GIS and Public Health


Author: Ellen K. Cromley,Sara McLafferty
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1609187504
Category: Science
Page: 503
View: 885

Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition *Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices. *Chapter on health disparities. *Expanded coverage of public participation GIS. *Companion Web page has all-new content. *Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.

GIS and Public Health, Second Edition


Author: Ellen K. Cromley,Sara L. McLafferty
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1462500625
Category: Social Science
Page: 503
View: 9615

Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition*Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices.*Chapter on health disparities.*Expanded coverage of public participation GIS.*Companion Web page has all-new content.*Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.

GIS and Public Health, Second Edition


Author: Ellen K. Cromley,Sara L. McLafferty
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1609187512
Category: Social Science
Page: 503
View: 1979

Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition*Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices.*Chapter on health disparities.*Expanded coverage of public participation GIS.*Companion Web page has all-new content.*Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.

GIS Tutorial for Health


Author: Kristen Seamens Kurland,Wilpen L. Gorr
Publisher: ESRI, Inc.
ISBN: 1589481798
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 320
View: 2666

Designed to benefit health management students and practitioners, this illustrated tutorial is an introduction to help students investigate patterns of uninsured and poor populations, prepare spatial data to analyze environmental hazards, analyze youth pedestrian injuries, and more. This edition is updated for ArcGIS 9.2.

Spatial Health Inequalities

Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis
Author: Esra Ozdenerol
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498701515
Category: Medical
Page: 173
View: 2728

The neighborhoods and the biophysical, political, and cultural environments all play a key role in affecting health outcomes of individuals. Unequal spatial distribution of resources such as clinics, hospitals, public transportation, fresh food markets, and schools could make some communities as a whole more vulnerable and less resilient to adverse health effects. This somber reality suggests that it is rather the question of "who you are depends upon where you are" and the fact that health inequality is both a people and a place concern. That is why health inequality needs to be investigated in a spatial setting to deepen our understanding of why and how some geographical areas experience poorer health than others. This book introduces how spatial context shapes health inequalities. Spatial Health Inequalities: Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis demonstrates the spatial health inequalities in six most important topics in environmental and public health, including food insecurity, birth health outcomes, infectious diseases, children’s lead poisoning, chronic diseases, and health care access. These are the topics that the author has done extensive research on and provides a detailed description of the topic from a global perspective. Each chapter identifies relevant data and data sources, discusses key literature on appropriate techniques, and then illustrates with real data with mapping and GIS techniques. This is a unique book for students, geographers, clinicians, health and research professionals and community members interested in applying GIS and spatial analysis to the study of health inequalities.

Quantitative Methods and Socio-Economic Applications in GIS, Second Edition


Author: Fahui Wang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466584734
Category: Mathematics
Page: 333
View: 9499

The second edition of a bestseller, Quantitative Methods and Socio-Economic Applications in GIS (previously titled Quantitative Methods and Applications in GIS) details applications of quantitative methods in social science, planning, and public policy with a focus on spatial perspectives. The book integrates GIS and quantitative (computational) methods and demonstrates them in various policy-relevant socio-economic applications with step-by-step instructions and datasets. The book demonstrates the diversity of issues where GIS can be used to enhance the studies related to socio-economic issues and public policy. See What’s New in the Second Edition: All project instructions are in ArcGIS 10.2 using geodatabase datasets New chapters on regionalization methods and Monte Carlo simulation Popular tasks automated as a convenient toolkit: Huff Model, 2SFCA accessibility measure, regionalization, Garin-Lowry model, and Monte Carlo based spatial simulation Advanced tasks now implemented in user-friendly programs or ArcGIS: centrality indices, wasteful commuting measure, p-median problem, and traffic simulation Each chapter has one subject theme and introduces the method (or a group of related methods) most relevant to the theme. While each method is illustrated in a special case of application, it can also be used to analyze different issues. For example, spatial regression is used to examine the relationship between job access and homicide patterns; systems of linear equations are analyzed to predict urban land use patterns; linear programming is introduced to solve the problem of wasteful commuting and allocate healthcare facilities; and Monte Carlo technique is illustrated in simulating urban traffic. The book illustrates the range of computational methods and covers common tasks and major issues encountered in a spatial environment. It provides a platform for learning technical skills and quantitative methods in the context of addressing real-world problems, giving you instant access to the tools to resolve major socio-economic issues.

Geographies of Health

An Introduction
Author: Anthony C. Gatrell,Susan J. Elliott
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118274857
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 9576

Setting out the debates and reviewing the evidence that links health outcomes with social and physical environments, this new edition of the well-established text offers an accessible overview of the theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and research in the field of health geography Includes international examples, drawn from a broad range of countries, and extensive illustrations Unique in its approach to health geography, as opposed to medical geography New chapters focus on contemporary concerns including neighborhoods and health, ageing, and emerging infectious disease Offers five new case studies and an fresh emphasis on qualitative research approaches Written by two of the leading health geographers in the world, each with extensive experience in research and policy

Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R


Author: Roger S. Bivand,Edzer Pebesma,Virgilio Gómez-Rubio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461476186
Category: Medical
Page: 405
View: 7429

Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R, second edition, is divided into two basic parts, the first presenting R packages, functions, classes and methods for handling spatial data. This part is of interest to users who need to access and visualise spatial data. Data import and export for many file formats for spatial data are covered in detail, as is the interface between R and the open source GRASS GIS and the handling of spatio-temporal data. The second part showcases more specialised kinds of spatial data analysis, including spatial point pattern analysis, interpolation and geostatistics, areal data analysis and disease mapping. The coverage of methods of spatial data analysis ranges from standard techniques to new developments, and the examples used are largely taken from the spatial statistics literature. All the examples can be run using R contributed packages available from the CRAN website, with code and additional data sets from the book's own website. Compared to the first edition, the second edition covers the more systematic approach towards handling spatial data in R, as well as a number of important and widely used CRAN packages that have appeared since the first edition. This book will be of interest to researchers who intend to use R to handle, visualise, and analyse spatial data. It will also be of interest to spatial data analysts who do not use R, but who are interested in practical aspects of implementing software for spatial data analysis. It is a suitable companion book for introductory spatial statistics courses and for applied methods courses in a wide range of subjects using spatial data, including human and physical geography, geographical information science and geoinformatics, the environmental sciences, ecology, public health and disease control, economics, public administration and political science. The book has a website where complete code examples, data sets, and other support material may be found: http://www.asdar-book.org. The authors have taken part in writing and maintaining software for spatial data handling and analysis with R in concert since 2003.

GIS Cartography

A Guide to Effective Map Design, Second Edition
Author: Gretchen N. Peterson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482220679
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 317
View: 6748

In the five years since the publication of the first edition of A Guide to Effective Map Design, cartography and software have become further intertwined. However, the initial motivation for publishing the first edition is still valid: many GISers enter the field without so much as one hour of design instruction in their formal education. Yet they are then tasked with creating one the most effective, easily recognized communication tools: a map. See What’s New in the Second Edition Projection theory Hexagonal binning Big Data point density maps Scale dependent map design 3D building modeling Digital cartography and its best practices Updated graphics and references Study questions and lab exercises at the end of each chapter In this second edition of a bestseller, author Gretchen Peterson takes a "don’t let the technology get in the way" approach to the presentation, focusing on the elements of good design, what makes a good map, and how to get there, rather than specific software tools. She provides a reference that you can thumb through time and again as you create your maps. Copiously illustrated, the second edition explores novel concepts that kick-start your pursuit of map-making excellence. The book doesn’t just teach you how to design and create maps, it teaches you how to design and create better maps.

Cartographies of Disease

Maps, Mapping, and Medicine
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: Esri Press
ISBN: 9781589484672
Category: Medical
Page: 412
View: 9472

Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine, new expanded edition, is a comprehensive survey of the technology of mapping and its relationship to the battle against disease. This look at medical mapping advances the argument that maps are not merely representations of spatial realities but a way of thinking about relationships between viral and bacterial communities, human hosts, and the environments in which diseases flourish. Cartographies of Disease traces the history of medical mapping from its growth in the 19th century during an era of trade and immigration to its renaissance in the 1990s during a new era of globalization. Referencing maps older than John Snow's famous cholera maps of London in the mid-19th century, this survey pulls from the plague maps of the 1600s, while addressing current issues concerning the ability of GIS technology to track diseases worldwide. The original chapters have some minor updating and two new chapters have been added. Chapter 13 attempts to understand how the hundreds of maps of Ebola revealed not simply disease incidence but the way in which the epidemic itself was perceived. Chapter 14, is about the spatiality of the disease and the means by which different cartographic approaches may affect the means by which infectious outbreaks like Ebola can be confronted and contained.

Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health

Design, Implementation, and Applications for Malaria Epidemiology
Author: S. M. Niaz Arifin,Gregory R. Madey,Frank H. Collins
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118964357
Category: Mathematics
Page: 320
View: 7357

Presents an overview of the complex biological systems used within a global public health setting and features a focus on malaria analysis Bridging the gap between agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) and geographic information systems (GIS), Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health: Design, Implementation, and Applications for Malaria Epidemiology provides a useful introduction to the development of agent-based models (ABMs) by following a conceptual and biological core model of Anopheles gambiae for malaria epidemiology. Using spatial ABMs, the book includes mosquito (vector) control interventions and GIS as two example applications of ABMs, as well as a brief description of epidemiology modeling. In addition, the authors discuss how to most effectively integrate spatial ABMs with a GIS. The book concludes with a combination of knowledge from entomological, epidemiological, simulation-based, and geo-spatial domains in order to identify and analyze relationships between various transmission variables of the disease. Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health: Design, Implementation, and Applications for Malaria Epidemiology also features: Location-specific mosquito abundance maps that play an important role in malaria control activities by guiding future resource allocation for malaria control and identifying hotspots for further investigation Discussions on the best modeling practices in an effort to achieve improved efficacy, cost-effectiveness, ecological soundness, and sustainability of vector control for malaria An overview of the various ABMs, GIS, and spatial statistical methods used in entomological and epidemiological studies, as well as the model malaria study A companion website with computer source code and flowcharts of the spatial ABM and a landscape generator tool that can simulate landscapes with varying spatial heterogeneity of different types of resources including aquatic habitats and houses Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health: Design, Implementation, and Applications for Malaria Epidemiology is an excellent reference for professionals such as modeling and simulation experts, GIS experts, spatial analysts, mathematicians, statisticians, epidemiologists, health policy makers, as well as researchers and scientists who use, manage, or analyze infectious disease data and/or infectious disease-related projects. The book is also ideal for graduate-level courses in modeling and simulation, bioinformatics, biostatistics, public health and policy, and epidemiology. S. M. Niaz Arifin, PhD, is Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. A member of The Society for Computer Simulation, and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and the recipient of The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Travel Award in 2011, his research interests include agent-based modeling and simulation, public health, data warehousing, and geographic information systems. Gregory R. Madey, PhD, is Research Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. A member of The Society for Computer Simulation, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, his research interests include agent-based modeling and simulation, cyberinfrastructure, bioinformatics, biocomplexity, e-Technologies, open source software, disaster management, and health informatics. Frank H. Collins, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Notre Dame. His research interests include genome level studies of arthropod vectors of human pathogens, the biology of malaria vectors with a focus on the development of molecular tools that will permit better resolution of questions about vector population ecology, ecological genetics, and the epidemiology of malaria transmission.

Spatial Databases

With Application to GIS
Author: Philippe Rigaux,Michel O. Scholl,Agnès Voisard
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 9781558605886
Category: Computers
Page: 410
View: 1238

Spatial Databases is the first unified, in-depth treatment of special techniques for dealing with spatial data, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). This book surveys various techniques, such as spatial data models, algorithms, and indexing methods, developed to address specific features of spatial data that are not adequately handled by mainstream DBMS technology. The book also reviews commercial solutions to geographic data handling: ArcInfo, ArcView, and Smallworld GISs; and two extensions to the relational model, PostgreSQL and Oracle Spatial. The authors examine these underlying GIS technologies, assess their strengths and weaknesses, and consider specific uses for which each product is best suited. * Examines the strengths of various query languages and approaches to query processing. * Explains the use of computational geometry in spatial databases GISs, providing necessary background and an in-depth look at key algorithms. * Covers spatial access methods, including the R-tree and several space-driven structures, and is filled with dozens of helpful illustrations.

Manual of Geospatial Science and Technology


Author: John D. Bossler,John R. Jensen,Robert B. McMaster,Chris Rizos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203305922
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 648
View: 3482

Professionals in local and national government and in the private sector frequently need to draw on Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), often in an integrated manner. This manual shows a hands-on operator how to work across the range of geospatial science and technology, whether as a user or as a contractor of services employing these technologies, and without either specialist education or substantial experience. The manual covers the fundamentals of each of these topical areas, providing the requisite mathematics, computer science and physics necessary to understand how the technologies work, assuming some elementary background in calculus and physics. It also shows how the technologies can be used together and focuses on their commonalities. A number of applications such as mapping and environmental modeling are presented, and a website accompanies the book.

GIS: A Short Introduction


Author: Nadine Schuurman
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing
ISBN: 9780631235330
Category: Science
Page: 169
View: 9308

This guide takes a critical look at the theory and practices that together comprise GIS. It outlines the value--both intellectual and technical--of GIS for human geographers, recognizing the positive effects GIS has had but also pointing out its limitations. (Midwest).

GIS Fundamentals, Second Edition


Author: Stephen Wise
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482231905
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 338
View: 1270

With GIS technology increasingly available to a wider audience on devices from apps on smartphones to satnavs in cars, many people routinely use spatial data in a way which used to be the preserve of GIS specialists. However spatial data is stored and analyzed on a computer still tends to be described in academic texts and articles which require specialist knowledge or some training in computer science. Developed to introduce computer science literature to geography students, GIS Fundamentals, Second Edition provides an accessible examination of the underlying principles for anyone with no formal training in computer science. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Coverage of the use of spatial data on the Internet Chapters on databases and on searching large databases for spatial queries Improved coverage on route-finding Improved coverage of heuristic approaches to solving real-world spatial problems International standards for spatial data The book begins with a brief but detailed introduction to how computers work and how they are programmed, giving anyone with no previous computer science background a foundation to understand the remainder of the book. As with all parts of the book there are also suggestions for further sources of reading. The book then describes the ways in which vector and raster data can be stored and how algorithms are designed to perform fundamental operations such as detecting where lines intersect. From these simple beginnings the book moves into the more complex structures used for handling surfaces and networks and contains a detailed account of what it takes to determine the shortest route between two places on a network. The final sections of the book review problems, such as the "Travelling Salesman" problem, which are so complex that it is not known whether an optimum solution exists. Using clear, concise language, but without sacrificing technical rigour, the book gives readers an understanding of what it takes to produce systems which allow them to find out where to make their next purchase and how to drive to the right place to collect it.

GIS, Environmental Modeling and Engineering, Second Edition


Author: Allan Brimicombe
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439808726
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 378
View: 6535

Spatial dimensions need to be properly captured if modeling and engineering techniques are to be successfully applied in addressing environmental problems. The links between the geographical information systems (GIS) that capture this data, simulation modeling, and engineering offer tremendous possibilities for building versatile support systems for managing the environment. GIS, Environmental Modeling and Engineering focuses on using GIS and external models to solve real environmental problems, promoting the critical thinking needed for the effective applications of these systems and their analytical outputs. Divided into three major sections, this textbook first concentrates on defining GIS, identifying how data is structured, and explaining common functionality. The text examines GIS from a technological perspective, exploring the evolution of its scientific basis and its synergies with other technologies within a geocomputational paradigm. The next section explores modeling from a neutral scientific perspective in its role of simulating phenomena, as well as from a more specific perspective in its role within environmental science and engineering. The third and largest section looks at how GIS and simulation modeling are joined. It provides case studies and covers issues such as interoperability, data quality, model validity, space-time dynamics, and decision-support systems. This volume provides seniors and postgraduate students with a structured, coherent text that goes beyond introductory subject matter by enabling readers to think critically about the data acquisition process and the results they get from the technology.

Getting to Know Web GIS

Third Edition
Author: Pinde Fu
Publisher: ESRI Press
ISBN: 9781589485211
Category: Computers
Page: N.A
View: 1254

The new third edition of Getting to Know Web GIS is a step-by-step workbook on how to build web GIS applications using the latest Esri technology, including smart mapping, AppStudio, ArcGIS Pro, and Scene services. As presented in this book, the technologies are easy to apply, current, and holistic.

The Arcgis Book

10 Big Ideas about Applying the Science of Where(tm)
Author: Christian Harder
Publisher: Esri Press
ISBN: 9781589484870
Category: Computers
Page: 172
View: 1192

This is a hands-on book about ArcGIS that you work with as much as read. By the end, using Learn ArcGIS lessons, you'll be able to say you made a story map, conducted geographic analysis, edited geographic data, worked in a 3D web scene, built a 3D model of Venice, and more.

Mathematical Techniques in GIS, Second Edition


Author: Peter Dale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466595558
Category: Mathematics
Page: 359
View: 3462

The second edition of a bestseller, Mathematical Techniques in GIS demystifies the mathematics used in the manipulation of spatially related data. The author takes a step-by-step approach through the basics of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry and calculus that underpin the management of such data. He then explores the use of matrices, determinants and vectors in the handling of geographic information so that the data may be analyzed and displayed in two-dimensional form either in the visualization of the terrain or as map projections. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Summaries at the end of each chapter Worked examples of techniques described Additional material on matrices and vectors Further material on map projections New material on spatial correlation A new section on global positioning systems Written for those who need to make use geographic information systems but have a limited mathematical background, this book introduces the basic statistical techniques commonly used in geographic information systems and explains best-fit solutions and the mathematics behind satellite positioning. By understanding the mathematics behind the gathering, processing, and display of information, you can better advise others on the integrity of results, the quality of the information, and the safety of using it.

An Introduction to R for Spatial Analysis and Mapping


Author: Chris Brunsdon,Lex Comber
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1473911192
Category: Social Science
Page: 360
View: 603

"In an age of big data, data journalism and with a wealth of quantitative information around us, it is not enough for students to be taught only 100 year old statistical methods using 'out of the box' software. They need to have 21st-century analytical skills too. This is an excellent and student-friendly text from two of the world leaders in the teaching and development of spatial analysis. It shows clearly why the open source software R is not just an alternative to commercial GIS, it may actually be the better choice for mapping, analysis and for replicable research. Providing practical tips as well as fully working code, this is a practical 'how to' guide ideal for undergraduates as well as those using R for the first time. It will be required reading on my own courses." - Richard Harris, Professor of Quantitative Social Science, University of Bristol R is a powerful open source computing tool that supports geographical analysis and mapping for the many geography and ‘non-geography’ students and researchers interested in spatial analysis and mapping. This book provides an introduction to the use of R for spatial statistical analysis, geocomputation and the analysis of geographical information for researchers collecting and using data with location attached, largely through increased GPS functionality. Brunsdon and Comber take readers from ‘zero to hero’ in spatial analysis and mapping through functions they have developed and compiled into R packages. This enables practical R applications in GIS, spatial analyses, spatial statistics, mapping, and web-scraping. Each chapter includes: Example data and commands for exploring it Scripts and coding to exemplify specific functionality Advice for developing greater understanding - through functions such as locator(), View(), and alternative coding to achieve the same ends Self-contained exercises for students to work through Embedded code within the descriptive text. This is a definitive 'how to' that takes students - of any discipline - from coding to actual applications and uses of R.