Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118948718
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 384
View: 7865
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The book is a guide for Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) practitioners. It explains the onion skin model and in particular, how it relates to the use of LOPA and the need for non-safety instrumented independent protection layers. It provides specific guidance on Independent Protection Layers (IPLs) that are not Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). Using the LOPA methodology, companies typically take credit for risk reductions accomplished through non-SIS alternatives; i.e. administrative procedures, equipment design, etc. It addresses issues such as how to ensure the effectiveness and maintain reliability for administrative controls or “inherently safer, passive” concepts. This book will address how the fields of Human Reliability Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Inherent Safety, Audits and Assessments, Maintenance, and Emergency Response relate to LOPA and SIS. The book will separate IPL’s into categories such as the following: Inherent Safety eliminates a scenario or fundamentally reduces a hazard Preventive/Proactive prevents initiating event from occurring such as enhanced maintenance Preventive/Active stops chain of events after initiating event occurs but before an incident has occurred such as high level in a tank shutting off the pump. Mitigation (active or passive) minimizes impact once an incident has occurred such as closing block valves once LEL is detected in the dike (active) or the dike preventing contamination of groundwater (passive).

Layer of Protection Analysis

Simplified Process Risk Assessment
Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111821627X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 292
View: 1143
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Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.

Layer of Protection Analysis

Simplified Process Risk Assessment
Author: Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)
Publisher: Wiley-AIChE
ISBN: 9780816908110
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 292
View: 2697
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Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.

Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470935065
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 292
View: 2056
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The second edition of this essential reference updates and combines two earlier titles to capture the many technological advances for predicting the "footprint" of a vapor cloud release. Cited by EPA in its 1996 document, "Off-Site Consequence Analysis Guidance," the aim of the book is to encourage and facilitate the development and use of dispersion modeling as an everyday tool, providing practical understanding of basic physical and chemical principles, guidance in selecting release scenarios and the best available models, and information and examples on how to run some models and interpret outputs. Equally useful to beginners and experts, it compares 22 programs based on input from model developers, and presents 7 examples of typical accidental release scenarios. The book comes with a disk providing input and output data for scenarios.

Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470924888
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 576
View: 1280
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Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, 3rd Edition keeps process engineers updated on the effective methodologies that process safety demands. Almost 200 pages of worked examples are included to facilitate understanding. References for further reading, along with charts and diagrams that reflect the latest views and information, make this a completely accessible work. The revised and updated edition includes information not included in previous editions giving a comprehensive overview of this topic area.

Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119010160
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 974
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8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119352134
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 648
View: 3215
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This book provides designers and operators of chemical process facilities with a general philosophy and approach to safe automation, including independent layers of safety. An expanded edition, this book includes a revision of original concepts as well as chapters that address new topics such as use of wireless automation and Safety Instrumented Systems. This book also provides an extensive bibliography to related publications and topic-specific information.

Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems

Theory and Applications
Author: Marvin Rausand
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118553381
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 466
View: 4950
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Presents the theory and methodology for reliability assessments of safety-critical functions through examples from a wide range of applications Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to reliability assessments of safety-related systems based on electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic (E/E/PE) technology. With a focus on the design and development phases of safety-critical systems, the book presents theory and methods required to document compliance with IEC 61508 and the associated sector-specific standards. Combining theory and practical applications, Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications implements key safety-related strategies and methods to meet quantitative safety integrity requirements. In addition, the book details a variety of reliability analysis methods that are needed during all stages of a safety-critical system, beginning with specification and design and advancing to operations, maintenance, and modification control. The key categories of safety life-cycle phases are featured, including strategies for the allocation of reliability performance requirements; assessment methods in relation to design; and reliability quantification in relation to operation and maintenance. Issues and benefits that arise from complex modern technology developments are featured, as well as: Real-world examples from large industry facilities with major accident potential and products owned by the general public such as cars and tools Plentiful worked examples throughout that provide readers with a deeper understanding of the core concepts and aid in the analysis and solution of common issues when assessing all facets of safety-critical systems Approaches that work on a wide scope of applications and can be applied to the analysis of any safety-critical system A brief appendix of probability theory for reference With an emphasis on how safety-critical functions are introduced into systems and facilities to prevent or mitigate the impact of an accident, this book is an excellent guide for professionals, consultants, and operators of safety-critical systems who carry out practical, risk, and reliability assessments of safety-critical systems. Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications is also a useful textbook for courses in reliability assessment of safety-critical systems and reliability engineering at the graduate-level, as well as for consulting companies offering short courses in reliability assessment of safety-critical systems.

Guidelines for Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers in Layer of Protection Analysis


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111877793X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 136
View: 7348
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The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in 2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediate method between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis and more quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides an order-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducible results. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safety integrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces the limitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of the guideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provide concrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to use these concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizes terminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of a typical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the most common types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to risk criteria as well as their application to other methods.

Guidelines for chemical process quantitative risk analysis


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 585
View: 1674
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Reliability, Maintainability and Risk

Practical Methods for Engineers
Author: David J. Smith
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0081020228
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 478
View: 3160
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Reliability, Maintainability and Risk: Practical Methods for Engineers, Ninth Edition, has taught reliability and safety engineers techniques to minimize process design, operation defects, and failures for 35 years. For beginners, the book provides tactics on how to avoid pitfalls in this complex and wide field. For experts in the field, well-described, realistic, and illustrative examples and case studies add new insight and assistance. The author uses his 40 years of experience to create a comprehensive and detailed guide to the field, also providing an excellent description of reliability and risk computation concepts. The book is organized into five parts. Part One covers reliability parameters and costs traces the history of reliability and safety technology, presenting a cost-effective approach to quality, reliability, and safety. Part Two deals with the interpretation of failure rates, while Part Three focuses on the prediction of reliability and risk. Part Four discusses design and assurance techniques, review and testing techniques, reliability growth modeling, field data collection and feedback, predicting and demonstrating repair times, quantified reliability maintenance, and systematic failures, while Part 5 deals with legal, management and safety issues, such as project management, product liability, and safety legislation. Additional chapter on helicopter and aviation safety record Coverage of models for partial valve stroke test, fault tree logic and quantification difficulties More detail on use of tools such as FMEDA and programming standards like MISRA

Principles of Risk Analysis

Decision Making Under Uncertainty
Author: Charles Yoe
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439857504
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 584
View: 7962
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In every decision context there are things we know and things we do not know. Risk analysis uses science and the best available evidence to assess what we know—and it is intentional in the way it addresses the importance of the things we don’t know. Principles of Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty lays out the tasks of risk analysis in a straightforward, conceptual manner that is consistent with the risk models of all communities of practice. It answers the questions "what is risk analysis?" and "how do I do this?" Distilling the common principles of the many risk tribes and dialects into serviceable definitions and narratives, the book provides a foundation for the practice of risk analysis and decision making under uncertainty for professionals from all walks of life. In the first part of the book, readers learn the language, models, and concepts of risk analysis and its three component tasks—risk management, assessment, and communication. The second part of the book supplies the tools, techniques, and methodologies to help readers apply the principles. From problem identification and brainstorming to model building and choosing a probability distribution, the author walks readers through the how-to of risk assessment. Addressing the critical task of risk communication, he explains how to present the results of assessments and how to develop effective messages. The book’s simple and straightforward style—based on the author’s decades of experience as a risk analyst, trainer, and educator—strips away the mysterious aura that often accompanies risk analysis. It describes the principles in a manner that empowers readers to begin the practice of risk analysis, to better understand and use the models and practice of their individual fields, and to gain access to the rich and sophisticated professional literature on risk analysis. Additional exercises as well as a free student version of the Palisade Corporation DecisionTools® Suite software and files used in the preparation of this book are available for download.

Guidelines for Integrating Process Safety into Engineering Projects


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118795040
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 6636
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There is much industry guidance on implementing engineering projects and a similar amount of guidance on Process Safety Management (PSM). However, there is a gap in transferring the key deliverables from the engineering group to the operations group, where PSM is implemented. This book provides the engineering and process safety deliverables for each project phase along with the impacts to the project budget, timeline and the safety and operability of the delivered equipment.

Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119010160
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 5344
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8.2.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 1 -- 8.2.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 1 -- 8.3 Example 2 -- 8.3.1 Process Description 2 -- 8.3.2 Traditional DHA -- 8.3.3 Risk-based DHA -- 8.3.4 Comparison of Traditional vs. Risk-based Approach - Example 2 -- 8.4 Example 3 -- 8.4.1 Process Description - Example 3 -- 8.4.2 Traditional DHA - Example 3 -- 8.4.3 Risk-based DHA - Example 3 -- 8.5 Summary -- 8.6 References -- Appendix A Regulations and Codes -- A.1 Regulations -- A.1.1 U.S. -- A.1.2 International -- A.2 Codes -- References -- Appendix B Additional Resources -- B.1 Books -- B.2 U.S. Chemical Safety Board Reports -- B.3 Journal Articles -- B.4 Other -- Appendix C Data for Risk-based DHA -- C.1 Probability Assessment of Process Unit Fire or Dust Explosion -- C.1.1 Initiating Event Frequencies -- C.1.2 Ignition Probabilities -- C.1.3 Protection Layer PFDs -- C.2 References -- Appendix D Good Practices -- D.1 Self Assessment -- D.2 Housekeeping -- D.2.1 Combustible Dust Housekeeping Inspection Checklist -- D.3 Explosion Protection Methods -- Appendix E DHA Roadmap -- Notes for Figure E.1 -- INDEX -- EULA

Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118216229
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 320
View: 7314
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In recent years, process safety management system compliance audits have revealed that organizations often have significant opportunities for improving their Mechanical Integrity programs. As part of the Center for Chemical Process Safety's Guidelines series, Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems provides practitioners a basic familiarity of mechanical integrity concepts and best practices. The book recommends efficient approaches for establishing a successful MI program. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety


Author: American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Center for Chemical Process Safety
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470767723
Category: Science
Page: 440
View: 9869
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This updated version of one of the most popular and widely used CCPS books provides plant design engineers, facility operators, and safety professionals with key information on selected topics of interest. The book focuses on process safety issues in the design of chemical, petrochemical, and hydrocarbon processing facilities. It discusses how to select designs that can prevent or mitigate the release of flammable or toxic materials, which could lead to a fire, explosion, or environmental damage. Key areas to be enhanced in the new edition include inherently safer design, specifically concepts for design of inherently safer unit operations and Safety Instrumented Systems and Layer of Protection Analysis. This book also provides an extensive bibliography to related publications and topic-specific information, as well as key information on failure modes and potential design solutions.

Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional


Author: Lon H. Ferguson,Christopher A. Dr. Janicak
Publisher: Bernan Press
ISBN: 1598887122
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 5341
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Fundamentals of Fire Protection for the Safety Professional takes an in-depth look at fire hazards in the workplace—from the substances required to do business to the building construction itself—and provides practical fire safety principles that can be applied in any work environment. Readers will learn how to develop emergency action plans and fire prevention plans, implement effective alarm and detection systems and fire extinguishment systems, and develop a comprehensive fire program management plan that is in compliance with Federal Emergency Management Agency, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Fire Protection Association standards.

Guidelines for Developing Quantitative Safety Risk Criteria


Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470552933
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 248
View: 6282
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Written by a committee of safety professionals, this book creates a foundation document for the development and application of risk tolerance criteria Helps safety managers evaluate the frequency, severity and consequence of human injury Includes examples of risk tolerance criteria used by NASA, Earthquake Response teams and the International Maritime Organization, amongst others Helps achieve consistency in risk-based decision-making Reduces potential liabilities in the use of quantitative risk tolerance criteria through reference to an industry guidance document