Expletive and Referential Subject Pronouns in Medieval French

Author: Michael Zimmermann
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110367475
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 256
View: 384
Medieval French, usually analyzed as a null subject language, differs considerably from modern Romance null subject languages such as Spanish in the availability of non-expressed subject pronouns; specifically, it shows characteristics reminiscent of non-null, rather than null subject languages, such as the expression of expletive subject pronouns. The central goal of this book is to put forward an account of these differences. On the basis of the analysis of an extensive, newly established data corpus, the development of the expression of both expletive and referential subject pronouns until the 17th c. is determined. Following a thorough discussion of previous approaches, an alternative approach is presented which builds on the analysis of Medieval French as a non-null subject language. The non-expression of subject pronouns, licit in specific contexts in non-null subject languages, is shown to be restricted to configurations generally involving left-peripheral focalization. These configurations – and, concomitantly, non-expressed subject pronouns – are finally argued to be eventually lost for good in the wake of the initial observation by 17th c. writers of pertinent instructions campaigned for in highly influential works of language use.

Definiteness Effects

Bilingual, Typological and Diachronic Variation
Author: Susann Fischer,Tanja Kupisch,Esther Rinke
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443898007
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 475
View: 3237
This volume explores in detail the empirical and conceptual content of the definiteness effect in grammar. It brings together a variety of relevant observations from a typological, diachronic and a bilingual/second language acquisition perspective, and provides a general overview of different approaches concerned with the syntactic, morphological, semantic, and pragmatic properties of the Definiteness Effect in a series of European and non-European languages.

Manual of Romance Morphosyntax and Syntax

Author: Günter Holtus, Fernando Sánchez Miret
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110393425
Page: N.A
View: 1033

Null Subjects in Generative Grammar

A Synchronic and Diachronic Perspective
Author: Federica Cognola,Jan Casalicchio
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198815859
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 384
View: 7076
This book considers the null-subject phenomenon, whereby some languages lack an overtly realized referential subject in specific contexts. In generative syntax-the approach adopted in this volume-the phenomenon has traditionally been explained in terms of a 'pro-drop' parameter with associated cluster properties; more recently, however, it has become clear that pro-drop phenomena do not always correlate with all the initially predicted cluster properties. This volume returns to the centre of the debate surrounding the empirical phenomena associated with null subjects. Experts in the field explore the cluster properties associated with pro-drop; the types of null category involved in null-subject phenomena and their identification; and the typology of null-subject languages, with a special focus on partial null-subject languages. Chapters include both novel empirical data and new theoretical analyses covering the major approaches to null subjects in generative grammar. A wide range of languages are examined, ranging from the most commonly studied in research into null subjects, such as Finnish and Italian, to lesser-studied languages such as Vietnamese and Polish, minority languages such as Cimbrian and Kashubian, and historical varieties such as Old French and Old High German. The research presented also contributes to the understanding of other key syntactic phenomena, such as the nature of control, the role of information structure and semantics in syntax, the mechanisms of language change, and the formalization of language variation. The breadth and depth of the volume will make it a valuable resource not only for generative syntacticians, but also for all those working in the fields of historical linguistics, typology, comparative grammar, semantics, and theoretical and descriptive linguistics more generally.

Language and Woman's Place

Text and Commentaries
Author: Robin Tolmach Lakoff
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195347173
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 320
View: 1795
The 1975 publication of Robin Tolmach Lakoff's Language and Woman's Place, is widely recognized as having inaugurated feminist research on the relationship between language and gender, touching off a remarkable response among language scholars, feminists, and general readers. For the past thirty years, scholars of language and gender have been debating and developing Lakoff's initial observations. Arguing that language is fundamental to gender inequality, Lakoff pointed to two areas in which inequalities can be found: Language used about women, such as the asymmetries between seemingly parallel terms like master and mistress, and language used by women, which places women in a double bind between being appropriately feminine and being fully human. Lakoff's central argument that "women's language" expresses powerlessness triggered a controversy that continues to this day. The revised and expanded edition presents the full text of the original first edition, along with an introduction and annotations by Lakoff in which she reflects on the text a quarter century later and expands on some of the most widely discussed issues it raises. The volume also brings together commentaries from twenty-six leading scholars of language, gender, and sexuality, within linguistics, anthropology, modern languages, education, information sciences, and other disciplines. The commentaries discuss the book's contribution to feminist research on language and explore its ongoing relevance for scholarship in the field. This new edition of Language and Woman's Place not only makes available once again the pioneering text of feminist linguistics; just as important, it places the text in the context of contemporary feminist and gender theory for a new generation of readers.

Progress in Language with Special Reference to English

Author: Otto Jespersen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415402581
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 400
View: 5688
First published in 2006. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

501 French Verbs Fully Conjugated in All the Tenses and Moods in a New Easy-to-learn Format, Alphabetically Arranged

Author: Christopher Kendris,Theodore Kendris
Publisher: Barron's snippet
ISBN: 9780764179839
Category: Foreign Language Study
Page: 760
View: 8170
Contains the most common French verbs.

The Ladies' Book of Etiquette, and Manual of Politeness

A Complete Handbook for the Use of the Lady in Polite Society ...
Author: Florence Hartley
Publisher: N.A
Category: Etiquette
Page: 340
View: 9011
The Ladies' Book of Etiquette, And Manual of Politeness: A Complete Handbook for the Use of the by Florence Hartley, first published in 1872, is a rare manuscript, the original residing in one of the great libraries of the world. This book is a reproduction of that original, which has been scanned and cleaned by state-of-the-art publishing tools for better readability and enhanced appreciation. Restoration Editors' mission is to bring long out of print manuscripts back to life. Some smudges, annotations or unclear text may still exist, due to permanent damage to the original work. We believe the literary significance of the text justifies offering this reproduction, allowing a new generation to appreciate it.

Reinventing pronoun gender

Author: Jenny Audring
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9789460930072
Category: Dutch language
Page: 233
View: 8948

The internal structure of noun phrases in the Scandinavian languages

a comparative study
Author: Lars-Olof Delsing
Publisher: N.A
Category: Scandinavian languages
Page: 244
View: 8128

Introducing Translation Studies

Theories and Applications
Author: Jeremy Munday
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317431405
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 376
View: 4176
Introducing Translation Studies remains the definitive guide to the theories and concepts that make up the field of translation studies. Providing an accessible and up-to-date overview, it has long been the essential textbook on courses worldwide. This fourth edition has been fully revised and continues to provide a balanced and detailed guide to the theoretical landscape. Each theory is applied to a wide range of languages, including Bengali, Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Punjabi, Portuguese and Spanish. A broad spectrum of texts is analysed, including the Bible, Buddhist sutras, Beowulf, the fiction of García Márquez and Proust, European Union and UNESCO documents, a range of contemporary films, a travel brochure, a children’s cookery book and the translations of Harry Potter. Each chapter comprises an introduction outlining the translation theory or theories, illustrative texts with translations, case studies, a chapter summary and discussion points and exercises. NEW FEATURES IN THIS FOURTH EDITION INCLUDE: new material to keep up with developments in research and practice, including the sociology of translation, multilingual cities, translation in the digital age and specialized, audiovisual and machine translation revised discussion points and updated figures and tables new, in-chapter activities with links to online materials and articles to encourage independent research an extensive updated companion website with video introductions and journal articles to accompany each chapter, online exercises, an interactive timeline, weblinks, and powerpoint slides for teacher support This is a practical, user-friendly textbook ideal for students and researchers on courses in Translation and Translation Studies.

In Search of Universal Grammar

From Old Norse to Zoque
Author: Terje Lohndal
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027255857
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 361
View: 6728
This volume in honor of Jan Terje Faarlund covers the areas in which he has contributed to linguistic theorizing, ranging from in-depth studies of Norwegian and Scandinavian grammar both synchronically and diachronically, to work on the Indian language Chiapas Zoque. The book is organized thematically with two chapters on each topic: The grammar of the Scandinavian languages (Tor A. Åfarli and Christer Platzack); language policies and sociolinguistics (Unn Røyneland and Peter Trudgill); French (Hans Petter Helland and Christine Meklenborg Salvesen); language change (Werner Abraham and Elly van Gelderen); lesser-studied languages (Alice Harris and Jerry Sadock); language acquisition (David Lightfoot and Marit Westergaard); and language evolution (Erika Hagelberg and Salikoko Mufwene). This book will be of interest to a wide range of readers, from students to scholars working on any of the areas covered.

The Origins and Development of the English Language

Author: John Algeo
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1428231455
Category: Fiction
Page: 368
View: 9746
Updated to reflect current research and rewritten for further clarity of presentation, the sixth edition of the best-selling THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues to take a linguistic-analysis approach and focuses on the facts of language rather than on theoretical approaches. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

A Reference Grammar of Russian

Author: Alan Timberlake
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139449342
Category: Foreign Language Study
Page: N.A
View: 1558
A Reference Grammar of Russian was first published in 2004. It describes and systematizes all aspects of the grammar of Russian: the patterns of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, word order, and intonation. It is especially concerned with the meaning of combinations of words (constructions). The core concept is that of the predicate history: a record of the states of entities through time and across possibilities. Using predicate histories, the book presents an integrated account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and aspect. More attention is paid to syntax than in any other grammars of Russian written in English or in other languages of Western Europe. Alan Timberlake refers to the literature on variation and trends in development, and makes use of contemporary data from the internet. This book will appeal to students, scholars and language professionals interested in Russian.

Germanic and Romance inversion in French

a diachronic study
Author: Cecile Anne de Bakker
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9789055690336
Category: French language
Page: 241
View: 9883

Reflections on Psycholinguistic Theories

Raiding the Inarticulate
Author: Nigel Duffield
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108417159
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: N.A
View: 9660
A vivid, 'well-tempered' exploration of the foundations of psycholinguistics, combining theoretical ideas with lyrical examples to explain high-level ideas in a lively, accessible way.

The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages

Author: Martin Maiden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199677107
Page: 1408
View: 720
The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages is the most exhaustive treatment of the Romance languages available today. Leading international scholars adopt a variety of theoretical frameworks and approaches to offer a detailed structural examination of all the individual Romance varieties and Romance-speaking areas, including standard, non-standard, dialectal, and regional varieties of the Old and New Worlds. The book also offers a comprehensive comparative account of major topics, issues, and case studies across different areas of the grammar of the Romance languages. The volume is organized into 10 thematic parts: Parts 1 and 2 deal with the making of the Romance languages and their typology and classification, respectively; Part 3 is devoted to individual structural overviews of Romance languages, dialects, and linguistic areas, while Part 4 provides comparative overviews of Romance phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics, and sociolinguistics. Chapters in Parts 5-9 examine issues in Romance phonology, morphology, syntax, syntax and semantics, and pragmatics and discourse, respectively, while the final part contains case studies of topics in the nominal group, verbal group, and the clause. The book will be an essential resource for both Romance specialists and everyone with an interest in Indo-European and comparative linguistics.

Grammar Alive!

A Guide for Teachers
Author: Brock Haussamen
Publisher: National Council of Teachers
ISBN: 9780814118726
Category: Education
Page: 121
View: 6661
Offers elementary teachers advice and strategies to help them teach, apply, and understand English grammar while still adhering to state and school standards.

Clitics in the Languages of Europe

Author: Henk C. van Riemsdijk
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110157512
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 1026
View: 341

Rethinking Parameters

Author: Luis Eguren,Olga Fernandez-Soriano,Amaya Mendikoetxea
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190461756
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 400
View: 5486
Parameters of linguistic variation were originally conceived, within the chomskyan Principles and Parameters Theory, as UG-determined options that were associated with grammatical principles and had a rich deductive structure. This characterization of parametric differences among languages has changed significantly over the years, especially so with the advent of Minimalism. This book collects a representative sample of current generative research on the status, origin and size of parameters. Often taking diverging views, the papers in the volume address some or all of the main debated topics in parametric syntax: i.e. are parameters provided by UG, or do they constitute emergent properties arising from points of underspecification?; in which component(s) of the language faculty are parameters to be found?; do clustering effects actually hold across languages?; do macroparameters exist alongside microparameters?; are there parameter hierarchies?; which is the origin and role of parameters in the process of language acquisition? The volume is organized into two parts. Part I ("The nature of variation and parameters") brings together studies whose main goal is to discuss general issues related to parameters (or variation more generally). Part II ("Parameters in the analysis of language variation: case studies") includes a number of works that deal with the empirical basis and proper formulation of well-known particular parameters: the Null Subject Parameter, the NP/DP Parameter, the Compounding Parameter, the Wh-Parameter and the Analyticity Parameter.