Historical and Biblical Israel

The History, Tradition, and Archives of Israel and Judah
Author: Reinhard G. Kratz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191044490
Category: Religion
Page: 288
View: 9170
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At the center of this book lies a fundamental yet unanswered question: under which historical and sociological conditions and in what manner the Hebrew Bible became an authoritative tradition, that is, holy scripture and the canon of Judaism as well as Christianity. Reinhard G. Kratz answers this very question by distinguishing between historical and biblical Israel. This foundational and, for the arrangement of the book, crucial distinction affirms that the Israel of biblical tradition, i.e. the sacred history (historia sacra) of the Hebrew Bible, cannot simply be equated with the history of Israel and Judah. Thus, Kratz provides a synthesis of both the Israelite and Judahite history and the genesis and development of biblical tradition in two separate chapters, though each area depends directly and inevitably upon the other. These two distinct perspectives on Israel are then confronted and correlated in a third chapter, which constitutes an area intimately connected with the former but generally overlooked apart from specialized inquiries: those places and "archives" that either yielded Jewish documents and manuscripts (Elephantine, Al-Yahudu, Qumran) or are associated conspicuously with the tradition of the Hebrew Bible (Mount Gerizim, Jerusalem, Alexandria). Here, the various epigraphic and literary evidence for the history of Israel and Judah comes to the fore. Such evidence sometimes represents Israel's history; at other times it reflects its traditions; at still others it reflects both simultaneously. The different sources point to different types of Judean or Jewish identity in Persian and Hellenistic times.

The Legacy of Israel in Judah's Bible

History, Politics, and the Reinscribing of Tradition
Author: Daniel E. Fleming
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139536877
Category: Religion
Page: N.A
View: 1202
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The Legacy of Israel in Judah's Bible undertakes a comprehensive re-evaluation of the Bible's primary narrative in Genesis through Kings as it relates to history. It divides the core textual traditions along political lines that reveal deeply contrasting assumptions, an approach that places biblical controversies in dialogue with anthropologically informed archaeology. Starting from close study of selected biblical texts, the work moves toward historical issues that may be illuminated by both this material and a larger range of textual evidence. The result is a synthesis that breaks away from conventional lines of debate in matters relating to ancient Israel and the Bible, setting an agenda for future engagement of these fields with wider study of antiquity.

A History of Biblical Israel

The Fate of the Tribes and Kingdoms from Merenptah to Bar Kochba
Author: Philippe Guillaume,Axel Knauf
Publisher: Equinox
ISBN: 9781781791424
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 8435
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There was probably only one past, but there are many different histories. As mental representations of narrow segments of the past, 'histories' reflect different cultural contexts and different historians, although 'history' is a scientific enterprise whenever it processes representative data using rational and controllable methods to work out hypotheses that can be falsified by empirical evidence. A History of Biblical Israel combines experience gained through decades of teaching biblical exegesis and courses on the history of ancient Israel, and of on-going involvement in biblical archaeology. 'Biblical Israel' is understood as a narrative produced primarily in the province of Yehud to forge the collective memory of the elite that operated the temple of Jerusalem under the auspices of the Achaemenid imperial apparatus. The notion of 'Biblical Israel' provides the necessary hindsight to narrate the fate of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah as the pre-history of 'Biblical Israel', since the archives of these kingdoms were only mined in the Persian era to produce the grand biblical narrative. The volume covers the history of 'Biblical Israel' through its fragmentation in the Hellenistic and Roman periods until 136 CE, when four Roman legions crushed the revolt of Simeon Bar-Kosiba.

Beyond the Texts

An Archaeological Portrait of Ancient Israel and Judah
Author: William G. Dever
Publisher: SBL Press
ISBN: 0884142175
Category: Social Science
Page: 772
View: 5793
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A handbook for biblical scholars and historians of the Ancient Near East William G. Dever offers a welcome perspective on ancient Israel and Judah that prioritizes the archaeological remains to render history as it was—not as the biblical writers argue it should have been. Drawing from the most recent archaeological data as interpreted from a nontheological point of view and supplementing that data with biblical material only when it converges with the archaeological record, Dever analyzes all the evidence at hand to provide a new history of ancient Israel and Judah that is accessible to all interested readers. Features A new approach to the history of ancient Israel Extensive bibliography More than eighty maps and illustrations

The Bible Unearthed

Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Isreal and the Origin of Sacred Texts
Author: Israel Finkelstein,Neil Asher Silberman
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0743223381
Category: Religion
Page: 400
View: 5446
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In this groundbreaking work that sets apart fact and legend, authors Finkelstein and Silberman use significant archeological discoveries to provide historical information about biblical Israel and its neighbors. In this iconoclastic and provocative work, leading scholars Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman draw on recent archaeological research to present a dramatically revised portrait of ancient Israel and its neighbors. They argue that crucial evidence (or a telling lack of evidence) at digs in Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon suggests that many of the most famous stories in the Bible—the wanderings of the patriarchs, the Exodus from Egypt, Joshua’s conquest of Canaan, and David and Solomon’s vast empire—reflect the world of the later authors rather than actual historical facts. Challenging the fundamentalist readings of the scriptures and marshaling the latest archaeological evidence to support its new vision of ancient Israel, The Bible Unearthed offers a fascinating and controversial perspective on when and why the Bible was written and why it possesses such great spiritual and emotional power today.

Poverty, Law, and Divine Justice in Persian and Hellenistic Judah


Author: Johannes Unsok Ro
Publisher: SBL Press
ISBN: 088414285X
Category: Religion
Page: 318
View: 3755
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A view of Persian and Hellenistic Judean communities through theological and socioeconomic lenses Johannes Unsok Ro employs philological, historical, and sociological approaches to investigate the close connections between socioeconomic structures, social inequality, and theological developments in the Judean communities in Persian- and Hellenistic-era Palestine. Ro contends that competing points of view from communities of lay returnees, priestly returnees, and communities of resident Judeans and Samaritans were juxtaposed within the Hebrew Bible, which took shape during the postexilic period. By exploring issues such as the relationship between the shaping of the canon and literacy in the Judean community, the term strangers in the biblical law codes, the socioeconomic structures of Judean communities reflected in the biblical law codes, the development of the theological concept of divine punitive justice, the piety of the poor in certain psalms, and the concept of poverty in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Ro illustrates that the communities behind each text and its redactions can be ascertained through sociological and theological lenses. Features Demonstration that a theology of the poor materialized orally among the poor but found written expression among Levites Insight into the socioeconomic and theological concerns of the authorial groups behind various biblical law codes A case that biblical “poverty” sometimes refers to humility and a theologically reflected consciousness of lowliness toward God

Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah


Author: Francesca Stavrakopoulou,John Barton
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0567032167
Category: Religion
Page: 207
View: 6225
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This volume of essays draws together specialists in the field to explain, illustrate and analyze this religious diversity in Ancient Israel.

The David Story: A Translation with Commentary of 1 and 2 Samuel


Author: Robert Alter
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393070255
Category: Religion
Page: 448
View: 3572
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"A masterpiece of contemporary Bible translation and commentary."—Los Angeles Times Book Review, Best Books of 1999 Acclaimed for its masterful new translation and insightful commentary, The David Story is a fresh, vivid rendition of one of the great works in Western literature. Robert Alter's brilliant translation gives us David, the beautiful, musical hero who slays Goliath and, through his struggles with Saul, advances to the kingship of Israel. But this David is also fully human: an ambitious, calculating man who navigates his life's course with a flawed moral vision. The consequences for him, his family, and his nation are tragic and bloody. Historical personage and full-blooded imagining, David is the creation of a literary artist comparable to the Shakespeare of the history plays.

The Invention of God


Author: Thomas Römer
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674504976
Category: History
Page: 303
View: 8813
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Who invented God? When, why, and where? Thomas Römer seeks to answer these enigmatic questions about the deity of the great monotheisms—Yhwh, God, or Allah—by tracing Israelite beliefs and their context from the Bronze Age to the end of the Old Testament period in the third century BCE, in a masterpiece of detective work and exposition.

In Search of 'Ancient Israel'

A Study in Biblical Origins
Author: Philip R. Davies
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 0567662993
Category: Religion
Page: 192
View: 920
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The appearance of In Search of 'Ancient Israel' generated a still-raging controversy about the historical reality of what biblical scholars call 'Ancient Israel'. But its argument not only takes in the problematic relationship between Iron Age Palestinian archaeology and the biblical 'Israel' but also outlines the processes that created the literature of the Hebrew bible-the ideological matrix, the scribal milieu, and the cultural adoption of a national literary archive as religious scripture as part of the process of creating 'Judaisms'. As such, in this volume Philip R. Davies challenges the whole spectrum of scholarly consensus about the origins of 'Israel' and its scriptures, in a manner that is both learned and accessible. For this new edition Davies has provided a new extended introduction, in which he considers how the debate has raged since the book was first published, and in which he repositions this classic work within the present scholarly context.

How the Bible Became a Book

The Textualization of Ancient Israel
Author: William M. Schniedewind
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521536226
Category: Religion
Page: 272
View: 4665
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How the Bible Became a Book combines recent archaeological discoveries in the Middle East with insights culled from the history of writing to address how the Bible was written and evolved into sacred Scripture. Written for general readers as well as scholars, the book provides rich insight into how these texts came to possess the authority of Scripture and explores why Ancient Israel, an oral culture, began to write literature. It describes an emerging literate society in ancient Israel that challenges the assertion that literacy first arose in Greece during the fifth century BCE. Hb ISBN (2004) 0-521-82946-1

"On Her Account"

Reconfiguring Israel in Ruth, Esther, and Judith
Author: Anne-Mareike Wetter
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 0567664317
Category: Religion
Page: 272
View: 8152
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Anne-Mareike Wetter investigates how the books of Ruth, Esther and Judith contribute to the discussion about Israel's ethnic and religious identity in the formative period following the Babylonian Exile. Although each of these narratives deals with variations of the theme of survival in a hostile world, the question underlying them is a different one: “Who are we, and who is our 'other'?” The narratives are presented as sequels to Israel's history as put forward in other (now biblical) texts, and presuppose God's continuing involvement with his people. However, they subtly modify the way in which Israel can or should relate to her God by suggesting alternatives for official Temple worship or bypassing the latter altogether. While older prophetic texts make use of metaphoric language portraying Israel as YHWH's unfaithful wife, grieving widow, or ravaged virgin, Ruth, Esther and Judith can be construed as embodiments of Israel of a different kind. Wetter argues for a revisioning of Israel in and through the bodies of the three female characters, as a community which is simultaneously vulnerable and inviolable, marginalized and empowered. Their tricksterism, in all its comicality, underlines the precarious situation in which the women and the community they represent are caught. Yet it also has the power to both defeat threats from outside and amend Israel's self-perception on the inside. Israel no longer has to perceive of itself as a battered wife but as one who can deploy her qualities – seductive and otherwise – for the survival of the community.

King Manasseh and Child Sacrifice

Biblical Distortions of Historical Realities
Author: Francesca Stavrakopoulou
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110899647
Category: Religion
Page: 420
View: 4280
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The Hebrew Bible portrays King Manasseh and child sacrifice as the most reprehensible person and the most objectionable practice within the story of 'Israel'. This monograph suggests that historically, neither were as deviant as the Hebrew Bible appears to insist. Through careful historical reconstruction, it is argued that Manasseh was one of Judah's most successful monarchs, and child sacrifice played a central role in ancient Judahite religious practice. The biblical writers, motivated by ideological concerns, have thus deliberately distorted the truth about Manasseh and child sacrifice.

A Companion to Josephus


Author: Honora Howell Chapman,Zuleika Rodgers
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444335332
Category: History
Page: 488
View: 5688
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A Companion to Josephus presents a collection of readings from international scholars that explore the works of the first century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus. Represents the first single-volume collection of readings to focus on Josephus Covers a wide range of disciplinary approaches to the subject, including reception history Features contributions from 29 eminent scholars in the field from four continents Reveals important insights into the Jewish and Roman worlds at the moment when Christianity was gaining ground as a movement

The Composition of the Narrative Books of the Old Testament


Author: Reinhard Gregor Kratz
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 9780567089205
Category: Religion
Page: 361
View: 1742
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Explaining their sources and the nature of their composition, Reinhard Kratz provides an introduction to the narrative books of the Old Testament (Genesis to Nehemiah). He seeks to do this as far as possible without presupposing any hypotheses and on the basis of a few undisputed basic assumptions: a distinction between Priestly and non-Priestly text in the Pentateuch, the special position of Deuteronomy, a Deuteronomistic revision of Joshua-2 Kings, and the literary use of the books of Samuel and Kings by Chronicles. Any further distinctions are based on observations of the text which are well established and not on literary-critical or redaction-critical distinctions. Kratz argues that what is important is how the text is read.This is the first study of its kind since Martin Noth's classic studies of thePentateuch and Deuteronomic history. It will be an invaluable resource for allscholars and students in the field.

Guide to Biblical Chronology


Author: Antti Laato
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781909697843
Category: Religion
Page: 138
View: 2855
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This Guide to Biblical Chronology aims to explain why different chronological proposals exist for the reigns of kings of Israel and Judah and how the conflicting chronological data preserved in the Books of Kings have come into being. The first step is to reconstruct older chronological data so that synchronisms are in harmony with each other. Only then can the chronological data be related to extrabiblical documents; such a comparison reveals a good degree of correspondence. This means that the chronological records of the kings of Judah and Israel during the period between 930 and 586 BCE must have based on reliable annalistic records from royal archives. After the destruction of Samaria, synchronic chronological presentations of the history of Judah and Israel were composed and the Deuteronomistic editors used them. They drew their own conclusions from the source material and created a chronology of their own, which sometimes led to the contradictions we can detect in the present form of the Hebrew Bible. Another important result is that the 480-year period mentioned in 1 Kings 6 and the 300-year period in Judges 11 are also based on the pre-Deuteronomistic chronological tradition even though they are not based on archival material and are therefore unreliable figures. The Guide to Biblical Chronology also deals with postbiblical Jewish chronology, showing that there were in existence two different and competing chronological systems. One was based on Daniel 9.24-27 and followed by Josephus, and the other was first advanced by Demetrius the Chronographer in the late third century BCE and was then followed in the Damascus Document from Qumran and in Second Baruch.

The Mythic Past: Biblical Archaeology And The Myth Of Israel

Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel
Author: Thomas L. Thompson,L Thompson
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0786725176
Category: Religion
Page: 432
View: 589
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The Jewish people's historical claims to a small area of land bordering the eastern Mediterranean are not only the foundation for the modern state of Israel, they are also at the very heart of Judeo-Christian belief. Yet in The Mythic Past, Thomas Thompson argues that such claims are grounded in literary myth, not history. Among the author's startling conclusions are these:* There never was a "united monarch" of Israel in biblical times* We can no longer talk about a time of the Patriarchs* The entire notion of "Israel" and its history is a literary fiction.The Mythic Past provides refreshing new ways to read the Old Testament as the great literature it was meant to be. At the same time, its controversial conclusions about Jewish history are sure to prove incendiary in a worldwide debate about one of the world's seminal texts, and one of its most bitterly contested regions.

Reality, Grief, Hope

Three Urgent Prophetic Tasks
Author: Walter Brueggemann
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
ISBN: 0802870724
Category: Religion
Page: 165
View: 6167
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Pointing out striking correlations between the catastrophe of 9/11 and the destruction of ancient Jerusalem, Brueggemann shows how the prophetic biblical response to that crisis was truth-telling in the face of ideology, grief in the face of denial, and hope in the face of despair. He argues that the same prophetic responses are urgently required from us now if we are to escape the deathliness of denial and despair. --from publisher description

On the Reliability of the Old Testament


Author: Kenneth Anderson Kitchen
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
ISBN: 9780802849601
Category: Religion
Page: 662
View: 8392
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Kitchen draws on a range of historical data from the ancient Near East - the Bible's own world - and uses it to reassess both the biblical record and the critics who condemn it. Working back from the latest periods (for which hard evidence is readily available) to the remotest times. Kitchen systematically shows up the many failures of favored arguments against the Bible and marshals pertinent permanent evidence from antiquity's inscriptions and artifacts to demonstrate the basic honesty of the Old Testament writers.

Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan

A Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths
Author: William Foxwell Albright
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
ISBN: 9780931464010
Category: History
Page: 294
View: 7294
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Professor Albright speaks to a new generation of scholars through this reprint of his classic work contrasting Israelite and Canaanite religions. The five chapters were originally presented as seven lectures and discuss Poetry and Prose, the Patriarchal Background, Canaanite Religion in the Early Bronze Age, the Struggle between Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan, and the Religious Cultures of Israel and Phoenicia.