Europe's Functional Constitution

A Theory of Constitutionalism Beyond the State
Author: Turkuler Isiksel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191076872
Category: Law
Page: 280
View: 9577
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Constitutionalism has become a byword for legitimate government, but is it fated to lose its relevance as constitutional states relinquish power to international institutions? This book evaluates the extent to which constitutionalism, as an empirical idea and normative ideal, can be adapted to institutions beyond the state by surveying the sophisticated legal and political system of the European Union. Having originated in a series of agreements between states, the EU has acquired important constitutional features like judicial review, protections for individual rights, and a hierarchy of norms. Nonetheless, it confounds traditional models of constitutional rule to the extent that its claim to authority rests on the promise of economic prosperity and technocratic competence rather than on the democratic will of citizens. Critically appraising the European Union and its legal system, this book proposes the idea of 'functional constitutionalism' to describe this distinctive configuration of public power. Although the EU is the most advanced instance of functional constitutionalism to date, understanding this pragmatic mode of constitutional authority is essential for assessing contemporary international economic governance.

Beyond Constitutionalism

The Pluralist Structure of Postnational Law
Author: Nico Krisch
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191637262
Category: Law
Page: 384
View: 7603
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Under pressure from globalisation, the classical distinction between domestic and international law has become increasingly blurred, spurring demand for new paradigms to construe the emerging postnational legal order. The typical response of constitutional and international lawyers as well as political theorists has been to extend domestic concepts - especially constitutionalism - beyond the state. Yet as this book argues, proposals for postnational constitutionalism not only fail to provide a plausible account of the changing shape of postnational law but also fall short as a normative vision. They either dilute constitutionalism's origins and appeal to 'fit' the postnational space; or they create tensions with the radical diversity of postnational society. This book explores an alternative, pluralist vision of postnational law. Pluralism does not rely on an overarching legal framework but is characterised by the heterarchical interaction of various suborders of different levels - an interaction that is governed by a multiplicity of conflict rules whose mutual relationship remains legally open. A pluralist model can account for the fragmented structure of the European and global legal orders and it reflects the competing (and often equally legitimate) claims for control of postnational politics. However, it typically provokes concerns about stability, power and the rule of law. This book analyses the promise and problems of pluralism through a theoretical enquiry and empirical research on major global governance regimes, including the European human rights regime, the contestation around UN sanctions and human rights, and the structure of global risk regulation. The empirical research reveals how prevalent pluralist structures are in postnational law and what advantages they possess over constitutionalist models. Despite the problems it also reveals, the analysis suggests cautious optimism about the possibility of stable and fair cooperation in pluralist settings.

Constitutionalism

Past, Present, and Future
Author: Dieter Grimm
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198766122
Category:
Page: 400
View: 8736
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Constitutionalism: Past, Present, and Future will offer a definitive collection of Professor Dieter Grimm's most important scholarly writings on constitutional thought and interpretation. The essays included in this volume explore the conditions under which the modern constitution could emerge; they treat the characteristics that must be given if the constitution may be called an achievement, the appropriate way to understand and interpret constitutional law under current conditions, the function of judicial review, the remaining role of national constitutions in a changing world, as well as the possibility of supra-national constitutionalism. Many of these essays have influenced the German and European discussion on constitutionalism and for the first time, much of the work of one of German's leading scholars of public law will be available in the English language.

The Twilight of Constitutionalism?


Author: Petra Dobner,Martin Loughlin
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191633666
Category: Law
Page: 368
View: 3735
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The concepts and values that underpin traditional constitutionalism are increasingly being challenged by political realities that place substantial power beyond the state. Among the few certainties of a global economy is the growing incongruity between the political (the world of things that need to be ordered collectively in order to sustain society) and the state (the major institution of authoritative political decision-making during modern times). The consequences, and possible remedies, of this double disjunction of politics and state and of state and constitution form the centre of an open debate about 'constitutionalism beyond the state'. The essays gathered in this collection explore the range of issues raised by this debate. The effects of recent changes on two of the main building blocks of constitutionalism - statehood and democracy - are examined in Parts I and II. Since the movement of overcoming statehood has, arguably, been advanced furthest in the European context, the question of the future of constitutionalist ideas in the framework of the EU provides the key theme of Part III. The remaining parts consider possible transformations or substitutes. The engagement of constitutions with international law offers one line of transmutation of constitutionalism (Part IV) and the diffusion of constitutionalism into separate social spheres provides an alternative way of pursuing constitutionalism in a new key (Part VI). Finally, the ability of the theory of global administrative law (examined in Part V) to offer an alternative account of the potential of jurisdictional control of global governing processes is examined. Through these explorations, the book offers cross-disciplinary insights into the impact of recent political and economic changes on modern constitutionalism and an assessment of the prospects for constitutionalism in a transnational environment.

The Three Branches

A Comparative Model of Separation of Powers
Author: Christoph Moellers
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651605
Category: Law
Page: 276
View: 2397
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The idea of the separation of powers is still popular in much political and constitutional discourse, though its meaning for the modern state remains unclear and contested. This book develops a new, comprehensive, and systematic account of the principle. It then applies this new concept to legal problems of different national constitutional orders, the law of the European Union, and international institutional law. It connects an argument from normative political theory with phenomena taken from comparative constitutional law. The book argues that the conflict between individual liberty and democratic self-determination that is characteristic of modern constitutionalism is proceduralized through the establishment of different governmental branches. A close analysis of the relation between individual and collective autonomy on the one hand and the ways lawmaking through public institutions can be established on the other hand helps us identify criteria for determining how legislative, administrative, and judicial lawmaking can be distinguished and should be organized. These criteria define a common ground in the confusing variety of western constitutional traditions and their diverse use of the notion of separated powers. They also enable us to establish a normative framework that throws a fresh perspective on problems of constitutional law in different constitutional systems: constitutional judicial review of legislation, limits of legislative delegation, parliamentary control of the executive, and standing. Linking arguments from comparative constitutional law and international law, the book then uses this framework to offer a new perspective on the debate on constitutionalism beyond the state. The concept permits certain institutional insights of the constitutional experiences within states to be applied at the international level without falling into any form of methodological nationalism.

Constitutional Fragments

Societal Constitutionalism and Globalization
Author: Gunther Teubner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199644675
Category: Law
Page: 213
View: 7689
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The powerful private sectors of the world economy remain largely unconstrained by fundamental constitutional rules, leading to human rights abuses on a massive scale. This book examines how the values of constitutional governance can be applied to the private sphere in the modern world, through a network of constitutional fragments.

Global Constitutionalism and Its Challenges to Westphalian Constitutional Law


Author: Martin Belov
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509914897
Category: Law
Page: 304
View: 3297
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Westphalian constitutionalism has shaped our understanding of politics, socio-political institutions and personal and political freedom for centuries. It is historically based in the foundations of Western modernity, such as humanism and rationalism, and is organised around familiar principles of national sovereignty, the rule of law, the separation of powers, and democracy. But since the end of the twentieth century, global constitutionalism has gradually emerged, challenging both the constitutional ideology and the constitutional design of Westphalian constitutional law. This book critically assesses the structural and functional transformations in the Westphalian constitutional tradition produced by the emergence of supranational and global constitutionalism. In so doing, it evaluates the theory of global constitutionalism, its legal and socio-political limits, and important issues concerning the supranational constitutionalism of the EU. This leads to an articulation of the constitutional theory of the emerging post-Westphalian constitutionalism, examining its development during a period of significantly increased access to and sharing of information, increased mobility and more open statehood, as well as the rise of human rights and its encounter with populism and nationalism. This book will be of great interest to scholars of constitutional law and theory, particularly those with an interest in globalisation and supranationalism.

The Many Constitutions of Europe


Author: Suvi Sankari
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317024486
Category: Law
Page: 298
View: 2428
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This volume makes a contribution to the ongoing lively discussion on European constitutionalism by offering a new perspective and a new interpretation of European constitutional plurality. The book combines diverse disciplinary approaches to the constitutional debate. It brings together complementing contributions from scholars of European politics, economics, and sociology, as well as established scholars from various fields of law. Moreover, it provides analytical clarity to the discussion and combines theory with more practical and critical approaches that make use of the constitutional toolbox in analysing the tensions between the different constitutions. The collection is a valuable point of reference not only for scholars interested in European studies but also for graduate and post-graduate students.

Handbook on Global Constitutionalism


Author: Anthony F. Lang, Jr.,Antje Wiener
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1783477350
Category:
Page: 480
View: 628
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This Handbook introduces scholars and students to the history, philosophy, and evidence of global constitutionalism. Contributors provide their insights from law, politics, international relations, philosophy, and history, drawing on diverse frameworks and empirical data sets. Across them all, however, is a recognition that the international order cannot be understood without an understanding of constitutional theory. The Handbook will define this field of inquiry for the next generation by bringing together some of the leading contemporary scholars.

Constitutional Crisis in the European Constitutional Area,

Theory, Law and Politics in Hungary and Romania
Author: Armin von Bogdandy,Pal Sonnevend
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782253343
Category: Law
Page: 326
View: 2159
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The concept of a European Constitutional Area has been used in legal scholarship to describe a common space of constitutionalism where national and international constitutional guarantees interact to maintain the common constitutional values of Europe. This concept has not yet been tested in a case where the constitutional order of a Member State of the European Union seems to develop systemic deficiencies. The present volume aims to assess recent constitutional developments in Hungary and Romania, as well as the interplay of national, international and European constitutionalism which react to the loopholes in national constitutions. Accordingly, a core part of the volume is an in-depth analysis of the situation in Hungary and Romania. Based on that, the volume offers an account of the different reaction mechanisms of the European Union and of the Council of Europe. Beyond a detailed stock-taking of these mechanisms, their legal and political frameworks are explored, as well as different ways to extend their reach. In this way, the volume contributes to a little-studied aspect of European constitutionalism.

The New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism

Theory and Practice
Author: Stephen Gardbaum
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107009286
Category: Law
Page: 262
View: 7673
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Stephen Gardbaum proposes and examines a new way of protecting rights in a democracy.

EuropeÂ?s Justice Deficit?


Author: Dimitry Kochenov,Gráinne de Búrca,Andrew Williams
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782254838
Category: Law
Page: 468
View: 4144
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The gradual legal and political evolution of the European Union has not, thus far, been accompanied by the articulation or embrace of any substantive ideal of justice going beyond the founders' intent or the economic objectives of the market integration project. This absence arguably compromises the foundations of the EU legal and political system since the relationship between law and justice-a crucial question within any constitutional system-remains largely unaddressed. This edited volume brings together a number of concise contributions by leading academics and young scholars whose work addresses both legal and philosophical aspects of justice in the European context. The aim of the volume is to appraise the existence and nature of this deficit, its implications for Europe's future, and to begin a critical discussion about how it might be addressed. There have been many accounts of the EU as a story of constitutional evolution and a system of transnational governance, but few which pay sustained attention to the implications for justice. The EU today has moved beyond its initial and primary emphasis on the establishment of an Internal Market, as the growing importance of EU citizenship and social rights suggests. Yet, most legal analyses of the EU treaties and of EU case-law remain premised broadly on the assumption that EU law still largely serves the purpose of perfecting what is fundamentally a system of economic integration. The place to be occupied by the underlying substantive ideal of justice remains significantly underspecified or even vacant, creating a tension between the market-oriented foundation of the Union and the contemporary essence of its constitutional system. The relationship of law to justice is a core dimension of constitutional systems around the world, and the EU is arguably no different in this respect. The critical assessment of justice in the EU provided by the contributions to this book will help to create a fuller picture of the justice deficit in the EU, and at the same time open up an important new avenue of legal research of immediate importance. "This is a remarkable volume which addresses a long-neglected question about the EU: situated between integration through market freedoms and an emerging constitutional project, how does the EU contribute to the achievement of justice? A set of lively, engaged and scholarly contributions which extend the boundaries of the debate. A must-read for all interested in European Studies." Professor Seyla Benhabib, Eugene Meyer Professor of Political Science and Philosophy at Yale University "The list of authors reads like a veritable "Who's Who of European studiesÂ??...The outcome is fascinating, enormously rich and diverse (with the authors occasionally disagreeing with each other) Â? just as Europe is. Once you have read it, you realize what an important void it has filled. It opens up a new, fresh perspective within the European studies, and I can safely predict that it will become a canon, by reference to which we will be discussing "justice in/of EuropeÂ?? in the years to come." Wojciech Sadurski, Challis Professor of Jurisprudence, The University of Sydney Faculty of Law "By arranging a multi-disciplinary discussion about justice in the EU "as a flow of ideasÂ?? this most engaging book offers a gripping account of justice as the proverbial contested conceptÂ?The editors have succeeded in bringing together a group of feisty scholars keen to present their rather diverse, and at times even exclusive, take on the meaning of justice...A must read for all interested in justice, nothwithstanding their own disciplinary home." Prof Antje Wiener, Chair in Political Science, especially Global Governance, University of Hamburg "The question of the EU's justice deficit could not be of greater relevance. Both scholars and politicians have often argued that the economic and other benefits of the EU compensate for any democratic failings. Yet, as the eurocrisis renders these benefits less apparent, it becomes more appropriate than ever to ask whether it distributes them and any accompanying costs in a just way. The responses of the contributors to this volume prove as disturbing as they are informative." Professor Richard Bellamy, Director of the Max Weber Programme, European University Institute, Florence

The Constitution of European Democracy


Author: Dieter Grimm
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198805128
Category: Law
Page: 252
View: 7226
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Europe is in crisis. With rising unrest among citizens of EU member states exemplified by the UK's decision to leave the EU, and the growing popularity of anti-EU political parties, Dieter Grimm presents the argument that Europe has to change its method of further integration or risks failure.This book, containing essays many of which have not been published in the English language to date, explores how the EU has become over-constitutionalized. Grimm argues that this has left the EU with a democratic deficit leading to the alienation of citizens. This book highlights Europe's democracy problem. The most prominent argument running throughout is that the EU and its decision-making processes have become over-constitutionalized. This is due to the constitutionalization ?of European treaties, which has occurred by raising them to the eminence ofa constitution as a result of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice. However, the treaties contain provisions that would be ordinary law in member states. The fact that they enjoy constitutional status in Europe detaches them from the democratic processes in the member states and the EUitself, and contributes to the growing independence of the EU's executive and judicial institutions. The book also asserts that currently the EU does not have enough sources of legitimation to uphold itself, surviving solely on the legitimation provided by member states. One popular remedy is the suggestion of "parliamentarization" of the EU, giving the European Parliament the powers typicallypossessed by national parliaments as a means of heightening its legitimation. This is criticized by Grimm as expanding the Parliament's powers would not change the effects of over-constiutionalization as the Parliament is inferior to the constitution. In order to reduce the EU's legitimacy deficit, Grimm makes several recommendations. The repoliticization of the decision-making processes, which can be achieved by reducing treaties to the capacity necessary for their constitutional function; the reinvigoration of European Parliament elections, byhaving "Europeanized" parties to increase engagement with European society and give voters the opportunity to more immediately influence European politics; and a new division of powers based on subject matter to restrain European expansionism, reserving particular areas of policy to theresponsibility of member states even if this affects the common market.

The Global Model of Constitutional Rights


Author: Kai Möller
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199664609
Category: Law
Page: 222
View: 2690
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The book presents a theory of constitutional rights law. It shows that there is now a 'global' model of constitutional rights, which means that certain structural features of rights are accepted in most jurisdictions where rights are judicially enforced. Drawing on analyses of a broad range of cases from the U.K., the European Court of Human Rights, Germany, Canada, the U.S., and South Africa, the book provides the first substantive moral, reconstructive theory ofthe global model. It develops a philosophically coherent conception of rights and provides original and useful accounts of important doctrines and developments of human and constitutional rights law, including rights inflation, horizontal effect, positive obligations, socio-economic rights, themargin of appreciation, balancing, and proportionality.

The Federal Vision

Legitimacy and Levels of Governance in the United States and the European Union
Author: Kalypso Nicolaïdis,Robert Howse
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199245010
Category: Political Science
Page: 537
View: 8209
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'Outstanding book... stimulating introduction... this is a volume that is rich in ideas and takes the debates over US and EU federal development in original and thought-provoking directions.' -Perspectives on European Politics and Society'The book is an important addition to the literature. It provides a comprehensive study of key issues facing the European Union, the major contemporary debates regarding its political system, and the parallels with similar debates in the United States.' -International JournalWhat is happening to the uneasy relationship between the States and the Union in the United States and the European Union? How to make subsidiarity and devolution work better on both sides of the Atlantic? And what are the new models of governance beyond the state that can sustain the challenge of legitimacy? This book brings together an impressive array of historians, political scientists, legal scholars and political economists to address these questions and articulate a Federal Vision for the 21st century.

Sovereignty in Transition


Author: Neil Walker
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847316964
Category: Law
Page: 572
View: 6818
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Sovereignty in Transition brings together a group of leading scholars from law and cognate disciplines to assess contemporary developments in the framework of ideas and the variety of institutional forms associated with the concept of sovereignty. Sovereignty has been described as the main organising concept of the international society of states - one which is traditionally central to the discipline and practice of both constitutional law and of international law. The volume asks to what extent,and with what implications, this centrality is challenged by contemporary developments that shift authority away from the state to new sub-state, supra-state and non-state forms. A particular focus of attention is the European Union, and the relationship between the sovereignty traditions of various member states on the one hand and the new claims to authority made on behalf of the European Union itself on the other are examined. The collection also includes contributions from international law, legal philosophy, legal history, political theory, political science, international relations and theology that seek to examine the state of the sovereignty debate in these disciplines in ways that throw light on the focal constitutional debate in the European Union.

European and US Constitutionalism


Author: Georg Nolte
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521854016
Category: Law
Page: 312
View: 5948
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How does constitutional theory and judicial practice differ between Europe and the United States?

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law


Author: Michel Rosenfeld,András Sajó
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191640174
Category: Law
Page: 1416
View: 2404
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The field of comparative constitutional law has grown immensely over the past couple of decades. Once a minor and obscure adjunct to the field of domestic constitutional law, comparative constitutional law has now moved front and centre. Driven by the global spread of democratic government and the expansion of international human rights law, the prominence and visibility of the field, among judges, politicians, and scholars has grown exponentially. Even in the United States, where domestic constitutional exclusivism has traditionally held a firm grip, use of comparative constitutional materials has become the subject of a lively and much publicized controversy among various justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. The trend towards harmonization and international borrowing has been controversial. Whereas it seems fair to assume that there ought to be great convergence among industrialized democracies over the uses and functions of commercial contracts, that seems far from the case in constitutional law. Can a parliamentary democracy be compared to a presidential one? A federal republic to a unitary one? Moreover, what about differences in ideology or national identity? Can constitutional rights deployed in a libertarian context be profitably compared to those at work in a social welfare context? Is it perilous to compare minority rights in a multi-ethnic state to those in its ethnically homogeneous counterparts? These controversies form the background to the field of comparative constitutional law, challenging not only legal scholars, but also those in other fields, such as philosophy and political theory. Providing the first single-volume, comprehensive reference resource, the Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law will be an essential road map to the field for all those working within it, or encountering it for the first time. Leading experts in the field examine the history and methodology of the discipline, the central concepts of constitutional law, constitutional processes, and institutions - from legislative reform to judicial interpretation, rights, and emerging trends.

Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers


Author: M. J. C. Vile
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780865971752
Category: Law
Page: 455
View: 7040
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Arguably no political principle has been more central than the separation of powers to the evolution of constitutional governance in Western democracies. In the definitive work on the subject, M. J. C. Vile traces the history of the doctrine from its rise during the English Civil War, through its development in the eighteenth century—when it was indispensable to the founders of the American republic—through subsequent political thought and constitution-making in Britain, France, and the United States. The author concludes with an examination of criticisms of the doctrine by both behavioralists and centralizers—and with "A Model of a Theory of Constitutionalism." The new Liberty Fund second edition includes the entirety of the original 1967 text published by Oxford, a major epilogue entitled "The Separation of Powers and the Administrative State," and a bibliography. M. J. C. Vile is Professor of Politics at the University of Kent at Canterbury and author also of The Structure of American Federalism.

European Constitutionalism Beyond the State


Author: Marlene Wind
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521796712
Category: Law
Page: 244
View: 3899
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Some of the most innovative scholars in the field of European constitutionalism come together in this book to highlight different facets of the new constitutional discussion. Provoking deep analysis of the different ideas of constitution and cons titutionalism, it delineates new ways of thinking about the future of Europe. In particular, it aims to challenge the idea of the European Union as an evolving federal polity. This book will appeal to anyone interested in the timely subject of constitutionalism including student and practitioners of law, politics and philosophy.