European Colonialism Since 1700


Author: James R. Lehning
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521518709
Category: History
Page: 310
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This masterful synthesis provides a much-needed, complete survey of European colonialism from 1700 to decolonization in the twentieth century. Written by an award-winning author, this advanced undergraduate and graduate level textbook bridges, for the first time, the early modern Atlantic empires and the later Asian and African empires of 'high imperialism'. Viewing colonialism as a phenomenon of contact between Europe and the rest of the world, the author takes an 'entangled histories' approach, considering the surprising ways in which the imperial powers of Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, France and the Netherlands displayed their identities in colonial settings, as much as in their imperial capitals. The author illuminates for students the common themes of colonial government, economic development and cultural contact across empires, and reveals the ways in which these themes played out, through contrast of the differing development, structure and impact of each empire.

Possessing the World

Taking the Measurements of Colonisation from the 18th to the 20th Century
Author: Bouda Etemad
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1845453387
Category: History
Page: 252
View: 5188
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Based on an impressive body of information and data, this volume recounts the history of five continents over a long stretch of time and in a comparative approach. From the beginning of European expansion the question was posed: what were the "empire tools" that gave Europe its military superiority, even before the industrial revolution? What was it that enabled Europeans to withstand life-threatening tropical diseases and to control indigenous populations? This book gives a fresh and wide-ranging view of the construction and collapse of the modern colonial empires of Europe, the United States of America and Japan.

Why Did Europe Conquer the World?


Author: Philip T. Hoffman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400865840
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 9526
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Between 1492 and 1914, Europeans conquered 84 percent of the globe. But why did Europe establish global dominance, when for centuries the Chinese, Japanese, Ottomans, and South Asians were far more advanced? In Why Did Europe Conquer the World?, Philip Hoffman demonstrates that conventional explanations—such as geography, epidemic disease, and the Industrial Revolution—fail to provide answers. Arguing instead for the pivotal role of economic and political history, Hoffman shows that if certain variables had been different, Europe would have been eclipsed, and another power could have become master of the world. Hoffman sheds light on the two millennia of economic, political, and historical changes that set European states on a distinctive path of development, military rivalry, and war. This resulted in astonishingly rapid growth in Europe's military sector, and produced an insurmountable lead in gunpowder technology. The consequences determined which states established colonial empires or ran the slave trade, and even which economies were the first to industrialize. Debunking traditional arguments, Why Did Europe Conquer the World? reveals the startling reasons behind Europe's historic global supremacy.

Unequal Gains

American Growth and Inequality since 1700
Author: Peter H. Lindert,Jeffrey G. Williamson
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400880343
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 424
View: 1866
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Unequal Gains offers a radically new understanding of the economic evolution of the United States, providing a complete picture of the uneven progress of America from colonial times to today. While other economic historians base their accounts on American wealth, Peter Lindert and Jeffrey Williamson focus instead on income—and the result is a bold reassessment of the American economic experience. America has been exceptional in its rising inequality after an egalitarian start, but not in its long-run growth. America had already achieved world income leadership by 1700, not just in the twentieth century as is commonly thought. Long before independence, American colonists enjoyed higher living standards than Britain—and America's income advantage today is no greater than it was three hundred years ago. But that advantage was lost during the Revolution, lost again during the Civil War, and lost a third time during the Great Depression, though it was regained after each crisis. In addition, Lindert and Williamson show how income inequality among Americans rose steeply in two great waves—from 1774 to 1860 and from the 1970s to today—rising more than in any other wealthy nation in the world. Unequal Gains also demonstrates how the widening income gaps have always touched every social group, from the richest to the poorest. The book sheds critical light on the forces that shaped American income history, and situates that history in a broad global context. Economic writing at its most stimulating, Unequal Gains provides a vitally needed perspective on who has benefited most from American growth, and why.

The Travels of Dean Mahomet

An Eighteenth-Century Journey Through India
Author: Dean Mahomet
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520207173
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 229
View: 8130
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This unusual study combines two books in one: the 1794 autobiographical travel narrative of an Indian, Dean Mahomet, recalling his years as camp-follower, servant, and subaltern officer in the East India Company's army (1769 to 1784); and Michael H. Fisher's portrayal of Mahomet's sojourn as an insider/outsider in India, Ireland, and England. Emigrating to Britain and living there for over half a century, Mahomet started what was probably the first Indian restaurant in England and then enjoyed a distinguished career as a practitioner of "oriental" medicine, i.e., therapeutic massage and herbal steam bath, in London and the seaside resort of Brighton. This is a fascinating account of life in late eighteenth-century India—the first book written in English by an Indian—framed by a mini-biography of a remarkably versatile entrepreneur. Travels presents an Indian's view of the British conquest of India and conveys the vital role taken by Indians in the colonial process, especially as they negotiated relations with Britons both in the colonial periphery and the imperial metropole. Connoisseurs of unusual travel narratives, historians of England, Ireland, and British India, as well as literary scholars of autobiography and colonial discourse will find much in this book. But it also offers an engaging biography of a resourceful, multidimensional individual.

How Europe Underdeveloped Africa


Author: Walter Rodney
Publisher: Verso Books
ISBN: 1788731204
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 7746
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The classic work of political, economic, and historical analysis, powerfully introduced by Angela Davis In his short life, the Guyanese intellectual Walter Rodney emerged as one of the leading thinkers and activists of the anticolonial revolution, leading movements in North America, South America, the African continent, and the Caribbean. In each locale, Rodney found himself a lightning rod for working class Black Power. His deportation catalyzed 20th century Jamaica's most significant rebellion, the 1968 Rodney riots, and his scholarship trained a generation how to think politics at an international scale. In 1980, shortly after founding of the Working People's Alliance in Guyana, the 38-year-old Rodney would be assassinated. In his magnum opus, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Rodney incisively argues that grasping "the great divergence" between the west and the rest can only be explained as the exploitation of the latter by the former. This meticulously researched analysis of the abiding repercussions of European colonialism on the continent of Africa has not only informed decades of scholarship and activism, it remains an indispensable study for grasping global inequality today.

The Oxford History of Islam


Author: John L. Esposito
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199880417
Category: Religion
Page: 768
View: 9084
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Lavishly illustrated with over 300 pictures, including more than 200 in full color, The Oxford History of Islam offers the most wide-ranging and authoritative account available of the second largest--and fastest growing--religion in the world. John L. Esposito, Editor-in-Chief of the four-volume Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, has gathered together sixteen leading scholars, both Muslim and non-Muslim, to examine the origins and historical development of Islam--its faith, community, institutions, sciences, and arts. Beginning in the pre-Islamic Arab world, the chapters range from the story of Muhammad and his Companions, to the development of Islamic religion and culture and the empires that grew from it, to the influence that Islam has on today's world. The book covers a wide array of subjects, casting light on topics such as the historical encounter of Islam and Christianity, the role of Islam in the Mughal and Ottoman empires, the growth of Islam in Southeast Asia, China, and Africa, the political, economic, and religious challenges of European imperialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and Islamic communities in the modern Western world. In addition, the book offers excellent articles on Islamic religion, art and architecture, and sciences as well as bibliographies. Events in the contemporary world have led to an explosion of interest and scholarly work on Islam. Written for the general reader but also appealing to specialists, The Oxford History of Islam offers the best of that recent scholarship, presented in a readable style and complemented by a rich variety of illustrations.

Black Africans in Renaissance Europe


Author: K. J. P. Lowe
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521815826
Category: History
Page: 417
View: 2783
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This book, first published in 2005, opens up the much neglected area of the black African presence in Western Europe during the Renaissance. Covering history, literature, art history and anthropology, it investigates a whole range of black African experience and representation across Renaissance Europe, from various types of slavery to black musicians and dancers, from real and symbolic Africans at court to the view of the Catholic Church, and from writers of African descent to black African 'criminality'. The main purpose of the collection is to show the variety and complexity of black African life in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe, and how it was affected by firmly held preconceptions relating to the African continent and its inhabitants. Of enormous importance for both European and American history, this book mixes empirical material and theoretical approaches, and addresses such issues as stereotypes, changing black African identity, and cultural representation in art and literature.

Guns, Sails and Empires

Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion, 1400-1700
Author: Carlo M. Cipolla
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780897450713
Category: Europe
Page: 192
View: 4033
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Guns, Sails and Empires is that rarity among works of history: a short book with a simple, powerful thesis that the entire book is devoted to proving. Carlo Cipolla begins with the question, "Why, after the end of the fifteenth century were the Europeans able not only to force their way through to the distant Spice Islands but also to gain control of all the major sea-routes and to establish overseas empires?" (19) He quickly dismisses motive as a causal factor: motive to circumvent the "Moslem blockade" had existed in earlier centuries as well, but motive without means is empty. Cipolla identifies two developments that provided the means for Europeans to finally succeed beyond their wildest dreams: ships seaworthy enough to reach distant seas; and powerful cannon that could be carried by these ships.

The Jews and the Expansion of Europe to the West, 1450 to 1800


Author: Paolo Bernardini,Norman Fiering
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781571814302
Category: History
Page: 567
View: 6406
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Jews and Judaism played a significant role in the history of the expansion of Europe to the west as well as in the history of the economic, social, and religious development of the New World. They played an important role in the discovery, colonization, and eventually exploitation of the resources of the New World. Alone among the European peoples who came to the Americas in the colonial period, Jews were dispersed throughout the hemisphere; indeed, they were the only cohesive European ethnic or religious group that lived under both Catholic and Protestant regimes, which makes their study particularly fruitful from a comparative perspective. As distinguished from other religious or ethnic minorities, the Jewish struggle was not only against an overpowering and fierce nature but also against the political regimes that ruled over the various colonies of the Americas and often looked unfavorably upon the establishment and tleration of Jewish communities in their own territory. Jews managed to survive and occasionally to flourish against all odds, and their history in the Americas is one of the more fascinating chapters in the early modern history of European expansion.

Colonialism on the Margins of Africa


Author: Jan Záho?ík,Linda Piknerová
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351710524
Category: History
Page: 108
View: 2876
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Colonial rule shaped the map of Africa like no other event in history. New borders were delineated; explorers and colonial armies were getting into the interior of the continent in order to grab the "magnificent cake of Africa." Colonialism on the Margins of Africa examines less known and smaller or peripheral areas of Africa which played a significant role in the process of colonization of Africa by European powers. Due to diverse socio-economic, religious, ethno-linguistic, as well as political factors, places like the Somali-speaking territories, the Gambia, or Swaziland were divided between or surrounded by various administrative and political systems with different economic opportunities shaping the way to different futures in the post-colonial period. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of African history and colonial and postcolonial politics.

Cultures of Empire

Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries : a Reader
Author: Catherine Hall
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9780415929066
Category: History
Page: 390
View: 5738
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This reader collects together articles by key historians, literary critics and anthropologists on the cultures of colonialism in the British Empire in the 19th and 20th centuries. It is divided into three sections: theoretical, emphasizing approaches; the colonisers "at home"; and "away".

Dutch Colonialism, Migration and Cultural Heritage

Past and Present
Author: Geert Oostindie
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004253882
Category: Social Science
Page: 374
View: 2766
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Migration flows in the former Dutch colonial orbit created an intricate web connecting the Netherlands to Africa, Asia and the Americas; Africa to the Americas and to Asia; in the nineteenth century Asia to the Americas, with, in the post-Second World War period, the direction of migration shifting to the Netherlands. Some of these migrations were voluntary, others were forced; they helped to create colonial societies that were never typically Dutch, but did have Dutch characteristics. Power imbalance, ethnic differences and creolization characterized the cultural configuration of these colonial societies. This book, with contributions by a number of Dutch scholars, provides state-of-the-art discussions on these migration histories. In addition, it presents reflections on the ways this past and its repercussions are remembered (or forgotten, or actively silenced) throughout the former colonial empire.

The Rise of Commercial Empires

England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770
Author: David Ormrod
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521819268
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 400
View: 4786
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A work of major importance for the economic history of both Europe and North America.

Eurafrica

The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism
Author: Peo Hansen,Stefan Jonsson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1780930011
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 8406
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In order to think theoretically about our global age it is important to understand how the global has been conceived historically. 'Eurafrica' was an intellectual endeavor and political project that from the 1920s saw Europe's future survival - its continued role in history - as completely bound up with Europe's successful merger with Africa. In its time the concept of Eurafrica was tremendously influential in the process of European integration. Today the project is largely forgotten, yet the idea continues to influence EU policy towards its African 'partner'. The book will recover a critical conception of the nexus between Europe and Africa - a relationship of significance across the humanities and social sciences. In assessing this historical concept the authors shed light on the process of European integration, African decolonization and the current conflictual relationship between Europe and Africa.

Medicine and Colonial Engagements in India and Sub-Saharan Africa


Author: N.A
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527511898
Category: History
Page: 246
View: 9929
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This volume examines the various modalities of imperial engagements with the colonized peoples in the former British colonies of India and in sub-Saharan Africa. Articulated through race, gender and medicine, these modalities also became colonial sites of desire addressing colonial anxieties ensuing from concerted engagements. Focussing on colonial India, South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, this volume brings together essays from eminent scholars to examine the dynamics of colonial engagements and their implications in understanding their role in the dominant discourses of the empire. Given its transnational perspective in addressing colonial India and Sub-Saharan Africa, the book will appeal to historians, sociologists, and anthropologists, and to scholars and students in colonial studies, cultural studies, history of medicine and world history.

Civilising Subjects

Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination 1830-1867
Author: Catherine Hall
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226313344
Category: History
Page: 556
View: 6016
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How did the English get to be English? In Civilising Subjects, Catherine Hall argues that the idea of empire was at the heart of mid-nineteenth-century British self-imagining, with peoples such as the "Aborigines" in Australia and the "negroes" in Jamaica serving as markers of difference separating "civilised" English from "savage" others. Hall uses the stories of two groups of Englishmen and -women to explore British self-constructions both in the colonies and at home. In Jamaica, a group of Baptist missionaries hoped to make African-Jamaicans into people like themselves, only to be disappointed when the project proved neither simple nor congenial to the black men and women for whom they hoped to fashion new selves. And in Birmingham, abolitionist enthusiasm dominated the city in the 1830s, but by the 1860s, a harsher racial vocabulary reflected a new perception of the nonwhite subjects of empire as different kinds of men from the "manly citizens" of Birmingham. This absorbing study of the "racing" of Englishness will be invaluable for imperial and cultural historians.

To be a Citizen

The Political Culture of the Early French Third Republic
Author: James R. Lehning
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801438882
Category: History
Page: 193
View: 9218
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France's Third Republic confronts historians and political scientists with what seems a paradox: it is at once France's most long-lived experiment with republicanism and a regime remembered primarily for chronic instability and spectacular scandal. From its founding in the wake of France's humiliation at the hands of Prussia to its collapse in the face of the Nazi Blitzkrieg, the Third Republic struggled to consolidate the often contradictory impulses of the French revolutionary tradition into a set of stable democratic institutions.To Be a Citizen is not an institutional history of the regime, but an exploration of the political culture gradually formed by the moderate republicans who steered it. In James R. Lehning's view, that culture was forced to reconcile conflicting views of the degree of citizen participation a republican form of government should embrace. The moderate republicans called upon the entire nation to act as citizens of the Republic even as they limited the ability of many, including women, Catholics, and immigrants, to assume this identity and to participate in political life. This participation, based on universal male suffrage alone, was at odds with the notion of universal citizenship—the tradition of direct democracy as expressed in 1789, 1793, 1830, and 1848.Lehning examines a series of events and issues that reveal both the tensions within the republican tradition and the regime's success. It forged a political culture that supported the moderate republican synthesis and blunted the ideal of direct democracy. To Be a Citizen not only does much to illuminate an important chapter in the history of modern France, but also helps the reader understand the dilemmas that arise as political elites attempt to accommodate a range of citizens within ostensibly democratic systems.

Lives and Voices

Sources in European Women's History
Author: N.A
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin College Division
ISBN: 9780395970522
Category: History
Page: 633
View: 6005
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[TofC cont.] World War I and the Russian Revolution: Women's popular protests in Berlin -- Interwar period: Women and French fascism / L. Blondel -- Women and fascism, World War II, and the Holocaust: A mother's diary / N. Last -- Women and post-war Europe, 1945-1980: I am a feminist / S. de Beauvoir -- The 1980s to the present: Conservative Party principles / M. Thatcher. [This] reader ... anthologizes primary source materials about women's lives and presents an overview of the variety of women's experiences dating from ancient Mesopotamia to contemporary Bosnia. This primary source reader includes classics in women's history such as works by Plato, Christine de Pizan, Mary Wollstonecraft, and Virginia Woolf, as well as sources that have never before been published in English. The collection ... ranges widely in terms of topic, social class, and geography; both male- and female-authored texts are included to present a range of normative, descriptive, and reflective materials. Topics discussed include family, work, religion, culture, immigration, global economy, and politics. -Back cover.e Crimean war / F @

The Dutch Slave Trade, 1500-1850


Author: P. C. Emmer
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1845450310
Category: History
Page: 166
View: 865
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Dutch historiography has traditionally concentrated on colonial successes in Asia. However, the Dutch were also active in West Africa, Brazil, New Netherland (the present state of New York) and in the Caribbean. In Africa they took part in the gold and ivory trade and finally also in the slave trade, something not widely known outside academic circles. P.C. Emmer, one of the most prominent experts in this field, tells the story of Dutch involvement in the trade from the beginning of the 17th century–much later than the Spaniards and the Portuguese–and goes on to show how the trade shifted from Brazil to the Caribbean. He explains how the purchase of slaves was organized in Africa, records their dramatic transport across the Atlantic, and examines how the sales machinery worked. Drawing on his prolonged study of the Dutch Atlantic slave trade, he presents his subject clearly and soberly, although never forgetting the tragedy hidden behind the numbers – the dark side of the Dutch Golden Age -, which makes this study not only informative but also very readable.