of pesticides. This book provides a detailed and wide-ranging review of the many aspects of risk assessment and risk management which have excited so much debate and controversy in recent times. It will be essential reading for all those involved in the assessment and management of risk, particularly in the context of environmental science.

Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment

Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes
Author: Robert A. Pastorok,Steven M. Bartell,Scott Ferson,Lev R. Ginzburg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032321
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 328
View: 5670

Toxic chemicals can exert effects on all levels of the biological hierarchy, from cells to organs to organisms to populations to entire ecosystems. However, most risk assessment models express their results in terms of effects on individual organisms, without corresponding information on how populations, groups of species, or whole ecosystems may respond to chemical stressors. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes takes a new approach by compiling and evaluating models that can be used in assessing risk at the population, ecosystem, and landscape levels. The authors give an overview of the current process of ecological risk assessment for toxic chemicals and of how modeling of populations, ecosystems, and landscapes could improve the status quo. They present a classification of ecological models and explain the differences between population, ecosystem, landscape, and toxicity-extrapolation models. The authors describe the model evaluation process and define evaluation criteria. Finally, the results of the model evaluations are presented in a concise format with recommendations on modeling approaches to use now and develop further. The authors present and evaluate various models on the basis of their realism and complexity, prediction of relevant assessment endpoints, treatment of uncertainty, regulatory acceptance, resource efficiency, and other criteria. They provide models that will improve the ecological relevance of risk assessments and make data collection more cost-effective. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment serves as a reference for selecting and applying the best models when performing a risk assessment.

The Nature and Use of Ecotoxicological Evidence

Natural Science, Statistics, Psychology, and Sociology
Author: Michael C. Newman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128096454
Category: Medical
Page: 298
View: 7420

The Nature and Use of Ecotoxicological Evidence: Natural Science, Statistics, Psychology, and Sociology examines how toxicologists and environmental professionals come to understand and make decisions about possible harm from pollutants. Drawing on concepts and techniques from the natural, social and mathematical sciences, the book emphasizes how pollutant-related evidence is gathered, assessed, communicated and applied in decision-making. Each chapter begins with a real-world example before exploring fundamental cognitive, social, statistical or natural science concepts to explain the opening example. Methods from other disciplines for recognizing, reducing or removing the influence of impediments in wise decision-making are highlighted in each chapter. Misreading evidence by the scientific community, and miscommunication to regulators and the public, remain major impediments to wise action in pollution issues. Which evidence comes to dominate the dialogue among scientists, regulators and decision makers depends on social and scientific dynamics. Yet psychological and sociological factors that influence the movement of evidence through scientific communities to regulators receive cursory discussion by professionals unfamiliar with the sociology literature. Toxicologists, environmental scientists, psychologists and professionals and students across the sciences will find the book useful for understanding how evidence is generated, assessed and communicated in their own fields. Includes groundbreaking research synthesizing information from across the sciences to understand the decision-making process Provides real life examples and uses theoretical concepts to analyze them in clear, direct language Encourages critical thinking about complex problems

Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080878857
Category: Science
Page: 4590
View: 7159

The study of estuaries and coasts has seen enormous growth in recent years, since changes in these areas have a large effect on the food chain, as well as on the physics and chemistry of the ocean. As the coasts and river banks around the world become more densely populated, the pressure on these ecosystems intensifies, putting a new focus on environmental, socio-economic and policy issues. Written by a team of international expert scientists, under the guidance of Chief Editors Eric Wolanski and Donald McClusky, the Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science examines topics in depth, and aims to provide a comprehensive scientific resource for all professionals and students in the area of estuarine and coastal science Most up-to-date reference for system-based coastal and estuarine science and management, from the inland watershed to the ocean shelf Chief editors have assembled a world-class team of volume editors and contributing authors Approach focuses on the physical, biological, chemistry, ecosystem, human, ecological and economics processes, to show how to best use multidisciplinary science to ensure earth's sustainability Provides a comprehensive scientific resource for all professionals and students in the area of estuarine and coastal science Features up-to-date chapters covering a full range of topics

Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact from Power Plant Impingement and Entrainment of Aquatic Organisms

Symposium in Conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society, 2001, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Author: Douglas Dixon,John A. Veil,Joe Wisniewski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203971191
Category: Science
Page: 292
View: 4972

The U.S. Clean Water Act calls for the minimization of "adverse environmental impact" at cooling water intake structures. To facilitate an exchange of information among all stakeholders in the issue, the Electric Power Research Institute organised a national symposium in 2001 to discuss the meaning of adverse environmental impact and methods for its assessment. Technical experts in federal and state resource agencies, academia, industry and non-governmental organizations attended the symposium. This is a collection of peer-reviewed papers, intended both to inform and to encourage the development of rules regarding the minimization of adverse environmental impact at cooling water intake structures.

Environmental Flows

Saving Rivers in the Third Millennium
Author: Angela Arthington
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520953452
Category: Nature
Page: 424
View: 311

Environmental Flows describes the timing, quality, and quantity of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human well-being and livelihoods that depend upon them. It answers crucial questions about the flow of water within and between different kinds of ecosystems. What happens when the flow or the availability of water is curtailed or diverted, either naturally or by human activity? How will climate change alter the availability of water and impact aquatic ecosystems? Methodological developments from the simplest hydrological formulas to large-scale frameworks that inform water management make this book a must-read for water managers and freshwater and estuarine ecologists contending with ever-changing conditions influencing the flow of water.

Water Resources and Environment

Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Water Resources and Environment (Beijing, 25-28 July 2015)
Author: Miklas Scholz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315644665
Category: Nature
Page: 486
View: 8976

The 2015 International Conference on Water Resource and Environment (WRE2015) aims to provide a platform where scholars from different countries can exchange ideas, opinions and views. This book is divided into four main themes: 1. Hydrology and water resources; 2. Water pollution; 3. Water treatment methods, and 4. Freshwater ecosystems. Exploring topics such as water-energy-food nexus, water purification solutions, chemical hydrology, south to north water diversion projects, and the aligning of water resources needs with the conservation of habitats and species, this book is of interest to professionals and academics involved in hydraulic engineering and related fields.

Advanced Modelling Techniques Studying Global Changes in Environmental Sciences


Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444635432
Category: Science
Page: 380
View: 2365

Advanced Modelling Techniques Studying Global Changes in Environmental Sciences discusses the need for immediate and effective action, guided by a scientific understanding of ecosystem function, to alleviate current pressures on the environment. Research, especially in Ecological Modeling, is crucial to support the sustainable development paradigm, in which the economy, society, and the environment are integrated and positively reinforce each other. Content from this book is drawn from the 2013 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modeling (ISEM), an important and active research community contributing to this arena. Some progress towards gaining a better understanding of the processes of global change has been achieved, but much more is needed. This conference provides a forum to present current research using models to investigate actions towards mitigating and adapting to change. Presents state-of-the-art modeling techniques Drawn from the 2013 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modeling (ISEM), an important and active research community contributing to this arena Integrates knowledge of advanced modeling techniques in ecological and environmental sciences Describes new applications for sustainability

Federal Register


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Administrative law
Page: N.A
View: 5345