Hell Gap

A Stratified Paleoindian Campsite at the Edge of the Rockies
Author: Mary Lou Larson,Marcel Kornfeld,George C. Frison
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780874809435
Category: History
Page: 444
View: 5410
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The Hell Gap site was first uncovered in the late 1950s and is one of the gems in the history of American archaeology. Yet it is still one of the least understood and most poorly published of the sites that helped establish the framework for Paleoindian archaeology as it exists today. No other excavated site in North America contains a record that includes all cultural complexes known on the Plains between 11,000 and 8,000 B.P. Major excavations during the 1960s, conducted by the University of Wyoming and Harvard's Peabody Museum, not only removed vast quantities of Paleoindian deposits, but also trained some of the foremost archaeologists of our time. Much has happened in American archaeology in the intervening years and modern techniques of dating, excavation, and analysis are now capable of revealing much more about the specifics of Hell Gap. This volume finally begins the analysis of the vast quantity of material recovered from one of the most significant Paleoindian sites in North America, as contributors consider such topics as settlement, subsistence, technology, paleoenvironments, and archaeological site formation. The studies included here expand our understanding of the results of the original investigators, while providing an important reevaluation of their interpretations.

Clovis Caches

Recent Discoveries and New Research
Author: Bruce B. Huckell
Publisher: UNM Press
ISBN: 0826354831
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 4322
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This collection of essays investigates caches of Clovis tools, many of which have only recently come to light. The studies comprising this volume treat methodological and theoretical issues including the recognition of Clovis caches, Clovis lithic technology, mobility, and land use.

Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers of the High Plains and Rockies

Third Edition
Author: Marcel Kornfeld,George C Frison,Mary Lou Larson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315422085
Category: Social Science
Page: 710
View: 1188
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George Frison’s Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains has been the standard text on plains prehistory since its first publication in 1978, influencing generations of archaeologists. Now, a third edition of this classic work is available for scholars, students, and avocational archaeologists. Thorough and comprehensive, extensively illustrated, the book provides an introduction to the archaeology of the more than 13,000 year long history of the western Plains and the adjacent Rocky Mountains. Reflecting the boom in recent archaeological data, it reports on studies at a wide array of sites from deep prehistory to recent times examining the variability in the archeological record as well as in field, analytical, and interpretive methods. The 3rd edition brings the book up to date in a number of significant areas, as well as addressing several topics inadequately developed in previous editions.

From the Pleistocene to the Holocene

Human Organization and Cultural Transformations in Prehistoric North America
Author: C. Britt Bousman,Bradley J. Vierra
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1603447784
Category: Social Science
Page: 346
View: 3437
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The end of the Pleistocene era brought dramatic environmental changes to small bands of humans living in North America: changes that affected subsistence, mobility, demography, technology, and social relations. The transition they made from Paleoindian (Pleistocene) to Archaic (Early Holocene) societies represents the first major cultural shift that took place solely in the Americas. This event—which manifested in ways and at times much more varied than often supposed—set the stage for the unique developments of behavioral complexity that distinguish later Native American prehistoric societies. Using localized studies and broad regional syntheses, the contributors to this volume demonstrate the diversity of adaptations to the dynamic and changing environmental and cultural landscapes that occurred between the Pleistocene and early portion of the Holocene. The authors' research areas range from Northern Mexico to Alaska and across the continent to the American Northeast, synthesizing the copious available evidence from well-known and recent excavations.With its methodologically and geographically diverse approach, From the Pleistocene to the Holocene: Human Organization and Cultural Transformations in Prehistoric North America provides an overview of the present state of knowledge regarding this crucial transformative period in Native North America. It offers a large-scale synthesis of human adaptation, reflects the range of ideas and concepts in current archaeological theoretical approaches, and acts as a springboard for future explanations and models of prehistoric change.

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers


Author: Vicki Cummings,Peter Jordan,Marek Zvelebil
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191025275
Category: Social Science
Page: 1264
View: 2627
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For more than a century, the study of hunting and gathering societies has been central to the development of both archaeology and anthropology as academic disciplines, and has also generated widespread public interest and debate. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers provides a comprehensive review of hunter-gatherer studies to date, including critical engagements with older debates, new theoretical perspectives, and renewed obligations for greater engagement between researchers and indigenous communities. Chapters provide in-depth archaeological, historical, and anthropological case-studies, and examine far-reaching questions about human social relations, attitudes to technology, ecology, and management of resources and the environment, as well as issues of diet, health, and gender relations - all central topics in hunter-gatherer research, but also themes that have great relevance for modern global society and its future challenges. The Handbook also provides a strategic vision for how the integration of new methods, approaches, and study regions can ensure that future research into the archaeology and anthropology of hunter-gatherers will continue to deliver penetrating insights into the factors that underlie all human diversity.

Aggregate Analysis in Chipped Stone


Author: Christopher T. Hall,Mary Lou Larson
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 262
View: 1035
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Less than two decades ago, archaeologists considered lithic debitage, the flakes and debris left from the manufacture of stone tools, little more than uninformative waste. Since then, fieldworkers have increasingly recognized that stone flakes can provide information both singly and in aggregate. Many methods are now available for analyzing lithic debitage, yet no single method is entirely reliable as a vehicle to meaningful interpretation of past behavior. Part of the problem lies in the disparity between tightly controlled experimental conditions and the difficulty of sorting individual sequences out of the masses of stone found in many archaeological sites. Contributors to this volume seek to identify the strengths and weaknesses in the more widespread and competing analytical forms while arguing for the use of multiple lines of evidence. As the title indicates, their primary focus is on mass analysis of aggregates rather than individual flakes. Thus several chapters also address problems of subdividing aggregates to better deal with the "mixed assemblages" generated by multiple factors over time.

Paleoindian Lifeways of the Cody Complex


Author: Edward J. Knell,Mark P. Muñiz
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781607812296
Category: History
Page: 340
View: 7757
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Paleoindian Lifeways of the Cody Complex represents the first synthesis in the more than fifty year history of one of the most important Paleoindian cultural traditions in North America. Research on the Cody complex (~10,000–8,000 radiocarbon yrs B.P.) began in the 1940s; however, until now publications have focused almost exclusively on specific sites, issues of projectile point technology and typology, and bison hunting. This volume provides fresh perspectives and cutting-edge research that significantly increases our understanding of the Cody complex by focusing more squarely on the human behaviors that created the archaeological record, rather than on more strictly technical aspects of the artifacts and faunal remains. Because the Cody complex extends from the central Canadian plains to the Gulf of Mexico and from Nevada to the eastern Great Lakes—making it second only to Clovis in geographical expanse—this volume will appeal to a wide range of North American archaeologists. Across this broad geographic distribution, the contributors address hunter-gatherer adaptive strategies from diverse ecosystems at the onset of the Holocene, which will also make it of interest to human ecologists and paleoenvironmental researchers. Paleoindian Lifeways of the Cody Complex provides an innovative synthesis of a well-known but little-studied cultural tradition that opens the door for a new generation of exciting research.

Islands on the Plains

Ecological, Social, and Ritual Use of Landscapes
Author: Marcel Kornfeld,Alan J. Osborn
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 331
View: 7959
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Scattered throughout the Great Plains are many isolated areas of varying size and ecology, quite distinct from the surrounding grasslands. Such spaces can be uplands like the Black Hills, low hills like the Nebraska Sand Hills, or linear areas such as shallow river valleys and deeply incised canyons. While the notion of "islands" is not a new one among ecologists, its application in Plains archaeology is. The contributors to this volume seek to illustrate the different ways that the spatial, structural, and temporal nature of islands conditioned the behavior and adaptation of past Plains peoples. This as a first step toward a more detailed analysis of habitat variation and its effects on Plains cultural dynamics and evolution. Although the emphasis is on ecology, several chapters also address social and ideological islands in the form of sacred sites and special hunting grounds.

Rancher Archaeologist

A Career in Two Different Worlds
Author: George Frison,William Woodcock
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781607813293
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 304
View: 668
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The Agate Basin Site

A Record of the Paleoindian Occupation of the Northwestern High Plains
Author: George C. Frison,Dennis J. Stanford,Matthew Glenn Hill
Publisher: Percheron Press
ISBN: 9780989824903
Category: History
Page: 430
View: 9320
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The Agate Basin monograph is not only a classic of Plains paleoindian archaeology, but also of multidisciplinary research, geoarchaeology, zooarchaeology, and experimental archaeology. Lucid presentation of meticulously excavated and analyzed sediments, bones, and artifacts convey an unmatched sense of Paleoindian life.

The First Rocky Mountaineers

Coloradans Before Colorado
Author: Marcel Kornfeld
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781607812623
Category: History
Page: 271
View: 1868
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Considers the human adaptation of the earliest people to inhabit Colorado's Middle Park

The Casper Site

A Hell Gap Bison Kill on the High Plains
Author: George C. Frison
Publisher: Percheron Press
ISBN: 9780975273845
Category: History
Page: 296
View: 8818
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George Frison's report on the 10,000-year-old Casper Site helped establish how large animal communal kill sites should be excavated, analyzed, and reported. With his background in ranching and hunting, Frison knows more about large animals than any other archaeologist. In The Casper Site Frison began to share that knowledge as well as the techniques of bone bed excavation; that, and the book's interdisciplinary approach, make it a landmark in paleoindian archaeology and faunal analysis. As Marcel Kornfeld writes in his new introduction, "One of Frison's outstanding contributions to Great Plains prehistory has been in the arena of bison studies and bone beds in particular, and Casper is one of its finest examples." Originally published by Academic Press in 1974. Praise from readers "The Casper site is one in a long tradition of bison procurement site studies by George Frison. This site typifies the use of the parabolic sand dune for bison trapping. The suite of analyses employed set the standard for kill site archaeology on the Plains and around the globe." Leland C. Bement, Oklahoma Archeological Survey "With astonishing fidelity the events of an ancient bison kill are uncovered from the rolling sands of Wyoming. That these remarkable events happened 10,000 years ago, and yet we see them so clearly today, is testimony to the skill of Frison and his team of researchers. A landmark publication." Jack W. Brink, Royal Alberta Museum "The brainchild of a remarkable archaeologist and a benchmark in integrative archaeological science, putting to work innovations in spatial analysis, experiments in technology and vertebrate taphonomy, hunter-gatherer ethnoarchaeology, geology, and zooarchaeology. One cannot help but sense the squeak of sand churned by desperate hooves when reading this classic study." Mary C. Stiner, University of Arizona

The Allen Site

A Paleoindian Camp in Southwestern Nebraska
Author: Douglas B. Bamforth
Publisher: UNM Press
ISBN: 9780826342959
Category: History
Page: 284
View: 1545
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The Allen Site in southwestern Nebraska has nurtured the interest of archaeologists and paleontologists with abundant signs of a long history of human, animal, and environmental activity. Douglas Bamforth focuses primarily on Paleoindian land use represented by the Allen Site and the adjacent smaller sites collectively known as the Medicine Creek Paleoindian sites. The Medicine Creek sites, located in the central Great Plains, highlight aspects of early Native American lifeways that are obscured by the emphasis in most Paleoindian examinations of large bison kills. Research at Medicine Creek has stressed reconstruction of both the overall regional environment and of local microenvironmental variation, along with human responses to both of these. Advances in analysis and well-preserved remains from the Allen site in particular document the extraordinary range of species that Paleoindian groups harvested in addition to bison and open serious questions about widely accepted reconstructions of Paleoindian land use. In addition, the well-stratified evidence for long-term residential use of the site offers a rare chance to consider patterns of adaptive change over the course of the Paleoindian period.

Journal of Field Archaeology


Author: Association for Field Archaeology
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 6689
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Paleoamerican Odyssey


Author: Kelly E. Graf,Caroline V. Ketron,Michael R. Waters
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1623492335
Category: Social Science
Page: 584
View: 3097
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As research continues on the earliest migration of modern humans into North and South America, the current state of knowledge about these first Americans is continually evolving. Especially with recent advances in human genomic studies, both of living populations and ancient skeletal remains, new light is being shed in the ongoing quest toward understanding the full complexity and timing of prehistoric migration patterns. Paleoamerican Odyssey collects thirty-one studies presented at the 2013 conference by the same name, hosted in Santa Fe, New Mexico, by the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M University. Providing an up-to-date view of the current state of knowledge in paleoamerican studies, the research gathered in this volume, presented by leaders in the field, focuses especially on late Pleistocene Northeast Asia, Beringia, and North and South America, as well as dispersal routes, molecular genetics, and Clovis and pre-Clovis archaeology.

The Early Settlement of North America

The Clovis Era
Author: Gary Haynes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521524636
Category: History
Page: 345
View: 2764
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This history of the first people to settle in the New World starts with a summary of the archaeology of Clovis-fluted point-makers in North America. Gary Haynes evaluates the wide range of interpretations given to facts about the Clovis. He then presents his own fully developed and integrated theory, which incorporates vital new biological, ecological, behavioral and archaeological data.

Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Arkansas
Page: N.A
View: 6911
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Old Man's Playing ground


Author: Gabriel M. Yanicki
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 077662136X
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 7057
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“A place here called Naw peu ooch eta cots from whence this river Derives its name…” When Hudson’s Bay Company surveyor Peter Fidler made contact with the Ktunaxa at the Gap of the Oldman River in the winter of 1792, his Piikáni guides brought him to the river’s namesake: these were the playing grounds where Napi, or Old Man, taught the various nations how to play a game as a way of making peace. In the centuries since, travellers, adventurers, and scholars have recorded several accounts of Old Man’s Playing Ground and of the hoop-and-arrow game that was played there. These same stories continue to be told, demonstrating the site’s core significance in the sacred geography of First Nations in southern Alberta today. In this work, oral tradition, history, and ethnography are brought together with a geomorphic assessment of the playing ground’s most probable location—a floodplain scoured and rebuilt by floodwaters of the Oldman—and the archaeology of adjacent prehistoric campsite DlPo-8. Taken together, the locale can be understood as a nexus for cultural interaction and trade, through the medium of gambling and games, on the natural frontier between peoples of the Interior Plateau and Northwest Plains.

Foragers of the Terminal Pleistocene in North America


Author: Renee Beauchamp Walker,Boyce N. Driskell
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 0803207646
Category: Science
Page: 345
View: 7161
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These essays cast new light on Paleoindians, the first settlers of North America. Recent research strongly suggests that big-game hunting was but one of the subsistence strategies the first humans in the New World employed and that they also relied on foraging and fishing.

American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene


Author: Gary Haynes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402087936
Category: Science
Page: 201
View: 3503
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The volume contains summaries of facts, theories, and unsolved problems pertaining to the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of mostly large terrestrial mammals, which occurred ca. 13,000 calendar years ago in North America and about 1,000 years later in South America. Another equally mysterious wave of extinctions affected large Caribbean islands around 5,000 years ago. The coupling of these extinctions with the earliest appearance of human beings has led to the suggestion that foraging humans are to blame, although major climatic shifts were also taking place in the Americas during some of the extinctions. The last published volume with similar (but not identical) themes -- Extinctions in Near Time -- appeared in 1999; since then a great deal of innovative, exciting new research has been done but has not yet been compiled and summarized. Different chapters in this volume provide in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South America, the possible insights into animal ecology provided by studies of stable isotopes and anatomical/physiological characteristics such as growth increments in mammoth and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic research about large-mammal biology, the applications of dating methods to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies concerning human hunting of large mammals.