European Developments in Corporate Criminal Liability


Author: James Gobert,Ana-Maria Pascal
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136741518
Category: Law
Page: 384
View: 8335
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When corporations carry on their business in a grossly negligent manner, or take a cavalier approach to risk management, the consequences can be catastrophic. The harm may be financial, as occurred when such well-regarded companies as Enron, Lehman Brothers, Worldcom and Barings collapsed, or it may be environmental, as illustrated most recently by the Gulf oil spill. Sometimes deaths and serious injuries on a mass scale occur, as in the Bhopal gas disaster, the Chernobyl nuclear explosion, the Paris crash of the Concorde, the capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise, and rail crashes at Southall, Paddington and Hatfield in England.What role can the law play in preventing such debacles and in punishing the corporate offenders? This collection of thematic papers and European country reports addresses these questions at both a theoretical and empirical level. The thematic papers analyse corporate criminal liability from a range of academic disciplines, including law, sociology/criminology, economics, philosophy and environmental studies, whilst the country reports look at the laws of corporate crime throughout Europe, highlighting both common features and irreconcilable differences between the various jurisdictions.

Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory

A Metatheory for Biosocial Criminology
Author: Anthony Walsh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429766378
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 9987
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Some of the brightest minds in criminology who were nurtured on the strictly environmentalist paradigm of the 20th century have declared that biosocial criminology is the paradigm for the 21st century. This book attempts to unite this ever-growing field with the premier neurobiological theory of personality, otherwise known as reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). Anthony Walsh places the highly variable number of biosocial approaches under a single theoretical umbrella, whilst providing a unique integrative framework. As the leading neurobiological theory of personality and behavior in psychology today, RST focuses around the age-old question of how naturally selfish social animals can achieve their wants and needs without alienating others in their social groups. RST posits that evolution has built into humans three interacting systems: the behavioral approach system; the behavioral inhibition system; and the fight/flight/freeze system. RST identifies the neurobiological and genetic functions underlying each system and has found a cascade of supporting evidence. Throwing new light on many areas of concern to criminologists, such as psychopathy, violence, ADHD, and schizophrenia, this book will be of interest to scholars and upper-level students in the field. Additional features such as Focus Boxes and diagrams delve into measurement techniques and brain areas.

Young Men and Domestic Abuse


Author: David Gadd,Claire L. Fox,Mary-Louise Corr,Steph Alger,Ian Butler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317936779
Category: Social Science
Page: 196
View: 9688
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Surveys reveal that domestic abuse is more commonplace among teenagers and young adults than older populations, yet surprisingly little is written about young men’s involvement in it. Reporting on a three-year study based in the UK, this book explores young men’s involvement in domestic abuse, whether as victims, perpetrators or witnesses to violent behaviors between adults. Original survey data, focus group material and in-depth biographical interviews are used to make the case for a more thoroughgoing engagement with the meanings young men come to attribute to violent behavior, include the tendency among many to configure violence within families as "fights" that call for acts of male heroism. The book also highlights the dearth of services interventions for young men prone to domestic abuse, and the challenges of developing responsive practice in this area. Each section of the book highlights further online resources that those looking to conduct research in this area or apply its insights in practice can draw upon.

Regulating Corporate Bribery in International Business

Anti-corruption in the UK and Germany
Author: Nicholas Lord
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317068858
Category: Law
Page: 214
View: 8470
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This book is about the regulation of corporations that use bribery in international commerce to win or maintain overseas business contracts and interests. Recent large-scale cases involving multinational corporations demonstrate how large commercial ’non-criminal’ enterprises are being implicated in substantive overseas bribery scandals and illustrate the difficulties faced by responsible enforcement authorities in the UK and Germany. The book imports concepts from regulation theory to aid our understanding of the emerging enforcement, self-regulatory and hybrid responses to transnational corporate bribery. Lord implements a qualitative, comparative research strategy involving semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis to provide empirical insights into this relatively invisible area of criminological interest. Despite significant cultural differences between the jurisdictions, this book argues that UK and German anti-corruption authorities face procedural, evidential, legal, financial and structural difficulties that are leading to convergence in prosecution policies. Although self-regulatory and hybrid mechanisms are aiding the response and gaining some level of regulation, the default position is one of accommodation by state agencies, even where the will to enforce the law is high. This book is essential reading for academics and students researching corporate and white-collar crimes and the concept of regulation more generally, as well as law enforcement agencies and international and intergovernmental organisations concerned with anti-corruption.

Cities and Creativity from the Renaissance to the Present


Author: Ilja Van Damme,Bert De Munck,Andrew Miles
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351681796
Category: History
Page: 276
View: 2130
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This volume critically challenges the current creative city debate from a historical perspective. In the last two decades, urban studies has been engulfed by a creative city narrative in which concepts like the creative economy, the creative class or creative industries proclaim the status of the city as the primary site of human creativity and innovation. So far, however, nobody has challenged the core premise underlying this narrative, asking why we automatically have to look at cities as being the agents of change and innovation. What processes have been at work historically before the predominance of cities in nurturing creativity and innovation was established? In order to tackle this question, the editors of this volume have collected case studies ranging from Renaissance Firenze and sixteenth-century Antwerp to early modern Naples, Amsterdam, Bologna, Paris, to industrializing Sheffield and nineteenth-and twentieth century cities covering Scandinavian port towns, Venice, and London, up to the French techno-industrial city Grenoble. Jointly, these case studies show that a creative city is not an objective or ontological reality, but rather a complex and heterogenic "assemblage," in which material, infrastructural and spatial elements become historically entangled with power-laden discourses, narratives and imaginaries about the city and urban actor groups.

Greening the Academy

Ecopedagogy Through the Liberal Arts
Author: Samuel Fassbinder,Anthony Nocella,Richard Kahn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9462091013
Category: Education
Page: 226
View: 6672
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This is the academic Age of the Neoliberal Arts. Campuses—as places characterized by democratic debate and controversy, wide ranges of opinion typical of vibrant public spheres, and service to the larger society—are everywhere being creatively destroyed in order to accord with market and military models befitting the academic-industrial complex. While it has become increasingly clear that facilitating the sustainability movement is the great 21st century educational challenge at hand, this book asserts that it is both a dangerous and criminal development today that sustainability in higher education has come to be defined by the complex-friendly “green campus” initiatives of science, technology, engineering and management programs. By contrast, Greening the Academy: Ecopedagogy Through the Liberal Arts takes the standpoints of those working for environmental and ecological justice in order to critique the unsustainable disciplinary limitations within the humanities and social sciences, as well as provide tactical reconstructive openings toward an empowered liberal arts for sustainability. Greening the Academy thus hopes to speak back with a collective demand that sustainability education be defined as a critical and moral vocation comprised of the diverse types of humanistic study that will benefit the well-being of our emerging planetary community and its numerous common locales.

Nordic Nationalism and Penal Order

Walling the Welfare State
Author: Vanessa Barker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351980149
Category: Social Science
Page: 168
View: 2676
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In late summer 2015, Sweden embarked on one of the largest self-described humanitarian efforts in its history, opening its borders to 163,000 asylum seekers fleeing the war in Syria. Six months later this massive effort was over. On January 4, 2016, Sweden closed its border with Denmark. This closure makes a startling reversal of Sweden’s open borders to refugees and contravenes free movement in the Schengen Area, a founding principle of the European Union. What happened? This book sets out to explain this reversal. In her new and compelling book, Vanessa Barker explores the Swedish case study to challenge several key paradigms for understanding penal order in the twenty-first century and makes an important contribution to our understanding of punishment and welfare states. She questions the dominance of neoliberalism and political economy as the main explanation for the penalization of others, migrants and foreign nationals, and develops an alternative theoretical framework based on the internal logic of the welfare state and democratic theory about citizenship, incorporation, and difference, paying particular attention to questions of belonging, worthiness, and ethnic and gender hierarchies. Her book develops the concept of penal nationalism as an important form of penal power in the twenty-first century, providing a bridge between border control and punishment studies.

Biology and Criminology

The Biosocial Synthesis
Author: Anthony Walsh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135965943
Category: Science
Page: 378
View: 5499
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Numerous criminologists have noted their dissatisfaction with the state of criminology. The need for a new paradigm for the 21st century is clear. However, many distrust biology as a factor in studies of criminal behavior, whether because of limited exposure or because the orientation of criminology in general has a propensity to see it as racist, classist, or at least illiberal. This innovative new book by noted criminologist Anthony Walsh dispels such fears, examining how information from the biological sciences strengthens criminology work and both complements and improves upon traditional theories of criminal behavior. With its reasoned case for biological science as a fundamental tool of the criminologist, Walsh's groundbreaking work will be required reading for all students and faculty within the field of criminology.

Advances in Criminological Theory


Author: William Laufer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351317148
Category: Social Science
Page: 194
View: 8438
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Criminology has developed strong methodological tools over the past decades, establishing itself as a competitive and sophisticated social science. Despite and perhaps because of its emphasis on research design, methodology, and quantitative analysis, criminology has had few significant advances in theory. This is the first publication exclusively dedicated to the dissemination of original work on criminological theory. It encourages theory construction and validation in existing criminological publications, as well as furthering the free exchange of ideas, propositions, and postulates. This volume is dedicated to a pioneer in criminology, Donald Cressey, and is especially noteworthy for its comparative and international dimension.

Corporate Human Rights Violations

Global Prospects for Legal Action
Author: Stefanie Khoury,David Whyte
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317216067
Category: Political Science
Page: 210
View: 4129
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This book develops an analysis of the historical, political and legal contexts behind current demands by NGOs and the United Nations Human Rights Council to hold corporations accountable for their human rights violations. Based on an analysis of the range of mechanisms of accountability that currently exist, it argues that that those demands are a response to the failure of neo-liberal policies that have dominated the practice of politics and law since the emergence of this debate in its current form in the 1970s. Offering a new approach to understanding how struggles for hegemony are refracted through a range of legal challenges to corporate human rights violations, the book offers a fresh perspective for understanding how those struggles are played out in the global sphere. In order to analyse the prospects for using human rights law to challenge the right of corporations to author human rights violations, the book explores the development of a range of political initiatives in the UN, the uses of tort law in domestic courts, and the uses of human rights law at the European Court of Human Rights and at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. This book will be essential reading for all those interested in how international institutions and NGOs are both shaping and being shaped by global struggles against corporate power.

Mafia Violence

Political, Symbolic, and Economic Forms of Violence in the Camorra Clans
Author: Monica Massari,Vittorio Martone
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781138606777
Category:
Page: 224
View: 5490
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Using in-depth field research and analysis of case-studies, Mafia Violence: Political, Symbolic, and Economic Forms of Violence in the Camorra Clans focuses attention on the phenomenon of violence performed by Italian organized crime groups, devoting specific attention to the Camorra, which has been responsible since the mid-1980s for almost half of all Mafia homicides documented in Italy. The Camorra has acquired increased visibility at an international level due to its intense use of violence and high level of dangerousness, but until now, the study of the different forms of violence implemented by Mafias has not received systematic attention at the scientific level. Hence, this book fills this gap by providing a both theoretical and empirical contribution toward the analysis of one of the most unknown - although highly visible and dangerous - dimension of Mafias' action. This collection of work by distinguished scholars provides a unique overview of the multifaceted characteristics of violence currently performed by Mafia groups in Italy by focusing on specific actors--i.e., Camorra clans--but also other traditional Mafia organizations such as Cosa Nostra and 'Ndrangheta; specific contexts--i.e., different territories and different markets, both legal and illegal; and specific practices and performances. Part One takes a diachronic and comparative perspective to provide an overview of Mafias' violence during the past 30 years, focusing on the three most prominent criminal organizations active in Italy: Camorra, Cosa Nostra, and 'Ndrangheta. Based on the outcomes of a major project carried out by a research group at the University of Naples Federico II from 2015 to 2017, Part Two looks at the use of violence by Camorra clans, incorporating information from case studies, judicial files, law enforcement investigations, wiretappings, interviews with privileged observers, firsthand empirical data, and historical documents and social sciences literature. Using a multi-disciplinary approach drawing from criminology, sociology, history, anthropology, economics, political science, and geography, this book is essential reading for international researchers and practitioners interested in piecing together the full picture of modern organized crime.

New Directions for Law in Australia

Essays in Contemporary Law Reform
Author: Ron Levy,Molly O’Brien,Simon Rice,Pauline Ridge,Margaret Thornton
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760461423
Category: Law
Page: 661
View: 465
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For reasons of effectiveness, efficiency and equity, Australian law reform should be planned carefully. Academics can and should take the lead in this process. This book collects over 50 discrete law reform recommendations, encapsulated in short, digestible essays written by leading Australian scholars. It emerges from a major conference held at The Australian National University in 2016, which featured intensive discussion among participants from government, practice and the academy. The book is intended to serve as a national focal point for Australian legal innovation. It is divided into six main parts: commercial and corporate law, criminal law and evidence, environmental law, private law, public law, and legal practice and legal education. In addition, Indigenous perspectives on law reform are embedded throughout each part. This collective work—the first of its kind—will be of value to policy makers, media, law reform agencies, academics, practitioners and the judiciary. It provides a bird’s eye view of the current state and the future of law reform in Australia.

Global Gambling

Cultural Perspectives on Gambling Organizations
Author: Sytze F. Kingma
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135201757
Category: Social Science
Page: 260
View: 8761
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While most research has examined the legal, economic and psychological sides of gambling, this innovative collection offers a wide range of cultural perspectives on gambling organizations. Using both historical and present-day case studies from throughout the world, the authors seriously consider the rituals, symbols, the meanings, values, legitimations, relations (formal as well as informal), and the spaces and artifacts involved in the (re)production of gambling organizations. Contributors not only examine the global influence of commercial gambling, but also demonstrate how the local qualities of gambling organizations remain unique. This volume will be of interest to criminologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and all scholars of gambling.

Social Class and Crime

A Biosocial Approach
Author: Anthony Walsh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136918752
Category: Social Science
Page: 184
View: 3207
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Social class has been at the forefront of sociological theories of crime from their inception. It is explicitly central to some theories such as anomie/strain and conflict, and nips aggressively at the periphery of others such as social control theory. Yet none of these theories engage in a systematic exploration of what social class is, how individuals come to be placed in one rung of the class ladder rather than another, or the precise nature of the class-crime relationship. This book avers that the same factors that help to determine a person’s class level also help to determine that person’s risk for committing criminal acts. Social class is a modern outcome of primordial status-striving and requires explanation using the modern tools of genetics, neurobiology, and evolutionary biology, and this is what this book does. Many aspects of criminal behavior can be understood by examining the shared factors that lead to the success or failure in the workplace and to pro- or antisocial activities. A biosocial approach requires reducing sociology’s “master variable” to a lower level analysis to examine its constituent parts, which is resisted by many criminologists as highly controversial. However, this book makes plain that the more we know about the nature side of behavior the more important we find the nurture side to be. It makes clear how the class/crime relationship and criminology in general, can benefit from the biosocial perspective; a perspective that many criminological luminaries expect to be the dominant paradigm for the twenty first century.

The Corporate Criminal

Why Corporations Must Be Abolished
Author: Steve Tombs,David Whyte
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135264333
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 226
View: 5389
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Drawing upon a wide range of sources of empirical evidence, historical analysis and theoretical argument, this book shows beyond any doubt that the private, profit-making, corporation is a habitual and routine offender. The book dissects the myth that the corporation can be a rational, responsible, 'citizen'. It shows how in its present form, the corporation is permitted, licensed and encouraged to systematically kill, maim and steal for profit. Corporations are constructed through law and politics in ways that impel them to cause harm to people and the environment. In other words, criminality is part of the DNA of the modern corporation. Therefore, the authors argue, the corporation cannot be easily reformed. The only feasible solution to this 'crime' problem is to abolish the legal and political privileges that enable the corporation to act with impunity.

Colonial Discourse and Gender in U.S. Criminal Courts

Cultural Defenses and Prosecutions
Author: Caroline Braunmühl
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136341161
Category: Political Science
Page: 306
View: 6321
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The occurrence in some criminal cases of "cultural defenses" on behalf of "minority" defendants has stirred much debate. This book is the first to illuminate how "cultural evidence" — i.e., "evidence" regarding ethnicity — is actually negotiated by attorneys, expert/lay witnesses, and defendants in criminal trials. Caroline Braunmühl demonstrates that this has occurred, overwhelmingly, in ways shaped by colonialist and patriarchal discourses common in the Western world. She argues that the controversy regarding the legitimacy of a "cultural defense" has tended to obscure this fact, and has been biased against minorities as well as all women from its inception, in the very terms in which the question for debate has been framed. This study also breaks new ground by analyzing the strategies, and the failures, in which colonialist and patriarchal constructions of cultural evidence are resisted or — more commonly — colluded in by opposing attorneys, witnesses, and defendants themselves. The constructions at hand emerge as contradictory and unstable, belying the notion that cultural evidence is a matter of objective "information" about another culture, rather than — as Braunmühl argues — of discourses that are inevitably normatively charged. Colonial Discourse and Gender in US Criminal Courts moves the debate about cultural defenses onto an entirely new plane, one based upon the understanding that only in-depth empirical analyses informed by critical, rigorous theoretical reflection can do justice to the irreducibly political character of any discussion of "cultural evidence," and of its presentation in court.

Community Punishment

European perspectives
Author: Gwen Robinson,Fergus McNeill
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317666577
Category: Social Science
Page: 272
View: 4408
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In Community Punishment: European perspectives, the authors place punishment in the community under the spotlight by exploring the origins, evolution and adaptations of supervision in 11 European jurisdictions. For most people, punishment in the criminal justice system is synonymous with imprisonment. Yet, both in Europe and in the USA, the numbers of people under some form of penal supervision in the community far exceeds the numbers in prison, and many prisoners are released under supervision. Written and edited by leading scholars in the field, this collection advances the sociology of punishment by illuminating the neglected but crucial phenomenon of ‘mass supervision’. As well as putting criminological and penological theories to the test in an examination of their ability to explain the evolution of punishment beyond the prison, and across diverse states, the contributors to this volume also assess the appropriateness of the term ‘community punishment’ in different parts of Europe. Engaging in a serious exploration of common themes and differences in the jurisdictions included in the collection, the authors go on to examine how ‘community punishment’ came into being in their jurisdiction and how its institutional forms and practices have been legitimated and re-legitimated in response to shifting social, cultural and political contexts. This book is essential reading for academics and students involved in the study of both community punishment and comparative penology, but will also be of great interest to criminal justice policymakers, managers and practitioners.

The Routledge Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime in Europe


Author: Judith van Erp,Wim Huisman,Gudrun Vande Walle
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131793671X
Category: Social Science
Page: 580
View: 2798
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The study of white-collar crime remains a central concern for criminologists around the world and research concentrates on its nature, prevalence, causes and responses. However, most books on white-collar crime tend to focus on Anglo-American examples, which is surprising given the amount of rich data and research taking place in mainland Europe. This new handbook seeks to reset the balance and, for the first time, presents an overview of state-of-the-art research on white-collar crime in Europe. Adding to the existing Anglo-American body of knowledge, the Handbook will discuss specific European topics and typical European features of white-collar crime. The Routledge Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime in Europe consists of more than thirty chapters on topics ranging from the Icelandic Banking Crisis, to the origins of the study of white collar crime, to contemporary topics, such as white-collar crime in countries post-transition from communist regimes; the illegal e-waste trade and white-collar crime in professional football. Furthermore, the book contains extensive case study analyses of landmark European cases of white-collar crime. The editors have gathered together the leading voices in the field and a final section offers commentaries on white-collar crime in Europe from eminent criminologists David Friedrichs and Hazel Croall. This Handbook will thus serve as a work of reference for all scholars and students engaged in the study of corporate and white-collar crime and will also set out directions for new research in the future.

Frank Tannenbaum

The Making of a Convict Criminologist
Author: Matthew G. Yeager
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317313380
Category: Law
Page: 144
View: 426
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Frank Tannenbaum and the Making of a Convict Criminologist is a historical biography about Columbia University professor Frank Tannenbaum and his contribution to American criminology. Tannenbaum was a major figure in criminology in the early twentieth century, and is known for his contributions to labeling theory, particularly his conception of the "dramatization of evil" presented in his 1938 book, Crime and Community. Tannenbaum served a year on Blackwell’s Island in New York City for labor disturbances in 1914 and subsequently became a prison reformer, writing about his experiences with the American penal system and serving as the official reporter for the Wickersham Commission’s study on Penal Institutions, Probation, and Parole in 1931. This book explores his unique early career, and his influence on convict criminology, drawing on his personal papers housed at the Butler Library at Columbia University.

Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry (Routledge Revivals)


Author: John Braithwaite
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135072906
Category: Social Science
Page: 440
View: 9300
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First published in 1984, this book examines corporate crime in the pharmaceutical industry. Based on extensive research, including interviews with 131 senior executives of pharmaceutical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico and Guatemala, the book is a major study of white-collar crime. Written in the 1980s, it covers topics such as international bribery and corruption, fraud in the testing of drugs and criminal negligence in the unsafe manufacturing of drugs. The author considers the implications of his findings for a range of strategies to control corporate crime, nationally and internationally.