Green Materials from Plant Oils


Author: Zengshe Liu,George Kraus
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849739013
Category: Science
Page: 323
View: 8228
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Finding alternatives to fossil feedstocks is increasing in importance with the challenges of global warming, increasing oil prices and depleting fossil fuel reserves that we currently face. Today, plant oils are important renewable raw materials for the chemical industry and are heavily used for surfactants, cosmetic products and lubricants. This book covers the green chemistry of products and intermediates synthesised from plant oils. Photo-initiated polymerisation and polymerization of vegetable oils in environmental media are covered as well as click reactions to chemically modify vegetable oils. Useful products from plant oils such as polymers, biomaterials, biofibres and lubricants, as well as their further applications, are described. This book is a valuable resource for researchers in academia and industry, biomass producers and suppliers and manufacturers of end-products.

Green Materials from Plant Oils


Author: Zengshe Liu,George Kraus
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849739013
Category: Science
Page: 323
View: 5569
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Finding alternatives to fossil feedstocks is increasing in importance with the challenges of global warming, increasing oil prices and depleting fossil fuel reserves that we currently face. Today, plant oils are important renewable raw materials for the chemical industry and are heavily used for surfactants, cosmetic products and lubricants. This book covers the green chemistry of products and intermediates synthesised from plant oils. Photo-initiated polymerisation and polymerization of vegetable oils in environmental media are covered as well as click reactions to chemically modify vegetable oils. Useful products from plant oils such as polymers, biomaterials, biofibres and lubricants, as well as their further applications, are described. This book is a valuable resource for researchers in academia and industry, biomass producers and suppliers and manufacturers of end-products.

Advanced Oil Crop Biorefineries


Author: Abbas Kazmi
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849731357
Category: Science
Page: 325
View: 3873
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This book explains how the use of whole plants and by-products can maximize efficiency in the European oil-crop supply chain.

Sustainable Solutions for Modern Economies


Author: Rainer Höfer
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847559050
Category: Science
Page: 497
View: 8764
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Limited supplies of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have created a strong desire to solve the resource issue in the age "beyond petroleum". This reference book, from the "Green Chemistry Series", contains the essential areas of green chemistry and sustainability in modern economies. It is the first book to outline the contribution of chemistry, and of renewable chemical or biological resources, to the sustainability concept and to the potential resolution of the world's energy problems. It describes the current status of technical research, and industrial application, as well as the potential of biomass as a renewable resource for energy generation in power stations, as alternative fuels, and for various uses in chemistry. It outlines the historical routes of the sustainability concept and specifies sustainability in metrics, facts and figures. The book is written by European experts from academia, industry and investment banking who are world leaders in research and technology regarding sustainability, alternative energies and renewable resources. The sustainability aspects covered include: * consumer behaviour and demands, lifestyles and mega trends, and their impact on innovation in the industry * consumer industry requirements and their impact on suppliers * emerging paradigm changes in raw material demand, availability, sourcing, and logistics * the contribution of the industry to restore the life support systems of the Earth * socially responsible banking and investment * sustainability metrics The book highlights the potential of the different forms of renewable raw materials including: * natural fats and oils * plant-based biologically active ingredients * industrial starch * sucrose * natural rubber * wood * natural fibres It also covers the actual status of biomass usage for green energy generation, green transportation, green chemistry and sustainable nutrition and consumer goods, and it depicts the potentials of green solvents and white biotechnology for modern synthesis and manufacturing technologies. The book is aimed at technical and marketing people in industry, universities and institutions as well as readers in administrations and NGOs. The book will also be of value to the worldwide public interested in sustainability issues and strategies as well as others interested in the practical means that are being used to reduce the environmental impact of chemical processes and products, to further eco-efficiency, and to advance the utilization of renewable resources.

Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry


Author: Francesca Kerton,Ray Marriott
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782626131
Category: Science
Page: 350
View: 2391
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Everyone is becoming more environmentally conscious and therefore, chemical processes are being developed with their environmental burden in mind. This also means that more traditional chemical methods are being replaced with new innovations and this includes new solvents. Solvents are everywhere, but how necessary are they? They are used in most areas including synthetic chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical production and processing, the food and flavour industry and the materials and coatings sectors. However, the principles of green chemistry guide us to use less of them, or to use safer, more environmentally friendly solvents if they are essential. Therefore, we should always ask ourselves, do we really need a solvent? Green chemistry, as a relatively new sub-discipline, is a rapidly growing field of research. Alternative solvents - including supercritical fluids and room temperature ionic liquids - form a significant portion of research in green chemistry. This is in part due to the hazards of many conventional solvents (e.g. toxicity and flammability) and the significant contribution that solvents make to the waste generated in many chemical processes. Solvents are important in analytical chemistry, product purification, extraction and separation technologies, and also in the modification of materials. Therefore, in order to make chemistry more sustainable in these fields, a knowledge of alternative, greener solvents is important. This book, which is part of a green chemistry series, uses examples that tie in with the 12 principles of green chemistry e.g. atom efficient reactions in benign solvents and processing of renewable chemicals/materials in green solvents. Readers get an overview of the many different kinds of solvents, written in such a way to make the book appropriate to newcomers to the field and prepare them for the 'green choices' available. The book also removes some of the mystique associated with 'alternative solvent' choices and includes information on solvents in different fields of chemistry such as analytical and materials chemistry in addition to catalysis and synthesis. The latest research developments, not covered elsewhere, are included such as switchable solvents and biosolvents. Also, some important areas that are often overlooked are described such as naturally sourced solvents (including ethanol and ethyl lactate) and liquid polymers (including poly(ethyleneglycol) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)). As well as these additional alternative solvents being included, the book takes a more general approach to solvents, not just focusing on the use of solvents in synthetic chemistry. Applications of solvents in areas such as analysis are overviewed in addition to the more widely recognised uses of alternative solvents in organic synthesis. Unfortunately, as the book shows, there is no universal green solvent and readers must ascertain their best options based on prior chemistry, cost, environmental benefits and other factors. It is important to try and minimize the number of solvent changes in a chemical process and therefore, the importance of solvents in product purification, extraction and separation technologies are highlighted. The book is aimed at newcomers to the field whether research students beginning investigations towards their thesis or industrial researchers curious to find out if an alternative solvent would be suitable in their work.

Challenges in Green Analytical Chemistry


Author: Miguel de la Guardia,Salvador Garrigues
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849732965
Category: Science
Page: 330
View: 6179
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Concerns about environmental pollution, global climate change and hazards to human health have increased dramatically. This has lead to a call for change in chemical processes including those that are part of chemical analysis. The development of analytical chemistry continues and every new discovery in chemistry, physics, molecular biology, and materials science brings new opportunities and challenges. Yet, contemporary analytical chemistry does not consume resources optimally. Indeed, the usage of toxic chemical compounds is at the highest rate ever. All this makes the emerging field of green chemistry a "hot topic" in industrial, governmental laboratories as well as in academia. This book starts by introducing the twelve principles of green chemistry. It then goes on to discuss how the principles of green chemistry can be used to assess the 'greenness' of analytical methodologies. The 'green profile' proposed by the ACS Green Chemistry Institute is also presented. A chapter on "Greening" sample preparation describes approaches to minimizing toxic solvent use, using non-toxic alternatives, and saving energy. The chapter on instrumental methods describes existing analytical approaches that are inherently green and making non-green methods greener. The final chapter on signal acquisition describes how quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) ideas could reduce experimental work thus making analysis greener. The book concludes with a discussion of how green chemistry is both possible and necessary. Green Analytical Chemistry is aimed at managers of analytical laboratories but will also interest teachers of analytical chemistry and green public policy makers.

Alternatives to Conventional Food Processing


Author: Andrew Proctor
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849730377
Category: Science
Page: 481
View: 437
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This multi-authored book is edited by an expert in the field and includes chapters from international contributors. It is fully cross disciplinary relating green principles to the food industry, covering legal and policy issues, engineering, food processing and food science. It addresses the alternatives to conventional food processing that have reduced energy requirements or solvent use and how they affect final food quality. Initially, the principles of green chemistry and technologies are outlined to provide a justification and basis for the processing methods that are addressed. This is followed by a discussion of legal and policy issues in both the EU and the US which provide further justification for the need for such technologies and the constraints and benefits of current policies and regulations. The major green technologies available to the food industry are discussed, outlining the main principles and applications of each. The degree to which they are already in commercial use and developments needed to extend their use further are also covered.

Intensification of Biobased Processes


Author: Andrzej Gorak,Andrzej Stankiewicz
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1788010329
Category: Science
Page: 518
View: 4007
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In recent years bioprocessing has increased in popularity and importance, however, bioprocessing still poses various important techno-economic and environmental challenges, such as product yields, excessive energy consumption for separations in highly watery systems, batch operation or the downstream processing bottlenecks in the production of biopharmaceutical products. Many of those challenges can be addressed by application of different process intensification technologies discussed in the present book. The first book dedicated entirely to this area, Intensification of Biobased Processesprovides a comprehensive overview of modern process intensification technologies used in bioprocessing. The book focusses on four different categories of biobased products: bio-fuels and platform chemicals; cosmeceuticals; food products; and polymers and advanced materials. It will cover various intensification aspects of the processes concerned, including (bio)reactor intensification; intensification of separation, recovery and formulation operations; and process integration. This is an invaluable source of information for researchers and industrialists working in chemical engineering, biotechnology and process engineering.

Alternative Energy Sources for Green Chemistry


Author: Georgios Stefanidis,Andrzej Stankiewicz
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782623639
Category: Science
Page: 428
View: 5340
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The use of alternative energy forms and transfer mechanisms is one of the key approaches of process intensification. In recent years, significant amounts of research have been carried out in developing chemical processing technologies enhanced by plasma, electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic and ultra-sound waves and high gravity fields. Discussing the broad impact of alternative energy transfer technologies on reactions, separations and materials synthesis, this book reports on recent breakthrough results in various application areas. It provides a comprehensive overview of the current developments in the field. The book enables industrialists, academics and postgraduates in alternative-energy based processing to see the potential of alternative energies for green chemistry and sustainability of chemical manufacturing.

Natural Product Extraction

Principles and Applications
Author: Mauricio A Rostagno,Juliana M Prado
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782626220
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 8702
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Natural products are sought after by the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, and research continues into their potential for new applications. Extraction of natural products in an economic and environmentally-friendly way is of high importance to all industries involved. This book presents a holistic and in-depth view of the techniques available for extracting natural products, with modern and more environmentally-benign methods, such as ultrasound and supercritical fluids discussed alongside conventional methods. Examples and case studies are presented, along with the decision-making process needed to determine the most appropriate method. Where appropriate, scale-up and process integration is discussed. Relevant to researchers in academia and industry, and students aiming for either career path, Natural Product Extraction presents a handy digest of the current trends and latest developments in the field with concepts of Green Chemistry in mind.

Green Chemistry 3rd Edition

An Introductory Text
Author: Mike Lancaster
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782622942
Category:
Page: 392
View: 338
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Updated throughout, this third edition is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate courses covering green chemistry, and it explores new ways of developing products and processes.

Sustainable Chemistry

With Non-Endangered Metals Part 1
Author: Michael North
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 1782626387
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 4249
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Element Recovery and Sustainability


Author: Andrew Hunt
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849737347
Category: Science
Page: 300
View: 2887
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Increased consumption of electronic equipment has brought with it a greater demand for rare earth elements and metals. Adding to this is the growth in low carbon technologies such as hybrid fuel vehicles. It is predicted that the global supply of rare earth elements could soon be exhausted. A sustainable approach to the use and recovery of rare earth elements is needed, and this book addresses the political, economic and research agendas concerning them. The problem is discussed thoroughly and a multi-disciplinary team of authors from the chemistry, engineering and biotechnology sectors presents a range of solutions, from traditional metallurgical methods to innovations in biotechnology. Case studies add value to the theory presented, and indirect targets for recovery, such as municipal waste and combustion ash are considered. This book will be essential reading for researchers in academia and industry tackling sustainable element recovery, as well as postgraduate students in chemistry, engineering and biotechnology. Environmental scientists and policy makers will also benefit from reading about potential benefits of recovery from waste streams.

Green and Sustainable Medicinal Chemistry


Author: James H Clark,Helen F Sneddon,Louise Summerton,Leonie C Jones
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782625941
Category: Science
Page: 272
View: 6611
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Pharmaceutical manufacturing was one of the first industries to recognize the importance of green chemistry, with pioneering work including green chemistry metrics and alternative solvents and reagents. Today, other topical factors also have to be taken into consideration, such as rapidly depleting resources, high energy costs and new legislation. This book addresses current challenges in modern green chemical technologies and sustainability thinking. It encompasses a broad range of topics covered by the CHEM21 project – Europe’s largest public-private partnership project which aims to develop a toolbox of sustainable technologies for green chemical intermediate manufacture. Divided into two sections, the book first gives an overview of the key green chemistry tools, guidance and considerations aimed at developing greener processes, before moving on to look at cutting-edge synthetic methodologies. Featuring innovative research, this book is an invaluable reference for chemists across academia and industry wanting to further their knowledge and understanding of this important topic.

Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry


Author: Francesca Kerton
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847559522
Category: Science
Page: 240
View: 8403
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Everyone is becoming more environmentally conscious and therefore, chemical processes are being developed with their environmental burden in mind. This also means that more traditional chemical methods are being replaced with new innovations and this includes new solvents. Solvents are everywhere, but how necessary are they? They are used in most areas including synthetic chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical production and processing, the food and flavour industry and the materials and coatings sectors. However, the principles of green chemistry guide us to use less of them, or to use safer, more environmentally friendly solvents if they are essential. Therefore, we should always ask ourselves, do we really need a solvent? Green chemistry, as a relatively new sub-discipline, is a rapidly growing field of research. Alternative solvents - including supercritical fluids and room temperature ionic liquids - form a significant portion of research in green chemistry. This is in part due to the hazards of many conventional solvents (e.g. toxicity and flammability) and the significant contribution that solvents make to the waste generated in many chemical processes. Solvents are important in analytical chemistry, product purification, extraction and separation technologies, and also in the modification of materials. Therefore, in order to make chemistry more sustainable in these fields, a knowledge of alternative, greener solvents is important. This book, which is part of a green chemistry series, uses examples that tie in with the 12 principles of green chemistry e.g. atom efficient reactions in benign solvents and processing of renewable chemicals/materials in green solvents. Readers get an overview of the many different kinds of solvents, written in such a way to make the book appropriate to newcomers to the field and prepare them for the 'green choices' available. The book also removes some of the mystique associated with 'alternative solvent' choices and includes information on solvents in different fields of chemistry such as analytical and materials chemistry in addition to catalysis and synthesis. The latest research developments, not covered elsewhere, are included such as switchable solvents and biosolvents. Also, some important areas that are often overlooked are described such as naturally sourced solvents (including ethanol and ethyl lactate) and liquid polymers (including poly(ethyleneglycol) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)). As well as these additional alternative solvents being included, the book takes a more general approach to solvents, not just focusing on the use of solvents in synthetic chemistry. Applications of solvents in areas such as analysis are overviewed in addition to the more widely recognised uses of alternative solvents in organic synthesis. Unfortunately, as the book shows, there is no universal green solvent and readers must ascertain their best options based on prior chemistry, cost, environmental benefits and other factors. It is important to try and minimize the number of solvent changes in a chemical process and therefore, the importance of solvents in product purification, extraction and separation technologies are highlighted. The book is aimed at newcomers to the field whether research students beginning investigations towards their thesis or industrial researchers curious to find out if an alternative solvent would be suitable in their work.

Asperger Syndrome, the Universe and Everything


Author: Kenneth Hall
Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Pub
ISBN: 9781853029301
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 109
View: 9624
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Kenneth Hall was diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome at the age of eight. Here he describes some of the inner experiences and perceptions of autism in childhood. He has a warm and positive attitude which other children will find inspiring. Insights, struggles and joys are recounted vividly in a frank and humorous way.

Polymers from Plant Oils


Author: Alessandro Gandini
Publisher: Smithers Rapra
ISBN: 1909030910
Category: Science
Page: 180
View: 6217
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This book provides an update on the field of polymers derived from vegetable oils. It highlights the remarkable progress achieved in all aspects of the discipline over the last decade, ranging from direct exploitation of triglycerides to their conversion into novel monomeric species and their polymerisation (including the properties and potential applications of the ensuing materials).After a general introduction that 'sets the stage' for better understanding of the various strategies and mechanist approaches, each one of them is discussed in detail in the appropriate chapter.Rather than attempting an uncritical comprehensive coverage of the large body of recent published work, the book purposely focuses on the originality of several systems in which novel mechanisms are being explored successfully (e.g., application of the thiol-ene reaction, metathesis, and Diels-Alder reactions to oils and their derivatives). Additional emphasis is placed on straightforward and technically viable processes that call upon utilisation of readily available precursors.The other important aspect of this book relates to the properties of the different materials: thermal transitions and stability; mechanical performances; biodegradability; aptitude for further chemical modification; readiness to form blends and composites.Readers who should find this book useful include polymer scientists and engineers working in academic and industrial sectors, as well as vegetable-oil chemists and researchers involved in the broader sustainability of exploitation of renewable resources, 'green' chemistry and implementation of bio-refineries.

Sustainable Industrial Chemistry

Principles, Tools and Industrial Examples
Author: Fabrizio Cavani,Gabriele Centi,Siglinda Perathoner,Ferruccio Trifirò
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527629122
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 621
View: 9265
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In recent years the need for sustainable process design and alternative reaction routes to reduce industry?s impact on the environment has gained vital importance. The book begins with a general overview of new trends in designing industrial chemical processes which are environmentally friendly and economically feasible. Specific examples written by experts from industry cover the possibilities of running industrial chemical processes in a sustainable manner and provide an up-to-date insight into the main concerns, e.g., the use of renewable raw materials, the use of alternative energy sources in chemical processes, the design of intrinsically safe processes, microreactor and integrated reaction/ separation technologies, process intensification, waste reduction, new catalytic routes and/or solvent and process optimization.

Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals


Author: Mark Crocker
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849730350
Category: Science
Page: 532
View: 8583
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This up-to-date overview on the conversion of thermochemical biomass to fuels and chemicals is written by experts in the field.

Eco-friendly Synthesis of Fine Chemicals


Author: Roberto Ballini
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847559085
Category: Science
Page: 300
View: 1381
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The 20th century has seen a phenomenal growth in the global economy and continuous improvement in the standard of living in the industrialized countries. Sustainable development has become an ideal target in recent years and in the early 1990s the concept of "Green chemistry" was launched in the USA as a new paradigm, and since 1993 it has been promoted by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The success of the pharmaceutical industry is, in large part, due to the towering achievement of organic chemistry, a mature science which emerged as a distinct discipline well over 150 years ago, however this has been both a blessing and a curse. Many of our most reliable strategies for assembling target molecules employ reactions which are fifty to one hundred years old and are often named in honour of their discoverers. During these early years, the chronic toxicological properties of chemicals were often completely unknown and many unwittingly became indispensable tools of the trade. Early pioneers in green chemistry included Trost (who developed the atom economy principle) and Sheldon (who developed the E-Factor). These measures were introduced to encourage the use of more sustainable chemistry and provide some benchmarking data to encourage scientists to aspire to more benign synthesis. Green chemistry is essentially the design of chemical processes and procedures that reduce or eliminate the use, or the generation, of hazardous substances. Green chemistry is a growing area of research and an increasing number of researchers are now involved in this field. The number of publications has dramatically increased and new recognition of advances made is necessary with respect to other research areas. The synthesis of "Fine Chemicals" represents one of the main goals in organic synthesis and this new book extensively examines the main processes and procedures for their preparation under eco-friendly conditions. The book is a collection of selected research topics delivered by scientists involved in some of the more prominent fields of green chemistry. It is devoted to the synthesis of fine chemicals by the use of alternative eco-friendly solvents (ionic liquids, polyethylene glycol, water, etc.), supported organic catalysis, microwave irradiation or high pressure as contributors to more efficient processes, photochemistry as a green procedure and solvent-free processes. Each chapter gives an introduction to the various methods or procedures and their contribution to green chemistry and a variety of the most representative examples of the eco-friendly synthesis of fine chemicals are reported and discussed. In addition, there is a chapter dedicated to the application of simple reaction to the synthesis of complex molecules.The chapters are all written by authors who are experts in their field and are exhaustively referenced and the book will be invaluable for researchers and industrialists as well as academia.