Fake Silk

The Lethal History of Viscose Rayon
Author: Paul David Blanc
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300204663
Category: History
Page: 328
View: 3232
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When a new technology makes people ill, how high does the body count have to be before protectives steps are taken? This disturbing book tells a dark story of hazardous manufacturing, poisonous materials, environmental abuses, political machinations, and economics trumping safety concerns. It explores the century-long history of "fake silk," or cellulose viscose, used to produce such products as rayon textiles and tires, cellophane, and everyday kitchen sponges. Paul Blanc uncovers the grim history of a product that crippled and even served a death sentence to many industry workers while also releasing toxic carbon disulfide into the environment. Viscose, an innovative and lucrative product first introduced in the early twentieth century, quickly became a multinational corporate enterprise. Blanc investigates industry practices from the beginning through two highly profitable world wars, the midcentury export of hazardous manufacturing to developing countries, and the current "greenwashing" of viscose as an eco-friendly product. Deeply researched and boldly presented, this book brings to light an industrial hazard whose egregious history ranks with those of asbestos, lead, and mercury.

How Everyday Products Make People Sick

Toxins at Home and in the Workplace
Author: Paul D. Blanc
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520248821
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 374
View: 2514
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“A superb tool for making our homes, finally, a safe place to raise children.”—Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., author of Crimes Against Nature and St. Francis of Assisi. “This is the work of a lifetime, one sure to be a classic for future lifetimes. Thirty years ago, Paul Blanc educated me about the threat of cancers caused by corporate and government negligence. Now he tells a great, entertaining and shocking story, based on a vast knowledge of science, government regulation, history and popular culture that shows our personal dependency and the almost-forsaken cause of public health."—Tom Hayden, former chairman, committee on natural resources, California state senate.” "A masterful synthesis of some of the very heated and critical environmental and occupational health issues of our time. Paul Blanc offers a grounded look at the long term history of industrial disease, and the toxic environment in which we now live -- something that has been overlooked in discussions of the rise of the modern environmental movement."—David Rosner, author of Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution and co-author of Are We Ready? Public Health Since 9/11.

Feverish Bodies, Enlightened Minds

Science and the Yellow Fever Controversy in the Early American Republic
Author: Thomas Apel
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804799636
Category: Science
Page: 208
View: 702
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From 1793 to 1805, yellow fever devastated U.S. port cities in a series of terrifying epidemics. The search for the cause and prevention of the disease involved many prominent American intellectuals, including Noah Webster and Benjamin Rush. This investigation produced one of the most substantial and innovative outpourings of scientific thought in early American history. But it also led to a heated and divisive debate—both political and theological—around the place of science in American society. Feverish Bodies, Enlightened Minds opens an important window onto the conduct of scientific inquiry in the early American republic. The debate between "contagionists," who thought the disease was imported, and "localists," who thought it came from domestic sources, reflected contemporary beliefs about God and creation, the capacities of the human mind, and even the appropriate direction of the new nation. Through this thoughtful investigation of the yellow fever epidemic and engaging examination of natural science in early America, Thomas Apel demonstrates that the scientific imaginations of early republicans were far broader than historians have realized: in order to understand their science, we must understand their ideas about God.

Extractive Relations

Countervailing Power and the Global Mining Industry
Author: John R. Owen,Deanna Kemp
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1783535091
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 264
View: 1927
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Extractive Relations explores the nature of industrial power and its role in shaping what we understand to be the global mining sector. The authors examine issues at the forefront of contemporary debates: corporate obligations in safeguarding the rights of people displaced by mining, the recognition of community rights and interests in supporting or opposing mining developments, the handling of non-judicial grievances and workability of corporate remedy systems, and the logic of community relations departments in navigating these issues inside and outside of the typical modern mining establishment. The authors develop a unique theoretical approach that highlights the different types and uses of power in these settings. This perspective is supported by the authors' own sustained engagement with the mining sector over many years, drawing on cases from over twenty countries. The analysis of these issues from both 'inside' and 'outside' the sector is a key point of differentiation. For readers seeking to understand how mining companies interpret and interact with the communities and interests around their operations, this book provides invaluable insight and analysis.

Banned

A History of Pesticides and the Science of Toxicology
Author: Frederick Rowe Davis
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030021037X
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 5973
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Rachel Carson’s eloquent book Silent Spring stands as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and inspired important and long-lasting changes in environmental science and government policy. Frederick Rowe Davis thoughtfully sets Carson’s study in the context of the twentieth century, reconsiders her achievement, and analyzes its legacy in light of toxic chemical use and regulation today. Davis examines the history of pesticide development alongside the evolution of the science of toxicology and tracks legislation governing exposure to chemicals across the twentieth century. He affirms the brilliance of Carson’s careful scientific interpretations drawing on data from university and government toxicologists. Although Silent Spring instigated legislation that successfully terminated DDT use, other warnings were ignored. Ironically, we replaced one poison with even more toxic ones. Davis concludes that we urgently need new thinking about how we evaluate and regulate pesticides in accounting for their ecological and human toll.

Physical Testing of Textiles


Author: B P Saville
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 184569015X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 336
View: 5064
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This book examines the physical testing of textiles in the form of fibre, yarn and fabric, the emphasis throughout eing on standard and reproducible tests. After an introductory explanation of sampling and measurement, the author explores the effects of moisture on textiles, then goes on to discuss fibre dimension, yarn tests for linear density, twist, evenness and hairiness, tensile strength, and dimensional stability and serviceability. Also covered are aspects of comfort and fabric handle, colour fastness and quality assurance. The book’s comprehensive coverage of the physical properties of textiles makes it an essential reference for managers in the textiles industry concerned with quality assurance, garment and fabric technologists, and students of textile science and engineering.

Fashion Victims

The Dangers of Dress Past and Present
Author: Alison Matthews David
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472577744
Category: Design
Page: 256
View: 9055
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From insidious murder weapons to blaze-igniting crinolines, clothing has been the cause of death, disease and madness throughout history, by accident and design. Clothing is designed to protect, shield and comfort us, yet lurking amongst seemingly innocuous garments we find hats laced with mercury, frocks laden with arsenic and literally 'drop-dead gorgeous' gowns. Fabulously gory and gruesome, Fashion Victims takes the reader on a fascinating journey through the lethal history of women's, men's and children's dress, in myth and reality. Drawing upon surviving fashion objects and numerous visual and textual sources, encompassing louse-ridden military uniforms, accounts of the fiery deaths of Oscar Wilde's half-sisters and dancer Isadora Duncan's accidental strangulation by entangled scarf; the book explores how garments have tormented those who made and wore them, and harmed animals and the environment in the process. Vividly chronicling evidence from Greek mythology to the present day, Matthews David puts everyday apparel under the microscope and unpicks the dark side of fashion. Fashion Victims is lavishly illustrated with over 125 images and is a remarkable resource for everyone from scholars and students to fashion enthusiasts.

Evolution in a Toxic World

How Life Responds to Chemical Threats
Author: Emily Monosson
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610912217
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 7028
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With BPA in baby bottles, mercury in fish, and lead in computer monitors, the world has become a toxic place. But as Emily Monosson demonstrates in her groundbreaking new book, it has always been toxic. When oxygen first developed in Earth's atmosphere, it threatened the very existence of life: now we literally can't live without it. According to Monosson, examining how life adapted to such early threats can teach us a great deal about today's (and tomorrow's) most dangerous contaminants. While the study of evolution has advanced many other sciences, from conservation biology to medicine, the field of toxicology has yet to embrace this critical approach. In Evolution in a Toxic World, Monosson seeks to change that. She traces the development of life's defense systems—the mechanisms that transform, excrete, and stow away potentially harmful chemicals—frommore thanthree billion years ago to today. Beginning with our earliest ancestors' response to ultraviolet radiation, Monosson explores the evolution of chemical defenses such as antioxidants, metal binding proteins, detoxification, and cell death. As we alter the world's chemistry, these defenses often become overwhelmed faster than our bodies can adapt. But studying how our complex internal defense network currently operates, and how it came to be that way, may allow us to predict how it will react to novel and existing chemicals. This understanding could lead to not onlybetter management and preventative measures, but possibly treatment of current diseases. Development of that knowledge starts with this pioneering book.

Saving Nature's Legacy

Origins of the Idea of Biological Diversity
Author: Timothy J. Farnham
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300120059
Category: Science
Page: 276
View: 4638
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Biological diversity is considered one of today’s most urgent environmental concerns, yet the term was first coined only twenty-five years ago. Why did the concept of biological diversity so quickly capture public attention and emerge as a banner issue for the environmental movement? In this book, Timothy J. Farnham explores for the first time the historical roots of biological diversity, tracing the evolution of the term as well as the history of the conservation traditions that contributed to its rapid acceptance and popularity. Biological diversity is understood today as consisting of three components--species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity. Farnham finds that these three tiers coincided with three earlier, disparate conservation traditions that converged when the cause of preserving biological diversity was articulated. He tells the stories of these different historical foundations, recounts how the term came into the environmental lexicon, and shows how the evolution of the idea of biological diversity reflects an evolution of American attitudes toward the natural world.

Industrial Electricity and Motor Controls, Second Edition


Author: Rex Miller,Mark Miller
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071818707
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 512
View: 8869
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The most complete, up-to-date guide to industrial electricity This practical resource offers comprehensive coverage of the entire electrical field and its equipment, including troubleshooting and repair. You'll learn how to read and interpret schematics and drawings and safely work with all electrical components and systems on the jobsite. The Second Edition features a new chapter on robotics, a new 16-page color insert, and information on the latest codes, regulations, and devices. Filled with more than 650 photos and diagrams, study questions, review problems, and detailed answers, this career-building tool helps you enhance your electrical and electronics expertise and apply it effectively in the workplace. Industrial Electricity and Motor Controls, Second Edition covers: Tools and equipment Safety in the workplace Symbols used in electrical wiring diagrams and ladder diagrams Control circuits and diagrams Switches Magnetism and solenoids Relays Electric motors Timers and sensors Solenoids and valves Motor starting methods Solid-state reduced-voltage starters Speed control and monitoring Motor control and protection Three-phase controllers Drives Transformers Power generation Power distribution systems Programmable controllers Robotics Careers in electricity

Dangerous Trade

Histories of Industrial Hazard across a Globalizing World
Author: Christopher Sellers,Joseph Melling
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 1439904707
Category: Nature
Page: 218
View: 7812
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From anthrax to asbestos to pesticides, industrial toxins and pollutants have troubled the world for the past century and longer. Environmental hazards from industry remain one of the world's foremost killers.Dangerous Trade establishes historical groundwork for a better understanding of how and why these hazards continue to threaten our shrinking world. In this timely collection, an international group of scholars casts a rigorous eye towards efforts to combat these ailments. Dangerous Trade contains a wide range of case studies that illuminate transnational movements of risk—from the colonial plantations of Indonesia to compensation laws in late 19th century Britain, and from the occupational medicine clinics of 1960s New York City to the burning of electronic waste in early twenty-first century Uruguay. The essays in Dangerous Trade provide an unprecedented broad perspective of the dangers stirred up by industrial activity across the globe, as well as the voices rasied to remedy them.

A Field Guide to Long Island Sound

Coastal Habitats, Plant Life, Fish, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, and Other Wildlife
Author: Patrick J. Lynch
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300220359
Category:
Page: 416
View: 4642
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A lavishly illustrated and long-overdue guidebook to the rich natural history of Long Island Sound and its coastlines, a region beloved by millions of people Long Island Sound consists of a diverse collection of unique marine, estuarine, and terrestrial ecosystems located in one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. The Sound and its coastlines are home not only to myriad species of plants and animals--from shorebirds and turtles to whales, seals, and fish--but also to more than twenty million people. Until now there has been no one-stop reference for those interested in exploring the Sound's rich natural history. Author, photographer, and scientific illustrator Patrick Lynch has filled this gap. Brimming with maps, photographs, and drawings, Lynch's guide introduces readers to the full breadth of the Sound's environs from shorelines to deepest waters. With coastal areas at particular risk from climate change and pollution, his timing couldn't be better. Whether readers are interested in the area's geology and meteorology, its history of human intervention, or simply locating nature reserves and bird sanctuaries, they're sure to find Lynch's compendium indispensable.

The Aliens Among Us

How Invasive Species Are Transforming the Planet—and Ourselves
Author: Leslie Anthony
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030023161X
Category: Nature
Page: 320
View: 5655
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A thoughtful, accessible look at the rapidly growing issue of invasive plants, animals, and microbes around the globe with a focus on the scientific issues and ecological, health, and other challenges From an award-winning adventure and science journalist comes an eye-opening exploration of a burgeoning environmental phenomenon and the science coalescing around it. Leslie Anthony leads readers on adventures physical and philosophical as he explores how and why invasive species are hijacking ecosystems around the globe. Weaving science, travel, history, and humor with diverse examples to chart and describe the phases of species invasion and human response, Anthony introduces field researchers and managers who seek to understand the biological, social, and economic aspects of this complex issue, and whose work collectively suggests the emergence of a global shadow economy centered on invasives. With tales of pythons in the Everglades, Asian carp and lamprey in the Great Lakes, Japanese knotweed seemingly everywhere, and the invasive organisms we don’t see—pathogens and microbes such as the Zika virus—this book rivets attention on a new ecological reality.

The City of Tomorrow

Sensors, Networks, Hackers, and the Future of Urban Life
Author: Carlo Ratti,Matthew Claudel
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300221134
Category: Science
Page: 192
View: 7158
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Since cities emerged ten thousand years ago, they have become one of the most impressive artifacts of humanity. But their evolution has been anything but linear—cities have gone through moments of radical change, turning points that redefine their very essence. In this book, a renowned architect and urban planner who studies the intersection of cities and technology argues that we are in such a moment. The authors explain some of the forces behind urban change and offer new visions of the many possibilities for tomorrow’s city. Pervasive digital systems that layer our cities are transforming urban life. The authors provide a front-row seat to this change. Their work at the MIT Senseable City Laboratory allows experimentation and implementation of a variety of urban initiatives and concepts, from assistive condition-monitoring bicycles to trash with embedded tracking sensors, from mobility to energy, from participation to production. They call for a new approach to envisioning cities: futurecraft, a symbiotic development of urban ideas by designers and the public. With such participation, we can collectively imagine, examine, choose, and shape the most desirable future of our cities.

The Hunter's Game

Poachers and Conservationists in Twentieth-century America
Author: Louis S. Warren
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300080865
Category: Nature
Page: 227
View: 3675
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The Hunter's Game reveals that early wildlife conservation was driven not by heroic idealism, but by the interests of recreational hunters and the tourist industry. As American wildlife populations declined at the end of the nineteenth century, elite, urban sportsmen began to lobby for game laws that would restrict the customary hunting practices of immigrants, Indians, and other local hunters.

Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology


Author: Lance Day,Ian McNeil
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134650191
Category: History
Page: 864
View: 991
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This Biographical Dictionary seeks to put the world of technology in the context of those who have made the most important contribution to it. For the first time information has been gathered on the people who have made the most significant advances in technology. From ancient times to the present day, the major inventors, discoverers and entrepreneurs from around the world are profiled, and their contribution to society explained and assessed. Structure The Dictionary presents descriptive and analytical biographies of its subjects in alphabetical order for ease of reference. Each entry provides detailed information on the individual's life, work and relevance to their particular field. * in the first part of the entry, the information will include the dates and places of the subject's birth and death, together with their nationality and their field of activity * in the main body of the entry there follows an account of their principal achievements and their significance in the history of technology, along with full details of appointments and honours * finally an annotated bibliography will direct the reader to the subject's principal writings and publications and to the most important secondary works which the reader can consult for further information. Special Features: * The first work in existence to examine technologists in detail * Contains over 1,500 entries giving detailed information * Extensive cross-references enable the reader to compare subjects and build up a picture of technological advance^ * Figures drawn from fields such as Aeronautics, Telecommunications, Architecture, Photography and Textiles

New Business Matters

Business English with a Lexical Approach
Author: Charles Mercer,Mark Powell
Publisher: Heinle & Heinle Pub
ISBN: 9780759398597
Category: Education
Page: 80
View: 3295
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NEW BUSINESS MATTERS is a stimulating language course for students of business English. Its unique lexical syllabus precisely identifies what business students need to learn in order to increase their understanding, fluency, and communicative power in English. Each unit is based on a specially written article, rich in the language of company life, followed by language activities which ensure that learners engage with the language and interact with each other.

Escaping the Dark, Gray City

Fear and Hope in Progressive-era Conservation
Author: Benjamin Heber Johnson
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300115504
Category:
Page: 320
View: 2932
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A compelling and long-overdue exploration of the Progressive-era conservation movement, and its lasting effects on American culture, politics, and contemporary environmentalism The turn of the twentieth century caught America at a crossroads, shaking the dust from a bygone era and hurtling toward the promises of modernity. Factories, railroads, banks, and oil fields--all reshaped the American landscape and people. In the gulf between growing wealth and the ills of an urbanizing nation, the spirit of Progressivism emerged. Promising a return to democracy and a check on concentrated wealth, Progressives confronted this changing relationship to the environment--not only in the countryside but also in dense industrial cities and leafy suburbs. Drawing on extensive work in urban history and Progressive politics, Benjamin Heber Johnson weaves together environmental history, material culture, and politics to reveal the successes and failures of the conservation movement and its lasting legacy. By following the efforts of a broad range of people and groups--women's clubs, labor advocates, architects, and politicians--Johnson shows how conservation embodied the ideals of Progressivism, ultimately becoming one of its most important legacies.

Automating Humanity


Author: Joe Toscano
Publisher: powerHouse Books
ISBN: 9781576879207
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 288
View: 4859
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Automating Humanity is the shocking and eye-opening new manifesto from international award-winning designer Joe Toscano that unravels and lays bare the power agendas of the world's greatest tech titans in plain language, and deliver a fair warning to policymakers, civilians, and industry professionals alike: We need a strategy for the future, and we need it now. Automating Humanity is an insider's perspective on everything Big Tech doesn't want the public to know--or think about: everything from the addictions installed on a global scale to the profits being driven by fake news and disinformation, to the way they're manipulating the world for profit and using our data to train systems that will automate jobs at an explosive, unprecedented scale. Toscano provides a critique of modern regulation, including parts of the new European Union's General Data Proctection Regulation (GDPR) suggesting how we can create proactive, adaptable regulation that satisfies both the needs of consumer safety and commercial success in the international economy. The content touches on everything from technology, economics and public policy to psychology, history and ethics, and is written in a way that is accessible to everyone from the average reader to the technical expert.