Environmental Assessment of Estuarine Ecosystems

A Case Study
Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Philip S. Rainbow
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062618
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 368
View: 4045
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Estuaries in every country exemplify the same paradox — they are among the most productive ecosystems and also among the most impacted by anthropogenic activities. And although estuarine biodiversity is key to the ecological and economic health of coastal regions, estuaries are exposed to toxic effluents transported by rivers from remote and nearby conurbations and industrial and agricultural concerns, putting them at risk. Increased attention to environmental issues highlights the fragility and importance of estuaries and brings to the forefront the need for an up-to-date assessment of techniques. Environmental Assessment of Estuarine Ecosystems: A Case Study describes a comparative, multidisciplinary ecotoxicological study of two contrasting estuaries in France. Based on the results of this study, the book presents generalizations about how different techniques might be applied and interpreted in future, similar studies assessing the ecotoxicological status of these vital coastal systems. With contributions from international experts, this reference covers all aspects of estuaries from the physiological to the economical. It introduces the state-of-the-art science required to investigate ecotoxicological problems in many estuaries all over the world. Although carefully focused on a specific region, this book covers a broad range of environmental issues and solutions, demonstrating how various pieces of information can be integrated into a sound assessment. Understanding the observations about this region and the techniques used for its assessment provide a benchmark for assessing, remediating, and applying new developments to other estuaries.

Environmental and Economic Sustainability


Author: Paul E. Hardisty
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420059521
Category: Science
Page: 337
View: 5395
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Never before has the quest to balance the needs of people, the environment, and the economy been so important. While sustainability has been widely taken up by governments and business, the world has continued to move in increasingly unsustainable directions, from continued dependence on fossil energy to rising greenhouse gas emissions, and erosion of biodiversity. We know what the right thing to do is, but somehow we cannot make the changes that are needed, and so we continue with business as usual, producing business-as-usual results. Based on more than fifteen years of research and practice, Environmental and Economic Sustainability introduces the environmental and economic sustainability assessment (EESA), a new way to make decisions that meets the challenges of the 21st century. Incorporating elements of life-cycle analysis, risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis, and comprehensive sensitivity analysis, EESA provides a fully quantitative, objective, and rational way to include all of the social, environmental, and economic issues relevant to a decision into one comprehensive analysis. The author demonstrates how to apply EESA using examples across a number of major industries, including petroleum, mining, and public utilities, and covering key issues such as water, greenhouse gases, waste, contaminated sites, and renewable energy. Case studies Management of produced water in the oil and gas industry in the Middle East Management of wastewater in a water utility in Australia Power generation and carbon management in an energy utility in Australia Remediation of contaminated gas works in the UK Energy savings and carbon management in heavy oil processing Ultimately, the solutions to problems of the 21st century will come from understanding the tremendous value that the environment provides, and reflecting that value within decision-making at every level so that society as a whole thrives. This book demonstrates that while business-as-usual approaches can be sub-optimal, spending on sustainable outcomes must be balanced with anticipated benefits. It demonstrates how to communicate with stakeholders in a transparent process which provides a robust view of how various options compare over a wide range of possible future conditions, using a language that everyone understands: money.

Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health, Second Edition


Author: Sven E. Jørgensen,Liu Xu,Robert Costanza
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439809372
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 498
View: 6153
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Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessor, the Handbook of Ecological Indicators for Assessment of Ecosystem Health, Second Edition brings together world-class editors and contributors who have been at the forefront of ecosystem health assessment research for decades, to provide a sound approach to environmental management and sustainable development. Significantly updated and expanded, this authoritative resource details a proven framework for selecting, evaluating, and validating ecological indicators for ecosystem health assessment. It guides readers through the application of this framework to a wide range of ecosystems, including wetlands, estuaries, coastal zones, lakes, forests, marine ecosystems, lagoons, agricultural systems, landscapes, and rivers. The text synthesizes material from a variety of books, journals, and private research, to consider biodiversity, energy needs, ecological economics, and natural capital in the measurement of ecological health. Organized for ease of reference, the first part of the handbook provides the required theoretical background. It presents a complete overview of all relevant ecological indicators—including thermodynamics, resilience estimates, exergy, and emergy indicators. The second part focuses on how to effectively apply the ecological indicators to a number of important ecosystems. It includes many examples and case studies that clearly illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method for specific applications. Offering first-hand insight and practical guidance from practitioners in the field, this complete resource supplies the tools and the well-rounded understanding required to diagnose the health of virtually any ecosystem with much improved accuracy.

Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants


Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Philip S. Rainbow,Michele Romeo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439817711
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 5047
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Tolerance, the ability of populations to cope with the chemical stress resulting from toxic contaminants, has been described in many organisms from bacteria to fungi, from phytoplankton to terrestrial flowering plants, and from invertebrates such as worms to vertebrates like fish and amphibians. The building of tolerance, be it by physiological acclimation or genetic adaptation, can have great consequences for the local biodiversity, and hence the ecology and ecosystem functioning of many of the world’s habitats. Understanding the frequency of the occurrence of tolerance has tremendous implications for the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Tolerance to Environmental Contaminants takes a multidisciplinary approach across contaminant types, habitats, organisms, biological levels of organization and scientific disciplines. The book examines the general principles governing the acquisition and biological consequences of tolerance, genetically or physiologically based, at different levels of biological organization, taxonomically from bacteria and archaea to flowering plants and vertebrates, and within organisms from molecular biology and biochemistry through physiology to whole organism, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. Presenting a state-of-the-art synthesis of the many aspects of the phenomenon of tolerance to environmental contaminants, this volume covers mechanisms of defense involved in the acquisition of tolerance, different classes of environmental contaminants, positive and negative ecological consequences of tolerance and the impact of tolerance in bacteria, plants, and insects on society. The reviews presented in this book supply the tools for carrying out more informed and therefore more reliable risk-benefit analyses when assessing the ecotoxicological risks to life in any of the contaminated habitats that now surround us in our industrialized society.

Issues in Risk Assessment


Author: Committee on Risk Assessment Methodology,Commission on Life Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309584906
Category: Science
Page: 355
View: 470
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The scientific basis, inference assumptions, regulatory uses, and research needs in risk assessment are considered in this two-part volume. The first part, Use of Maximum Tolerated Dose in Animal Bioassays for Carcinogenicity, focuses on whether the maximum tolerated dose should continue to be used in carcinogenesis bioassays. The committee considers several options for modifying current bioassay procedures. The second part, Two-Stage Models of Carcinogenesis, stems from efforts to identify improved means of cancer risk assessment that have resulted in the development of a mathematical dose-response model based on a paradigm for the biologic phenomena thought to be associated with carcinogenesis.

Gene Drives on the Horizon

Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Gene Drive Research in Non-Human Organisms: Recommendations for Responsible Conduct
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309437873
Category: Science
Page: 230
View: 9022
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Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.

Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment

Applications to Watershed Management
Author: Randall J. F. Bruins,Matthew T. Heberling
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203486603
Category: Science
Page: 472
View: 7270
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With contributions from a wide array of economists, ecologists, and government agency professionals, Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: Applications to Watershed Management provides a multidisciplinary approach to environmental decision-making at a watershed level. It introduces the fields of ecological risk assessment (ERA) and economic analysis and discusses their application to the practice of watershed management. The book presents a general framework for the integration of ERA and economic analysis to improve environmental management in a diversity of watersheds. Focusing on real-world decisions, this book describes studies conducted in six U.S. watersheds where both ecological and economic analyses were needed. Decision contexts for these studies include negotiations to satisfy Endangered Species Act requirements, natural resource damage assessment, Clean Water Act permitting, and community development planning. The success of ecological-economic integration in each study, and the contribution to decision making, is critically examined.

Advanced Modelling Techniques Studying Global Changes in Environmental Sciences


Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444635432
Category: Science
Page: 380
View: 6886
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Advanced Modelling Techniques Studying Global Changes in Environmental Sciences discusses the need for immediate and effective action, guided by a scientific understanding of ecosystem function, to alleviate current pressures on the environment. Research, especially in Ecological Modeling, is crucial to support the sustainable development paradigm, in which the economy, society, and the environment are integrated and positively reinforce each other. Content from this book is drawn from the 2013 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modeling (ISEM), an important and active research community contributing to this arena. Some progress towards gaining a better understanding of the processes of global change has been achieved, but much more is needed. This conference provides a forum to present current research using models to investigate actions towards mitigating and adapting to change. Presents state-of-the-art modeling techniques Drawn from the 2013 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modeling (ISEM), an important and active research community contributing to this arena Integrates knowledge of advanced modeling techniques in ecological and environmental sciences Describes new applications for sustainability

Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment


Author: Morris H. Roberts, Jr.,Robert C. Hale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420032453
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 368
View: 468
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Risk assessment is the cornerstone of contemporary environmental protection. You must find the answers to questions such as: what might be the impacts of the new synthetic chemicals, what problems might arise from the normal operations of industry, what are the chances of accidental releases and how will they impact the environment? Understanding and assessing these risks is essential to sound environmental policy and management. The first book to address the application of the current National Research Council (NRC) risk assessment paradigm to the coastal marine environment, Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment covers topics that range from pollutants of emerging concern to bioavailability and bioaccumulation at the suborganismal through landscape levels. It explores the necessary applications for modifying the NRC paradigm and presents a series of steps to actually accomplish an effective assessment using the modified paradigm. The book highlights the logical framework for assessing causation, and measurement of toxicant fate and effect. The chapter authors bring together experiences from academia, private consultants, and government agencies, resulting in a rich mixture of experience and insights. Exploring the science of exposure, effect, and risk in coastal and estuarine environments, Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment gives you a building block approach to the fundamental components of risk assessment.

Aquatic Mesocosm Studies in Ecological Risk Assessment


Author: Robert L. Graney
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780873715928
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 736
View: 8666
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A Special Publication of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Aquatic Mesocosm Studies in Ecological Risk Assessment discusses the methods currently used for conducting simulated field studies and provides a series of case histories in which mesocosm type studies have been used to assess the impact of pesticides on aquatic ecosystems. Specific chapters address the dosing and exposure components of such studies and how they influence experimental design. Advantages and disadvantages of various statistical designs are addressed in detail. Regulatory aspects of the design and interpretation of these studies are also covered. The book will be a superb reference for aquatic biologists, ecologists, toxicologists, environmental toxicologists, environmental chemists, and regulatory personnel.

Ecological Indicators for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Assessment

A User Guide
Author: João Carlos Marques
Publisher: WIT Press
ISBN: 1845642090
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 183
View: 3037
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Ecological indicators address ecosystems structure and/or function and are commonly used to provide synoptic information about their state. Through quantitative representations of either the forces that steer ecosystems, responses to forcing functions, or of previous, current, or future states of an ecosystem, indicators are expected to reveal conditions and trends that will help in development planning and decision making processes. Ecological indicators combine numerous environmental factors in a single value, which may be useful in terms of management and in the development of ecological concepts, compliant with the general public's understanding. Nevertheless, their application is not exempt of criticisms, the first of which is that aggregation results in an oversimplification of the ecosystem under observation. Ecological indicators must therefore be handled following the right criteria and in situations that are consistent with its intended use and scope; otherwise they may drive to confusing interpretations of data.

International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ecology
Page: N.A
View: 2639
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Environmental Toxicants

Human Exposures and Their Health Effects
Author: Morton Lippmann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470442883
Category: Science
Page: 1200
View: 4280
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Provides the most current information and research available for performing risk assessments on exposed individuals and populations, giving guidance to public health authorities, primary care physicians, and industrial managers Reviews current knowledge on human exposure to selected chemical agents and physical factors in the ambient environment Updates and revises the previous edition, in light of current scientific literature and its significance to public health concerns Includes new chapters on: airline cabin exposures, arsenic, endocrine disruptors, and nanoparticles

Risk Assessment and Risk Management


Author: Ronald E. Hester,Roy M. Harrison
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9780854042401
Category: Science
Page: 168
View: 5149
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This book provides a detailed and wide-ranging review of the many aspects of risk assessment and risk management which have excited so much debate and controversy in recent times.

Federal Register


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Administrative law
Page: N.A
View: 5009
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Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks
Author: Claude Amiard-Triquet,Jean-Claude Amiard,Catherine Mouneyrac
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128011769
Category: Science
Page: 518
View: 4372
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Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess

Ecosystem Function & Human Activities

Reconciling Economics and Ecology
Author: R. David Simpson,Norman L. Christensen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780412096716
Category: Science
Page: 298
View: 3218
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R. David Simpson Norman L. Christensen, Jr. Human Activity and Ecosystem Function: Reconciling Economics and Ecology Recognizing the need to improve social decision making on tradeoffs between economic growth and ecological health, the Renewable Natural Resources Foundation convened a workshop in October 1995 on "Human Activity and Ecosystem Function: Reconciling Economics and Ecology. " While the subtitle perhaps reflected unrealistic expectations, the presentations and discus sions at the workshop were a preliminary step toward that rec onciliation: bringing together ecologists, economists, other nat ural and social scientists, and policy makers to layout the issues, articulate their needs and perspectives, and identify common ground for further work. This volume contains the pa pers presented and reports generated from the workshop. We emphasize ecology and economics in this discussion. We could argue that organizing our inquiry around these diSCiplines is only natural. Ecology is the study of behavior of organisms within complex systems composed of a myriad of other organ isms and their physical environments. Increasingly, this disci pline has focused on how interactions among biological and physical components influence the overall functioning of ecosys tems. These components are increasingly being determined by viii Ecosystem Function and Human Activities human activities. Economics is the study of how we decide which of our needs and wants we choose to satisfy given our limited re sources.

Pollution Abstracts


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Pollution
Page: N.A
View: 9075
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Indexes material from conference proceedings and hard-to-find documents, in addition to journal articles. Over 1,000 journals are indexed and literature published from 1981 to the present is covered. Topics in pollution and its management are extensively covered from the standpoints of atmosphere, emissions, mathematical models, effects on people and animals, and environmental action. Major areas of coverage include: air pollution, marine pollution, freshwater pollution, sewage and wastewater treatment, waste management, land pollution, toxicology and health, noise, and radiation.

Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program

Overall Evaluation
Author: Committee to Review the EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Programs,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030958812X
Category: Science
Page: 155
View: 2721
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This is the fourth and final volume reviewing EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). After 4 years of review, the authoring committee retains its belief that EMAP's goals are laudable. However, because achieving the goals of this ambitious program will require that EMAP successfully meet the difficult scientific, practical, and management challenges, the committee continues to question whether and how well all these goals can be achieved. This final overall review reiterates that general assessment.

Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact from Power Plant Impingement and Entrainment of Aquatic Organisms

Symposium in Conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society, 2001, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Author: Douglas Dixon,John A. Veil,Joe Wisniewski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203971191
Category: Science
Page: 292
View: 4966
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The U.S. Clean Water Act calls for the minimization of "adverse environmental impact" at cooling water intake structures. To facilitate an exchange of information among all stakeholders in the issue, the Electric Power Research Institute organised a national symposium in 2001 to discuss the meaning of adverse environmental impact and methods for its assessment. Technical experts in federal and state resource agencies, academia, industry and non-governmental organizations attended the symposium. This is a collection of peer-reviewed papers, intended both to inform and to encourage the development of rules regarding the minimization of adverse environmental impact at cooling water intake structures.