Grasses and Grassland Ecology


Author: David J. Gibson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019852918X
Category: Science
Page: 305
View: 2869
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Grasses and Grassland Ecology provides an ecologically orientated introduction to this influential group of plants, summarizing the most recent scientific research in ecology and agriculture in the context of the older, classic literature. Ten chapters cover the morphology, anatomy, physiology and systematics of grasses, their population, community and ecosystem ecology, their global distribution, and the effects of disturbanceand grassland management.

Grasses and Grassland Ecology


Author: David J. Gibson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780198529194
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 5457
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This book is the most up to date and thorough account of the natural history of the plants that comprise the most important food crop on Earth, the grasses and grasslands.

Grasses and Grassland Ecology


Author: David J. Gibson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191546099
Category: Nature
Page: 322
View: 6898
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Grasslands, in particular managed pastures and rangelands, are widespread, covering approximately 40% (52 million km2) of the Earth's land surface. They are dominated by members of the Poaceae - the fourth largest plant family with over 7,500 species, and also the most widespread. Grasslands constitute a major biome on all continents except Antarctica and also represent the most important food crop on Earth with corn, wheat, maize, rice and millet accounting for the majority of our agricultural output. Grasses and Grassland Ecology provides an ecologically orientated introduction to this influential group of plants, summarizing the most recent scientific research in ecology and agriculture in the context of the older, classic literature. Ten chapters cover the morphology, anatomy, physiology and systematics of grasses, their population, community and ecosystem ecology, their global distribution, and the effects of disturbance and grassland management. This comprehensive and accessible textbook is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in the fields of plant ecology, rangeland science, crop science, and agriculture.

California Grasslands

Ecology and Management
Author: Mark R. Stromberg,Jeffrey D. Corbin,Carla Marie D'Antonio
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520252202
Category: Nature
Page: 390
View: 5956
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"This highly synthetic and scholarly work brings together new and important scientific contributions by leading experts on a rich diversity of topics concerning the history, ecology, and conservation of California's endangered grasslands. The editors and authors have succeeded admirably in drawing from a great wealth of recent research to produce a widely accessible and compelling, state-of-the-art treatment of this fascinating subject. Anyone interested in Californian biodiversity or grassland ecosystems in general will find this book to be an invaluable resource and a major inspiration for further research, management, and restoration efforts."--Bruce G. Baldwin, W. L. Jepson Professor and Curator, UC Berkeley "Grasses and grasslands are among the most important elements of the California landscape. This is their book, embodying the kind of integrated view needed for all ecological communities in California. Approaches ranging across an incredibly broad spectrum -- paleontology and human history; basic science and practical management techniques; systematics, community ecology, physiology, and genetics; physical factors such as water, soil nutrients, atmospherics, and fire; biological factors such as competition, symbiosis, and grazing -- are nicely tied together due to careful editorial work. This is an indispensable reference for everyone interested in the California environment."--Brent Mishler, Director of the University & Jepson Herbaria and Professor of Integrative Biology, UC Berkeley "The structure and function of California grasslands have intrigued ecologists for decades. The editors of this volume have assembled a comprehensive set of reviews by a group of outstanding authors on the natural history, structure, management, and restoration of this economically and ecologically important ecosystem."--Scott L. Collins, Professor of Biology, University of New Mexico

Grassland Productivity and Ecosystem Services


Author: Gilles Lemaire,John Hodgson,Abad Chabbi
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845938097
Category: Science
Page: 287
View: 9044
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This book contains 28 chapters with emphasis on the interactive nature of the relationships between the soil, plant, animal and environmental components of grassland systems, both natural and managed. It analyses the present knowledge and the future trends of research for combining the classical view of grasslands, as a resource for secure feeding of an increasing human population, with the more recent perspective of the contribution of grasslands to the mitigation of environmental impacts and biodiversity erosion as consequences of human society activities. The chapters are organized within five sections dealing with the different functions and the main ecosystem services expected from grasslands: (i) domestic herbivore feeding and animal production; (ii) the regulation of biogeochemical cycles and its consequences for the environment; (iii) dynamics of biodiversity hosted by grasslands; (iv) integration of grasslands within sustainable animal production systems; and (v) interactions of grassland areas with other land use systems at the landscape level.

The Ecology and Management of Prairies in the Central United States


Author: Chris Helzer
Publisher: University of Iowa Press
ISBN: 1587299313
Category: Nature
Page: 232
View: 8953
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Most prairies exist today as fragmented landscapes, making thoughtful and vigilant management ever more important. Intended for landowners and managers dedicated to understanding and nurturing their prairies as well as farmers, ranchers, conservationists, and all those with a strong interest in grasslands, ecologist Chris Helzer’s readable and practical manual educates prairie owners and managers about grassland ecology and gives them guidelines for keeping prairies diverse, vigorous, and viable. Chapters in the first section, "Prairie Ecology," describe prairie plants and the communities they live in, the ways in which disturbance modifies plant communities, the animal and plant inhabitants that are key to prairie survival, and the importance of diversity within plant and animal communities. Chapters in the second section, "Prairie Management," explore the adaptive management process as well as guiding principles for designing management strategies, examples of successful management systems such as fire and grazing, guidance for dealing with birds and other species that have particular habitat requirements and with the invasive species that have become the most serious threat that prairie managers have to deal with, and general techniques for prairie restoration. Following the conclusion and a forward-thinking note on climate change, eight appendixes provide more information on grazing, prescribed fire, and invasive species as well as bibliographic notes, references, and national and state organizations with expertise in prairie management. Grasslands can be found throughout much of North America, and the ideas and strategies in this book apply to most of them, particularly tallgrass and mixed-grass prairies in eastern North Dakota, eastern South Dakota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, northwestern Missouri, northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southwestern Wisconsin, and southwestern Minnesota. By presenting all the factors that promote biological diversity and thus enhance prairie communities, then incorporating these factors into a set of clear-sighted management practices, The Ecology and Management of Prairies in the Central United States presents the tools necessary to ensure that grasslands are managed in the purposeful ways essential to the continued health and survival of prairie communities.

Grassland

The History, Biology, Politics, and Promise of the American Prairie
Author: Richard Manning
Publisher: Viking Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Nature
Page: 306
View: 1780
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Traces the past and future of the Western and Midwestern grasslands, tracking the first herd of buffalo restored to the land, the efforts of biologists to restore native grasses, and the history of human migration across the prairie. 10,000 first printing.

Grass

In Search of Human Habitat
Author: Joe C. Truett
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520944526
Category: Nature
Page: 240
View: 4217
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Part autobiography, part philosophical rumination, this evocative conservation odyssey explores the deep affinities between humans and our original habitat: grasslands. In a richly drawn, anecdotally driven narrative, Joe C. Truett, a grasslands ecologist who writes with a flair for language, traces the evolutionary, historical, and cultural forces that have reshaped North American rangelands over the past two centuries. He introduces an intriguing cast of characters—wildlife and grasslands biologists, archaeologists, ranchers, and petroleum geologists—to illuminate a wide range of related topics: our love affair with turf and how it manifests in lawns and sports, the ecological and economic dimensions of ranching, the glory of cowboy culture, grasslands and restoration ecology, and more. His book ultimately provides the background against which we can envision a new paradigm for restoring rangeland ecosystems—and a new paradigm for envisioning a more sustainable future.

Grassland-Invertebrate Interactions: Plant Productivity, Resilience and Community Dynamics


Author: Ivan Hiltpold,Michael Rostás
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452905
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 9960
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Natural and anthropogenic grasslands such as prairies, meadows, rangelands, and pastures cover more than 40% of the planet’s surface and provide a wealth of ecological services. Grasslands alone store one third of the global carbon stocks and grass roots, through their specific architectures, ensure water cycling and prevent the erosion of fertile topsoil. In addition, grasslands are of vital importance for human food production as vast areas of rangelands and pastures provide feed for livestock. Pastoral legumes mobilize atmospheric nitrogen and improve fertility of arable soils. Not least, grasslands are an essential genetic resource. The three major crop species that feed half of the global population have been bred from wild grasses. Ancestors of our contemporary turf cultivars, common components of urban landscapes and recreation spaces, originated from wild grasslands. Although natural and managed grasslands represent pivotal ecosystems, many aspects of how they function are poorly understood. To date, most attention has focused on grassland primary producers (i.e. forage plants) and mammalian grazers but invertebrates are likely to play an equally, if not more important role in grassland ecosystem functioning. In Australian pastures, for example, the biomass of root-feeding scarab beetles can often exceed that of sheep and plant damage caused by invertebrates is sometimes equivalent to an average dairy cow’s grass consumption. Indeed, grasslands are one of the most densely populated ecosystems with invertebrates being probably the most important engineers that shape both plant communities and the grassland as a whole. In a rapidly changing world with increasing anthropogenic pressure on grasslands, this Research Topic focuses on: 1. How grassland habitats shape invertebrate biodiversity 2. Impacts of climate change on grassland-invertebrate interactions 3. Plant and invertebrate pest monitoring and management 4. Plant-mediated multitrophic interactions and biological control in grasslands 5. Land use and grassland invertebrates 6. Plant resistance to invertebrate pests Given the increasing demand for food and land for human habitation, unprecedented threats to grasslands are anticipated. Resilient to some extent, these key ecosystems need to be better comprehended to guarantee their sustainable management and ecosystem services.

Manual of Grasses for North America


Author: Mary E. Barkworth,Laurel K. Anderton,Kathleen M. Capels,Sandy Long,Michael B. Piep
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 1457180987
Category: Science
Page: 640
View: 4001
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Grasses are the world’s most important plants. They are the dominant species over large parts of the earth’s land surface, a fact that is reflected in the many different words that exist for grasslands, words such as prairie, veldt, palouse, and pampas to mention just a few. As a group, grasses are of major ecological importance, as soil binders and providers of shelter and food for wild animals, both large and small. Some grasses, such as wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, tef, and sugar cane are major sources of calories for humans and their livestock; others, primarily bamboos, are used for construction, tools, paper, and fabric. More recently, the seed catalogs that tantalize gardeners each winter have borne witness to an increasing appreciation of the aesthetic value of grasses. The Manual of Grasses for North America is designed as a successor to the classic volume by Hitchcock and Chase. It reflects current taxonomic thought and includes keys, illustrations, and distribution maps for the nearly 900 native and 400 introduced species that have been found in North America north of Mexico. In addition, it presents keys and illustrations for several species that are known only in cultivation or are of major agricultural significance, either as progenitors of bread wheat and corn or as a major threat to North American agriculture because of their ability to hybridize with crop species. The Manual of Grasses for North America is a major reference work for grasses that will retain its value for many years.

Perspectives in Grassland Ecology

Results and Applications of the US/IBP Grassland Biome Study
Author: N.R. French
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461261821
Category: Science
Page: 204
View: 696
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This volume is a result of the summary and synthesis of data collected in the Grassland Biome Program, which is part of the American contribution to the International Biological Program (IBP). The purpose of this volume is to present a summary of quantitative ecological investigations of North American grass lands and to present a set of broad comparisons of their characteristics and functions as well as the results of some models and experiments that lead to practical considerations of the management of grasslands. Synthesis is a continuing activity in science. Early in the Grassland Biome Program there was a synthesis of literature data on grasslands, edited by R. L. Dix and R. G. Beidleman (1969). Results of the first year of field data collection under this program were synthesized in a volume edited by N. R. French (1971). Development of the large-scale model constructed to depict the processes and the dynamics of state variables in grassland ecosystems was presented by Innis (1978). Soon to appear will be two volumes integrating studies of American grasslands with IBP studies in other grasslands of the world (Coupland, in press) and the application of systems analysis to understanding grassland function and utilization (Breymeyer and Van Dyne, in press). The present volume presents current results and comparisons of field investigations and experimental studies that were conducted under this program.

The Desert Grassland


Author: Mitchel P. McClaran,Thomas R. Van Devender
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 9780816518234
Category: Science
Page: 346
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The mixed grass and shrub vegetation known to scientists as desert grassland is common to the basins and valleys that skirt the mountain ranges throughout southwestern North America, extending from Arizona, New Mexico and Texas down through thirteen Mexican states. This variegated ground cover is crucial to life in an arid environment. The Desert Grassland offers the most comprehensive study to date of these flora and the rich biotic communities they support.Leading experts in geography, biology, botany, zoology, and geoscience present new research on the desert grassland and review a vast amount of earlier work. They reveal that present-day grasses once grew in the ice-age forests that existed in these areas before the climate dried and the trees vanished and how the intensity and frequency of fire can influence the plant and animal species of the grassland. They also document how the influence of humans--from Amerindians to contemporary ranchers, public land managers, and real estate developers--has changed the relative abundance of woody and herbaceous species and how the introduction of new plants and domesticated animals to the area has also affected biodiversity. The book concludes with a review of the attempts, both failed and successful, to reestablish plants in desert grasslands affected by overgrazing, drought, and farm abandonment.Meticulously researched and copiously illustrated, The Desert Grassland is a major contribution to ecological literature. For advanced lay readers as well as students and scholars of history, geography, and ecology, it will be a standard reference work for years to come.

Grass, Sky, Song

Promise and Peril in the World of Grassland Birds
Author: Trevor Herriot
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 144340084X
Category: Nature
Page: 288
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Published to wide acclaim, this beautiful meditation on the fate of grassland birds has been praised for its profound wisdom and lyrical grace. Herriot, in a narrative that is at once intimate and informative, argues for the essential nature of these tiny creatures. He invites us into the unique world of dedicated scientists, passionate naturalists and such historical figures as 19th-century botanist John Macoun, the last naturalist to see the Great Plains in its pre-settlement grandeur. Grass, Sky, Song is a blending of personal experience, history, philosophy and scientific research. Filled with evocative “sidebar” descriptions of threatened birds, from the sharp-tailed grouse to the chestnutcollared longspur, this graceful book demonstrates why Trevor Herriot is regarded as one of Canada’s finest non-fiction writers.

East Africa’s grasses and fodders: Their ecology and husbandry


Author: G. Boonman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792318675
Category: Nature
Page: 343
View: 4871
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This book is based on more than 1000 references to English and French articles produced in the region over many decades. A comprehensive review of the achievements in farming and research in both wet and dryland is given, related to the grasslands of: Eastern Africa, extending from Malawi to Eritrea, including Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Zambia, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan and eastern Zaire. Sown grasses, within the time-proven system of mixed-farming based on crop-grass rotations. Fodders, e.g. Elephant grass, dryland-Sorghum, lucerne, Leucaena, tropical legumes and hay.£/LIST£ The main objectives of the book are to illustrate the value of East African grasses and fodders for: Livestock: East Africa is the gene-centre of the world's most famous cultivated tropical grasses capable of achieving high animal performance, also without fertilizer. Soil fertility maintenance: local farmers pioneered the practice of grass fallows with Elephant grass to restore soil fertility. This was later extended to sown grasses to accelerate the restoration process. Crop yields are doubled following pasture. Environmental protection: priority in natural grassland is to prevent deterioration. In crop-pasture rotations grasses are effective in trapping rainfall and in reducing erosion by improved soil structure. Topics discussed include animal manure versus fertilizer; zero versus direct grazing; fodder crops (annual and perennial) versus grass conservation; seed production and plant breeding. The main species in cultivation are described in detail.

Grasses

An Identification Guide
Author: Lauren Brown
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780395628812
Category: Nature
Page: 240
View: 1972
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How to identify 135 of the most common species of North American grasses, sedges, and rushes, with their economic and ecological importance.

Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology


Author: David Gibson
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199671478
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 7474
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This second edition provides authoritative guidance on research methodology for plant population ecology. Practical advice is provided to assist senior undergraduates and post-graduate students, and all researchers, design their own field and greenhouse experiments and establish a research programme in plant population ecology.

Ecotones Between Forest and Grassland


Author: Randall W. Myster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461437970
Category: Science
Page: 330
View: 8022
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Ecotones are dynamic over-lapping boundary areas where major terrestrial biomes meet. As past studies have shown, and as the chapters in this book will illustrate, their structure, size, and scope have changed considerably over the millennia, expanding and shrinking as climate and/or other driving conditions, also changed. Today, however, many of them are changing at a rate not seen for a long time, perhaps largely due to climate change and other human-induced factors. Indeed ecotones are more sensitive to climate change than the biomes on either side, and thus may serve as critical early indicators of future climate change. As ecotones change, they also redefine the limits of the biomes on either side by altering their distributions of species because, in addition to their own endemic species, any ecotone will also have species from both adjoining biomes. Consequently, they may also be places of high levels of species interaction, serving as active evolutionary laboratories, which generate new species that then migrate back into adjacent biomes. Ecotones Between Forest and Grassland explores how these ecotones have changed in the past, how they are changing today, and how they are likely to change in the future. The book includes chapters from around the world with a special focus on South American and Neotropical ecotones.

Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains


Author: Daniel S. Licht
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 9780803229228
Category: Nature
Page: 225
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The Great Plains were once characterized by vast expanses of grass, complex interdependence among species, and dynamic annual changes due to weather, waterways, and fire. It is now generally accepted that less than one percent of the original tallgrass prairie remains. Habitat fragmentation, the loss of natural predator-prey associations, changes in species composition, and various commercial practices continue to threaten grassland biodiversity. Recently scholars and conservationists have discussed opportunities for large-scale restoration projects in the Great Plains, but they have provided few details. Daniel Licht offers here a bold new approach to restoring and conserving the grassland ecosystem. In describing hypothetical reserves, he explains how they could help conserve grassland biodiversity, reduce federal expenditures on agriculture, increase recreational opportunities, and sustain rural economies outside the reserves.

Fire and Ecosystems


Author: T.T. Kozlowski
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323146171
Category: Science
Page: 556
View: 861
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Fire and Ecosystems focuses on a number of aspects of fire ecology. This book deals separately with both harmful and beneficial effects of fire on soils, soil organisms, animals, and plants. This reference material elucidates the effects of fire on grasslands and considers the role of fire in temperate forests and related ecosystems. Four chapters are presented on a regional basis to highlight variations in responses, especially plant succession, to fire. The use of fire in land management is also explored. This book will serve as an invaluable reference material to researchers, teachers, and land managers.

Horses and Grasses

The Nutritional Ecology of Equids and Their Impact on the Camargue
Author: Patrick Duncan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461227704
Category: Science
Page: 287
View: 8160
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In 1973, a herd of Camargue horses was released into a nature reserve in the Rhone delta of France. The comprehensive long-term study of the resulting population eruption provided the opportunity for a unique analysis of the feeding ecology of free-ranging horses. Horses and Grasses summarizes the study covering digestive physiology, behavior, growth, and demography of wild horses and zebras. It examines how these equids are affected by variations in abundance and quality of grasses and in turn, how grazing affects the plant communities. The book also provides insight into the consequences of the hind-gut fermentation system for equid behavior and ecology and contrasts this feeding strategy with that of the recently evolved, highly successful grazing bovids.