Homicide Data Sources

An Interdisciplinary Overview for Researchers
Author: Adam Dobrin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319198815
Category: Social Science
Page: 44
View: 1334

This Brief provides a detailed guide to national data sources that collect and report data on homicides in the United States, and some key international sources abroad. It provides in-depth coverage of well-known sources, and highlights more obscure sources, providing a useful tool for research design and planning across disciplines. This Brief includes detailed discussions of the benchmark sources in the United States: police data compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Programs, as well as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics’ National Vital Statistics System. It also brings to light in one place many other less commonly-known sources for the United States. The author also highlights international data sources with worldwide data, but not country-specific studies. For each source covered, this unique work provides discussion of how to access the data source, interpret data from the source, and provides necessary background information about strengths and weaknesses of the sources. It does not presume expertise in statistics or methodology, and assumes no prior exposure to the data sources described. It is organized by data source, with some comparisons between the sources. It will be useful as a guide for researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Public Administration, Demography, and any related field interested in homicide statistics.

Criminology of Homicidal Poisoning

Offenders, Victims and Detection
Author: Michael Farrell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319591177
Category: Social Science
Page: 209
View: 2344

This book provides an overview of historical and contemporary cases of homicidal poisoning. While homicidal poisoning is sometimes thought of as a thing of the past, it continues to be a contemporary problem, and in fact the unknown offender rate for poisoning cases is 20-30 times that of other homicide types in contemporary research, and many poisoners commit serial homicides while going undetected. The author of this important and timely work explores the theoretical bases for understanding homicidal poisoning, the nature of poisons used in homicidal cases, the characteristics of poisoners and their victims, and techniques for detection and prevention. This unique book will be of particular interest to: students of criminology (classes dealing with criminal psychology, and murder investigation); students of the history of crime; criminal justice professionals: attorneys, homicide detectives, forensic pathologists, forensic and clinical toxicologists, and other forensic investigators; and all interested in poisons, poisoners and the detection of poisoning. It has relevance to criminology, law and policing, toxicology and forensic science, the history of crime and detection, and criminal psychology.

Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System


Author: Lenore E.A. Walker,James M. Pann,David L. Shapiro,Vincent B. Van Hasselt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319216562
Category: Psychology
Page: 88
View: 9680

This timely brief resource introduces a new evidence-based model for treatment of mentally ill individuals in jails, with emphasis on community-based options. Forensic mental health experts review police alternatives to arresting mentally ill persons in confrontations, the efficacy of problem-solving courts, and continuity of care between jail and community. The book's best-practices approach extends to frequently related issues such as addiction, domestic violence, juvenile considerations, and trauma and describes successful programs coordinating judicial and clinical systems. These guidelines for decriminalizing non-violent behaviors and making appropriate services available to those with mental problems should also help address issues affecting the justice system, such as overcrowding. Included in the coverage: The Best Practices Model. Best practices in law enforcement crisis interventions with the mentally ill. Problem-solving courts and therapeutic jurisprudence. Competency restoration programs. A review of best practices for the treatment of persons with mental illness in jail. Conclusions, recommendations, and helpful appendices. With its practical vision for systemic improvement, Best Practices Model for Intervention with the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System is progressive reading for practitioners in the mental health field, especially practitioners working with inmates, as well as for stakeholders in the law enforcement and justice systems.

Hate Crime Statutes

A Public Policy and Law Enforcement Dilemma
Author: Frank S. Pezzella
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319408429
Category: Social Science
Page: 84
View: 8829

​​​​​​This Brief provides a clearly outlined and accessible overview of the challenges in creating and enforcing hate crime legislation in the United States. As the author explains, while it is generally not controversial that hate crime behavior should be stopped, the question of how to do so effectively is complex. This volume begins with an introduction about defining hate crimes, and the history of hate crimes and hate crime legislation in the United States. The author shows arguments in favor of hate crime statutes, for example: hate crimes reach beyond their victims to members of the victims’ protected group and cohesion of society at large, and should therefore carry higher penalties.The author also shows arguments against hate crime statutes, for example that they sometimes contain enhanced penalties for certain specially protected groups and not others, and have a high potential for ambiguity and uneven enforcement. From a law enforcement perspective, the author explores the practical challenges in enforcing these statutes, and solutions to address them. Investigative techniques and resources vary significantly across police departments, as does training to identify and distinguish hate crimes from ordinary crimes. There is high potential for law enforcement and prosecutors’ personal biases to effect the classification of crimes as hate crimes. Law enforcement organizations are constantly faced with the dilemma of what and how to enforce legislation. This brief will be relevant for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, policy makers involved in hate crime legislation, social justice, and police-community relations, as well as related fields such as sociology, public policy and demography.​

Control of Violence

Historical and International Perspectives on Violence in Modern Societies
Author: Wilhelm Heitmeyer,Heinz-Gerhard Haupt,Stefan Malthaner,Andrea Kirschner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441903839
Category: Social Science
Page: 622
View: 6467

The Control of Violence in Modern Society, starts from the hypothesis that in modern society we will face an increasing loss of control over certain phenomena of violence. This leads to unpredictable escalations and violence can no longer be contained adequately by the relevant control regimes, such as police, state surveillance institutions, national repression apparatuses and international law. However, before investigating this hypothesis from an internationally and historically comparative perspective, the terms and "tools" for this undertaking have to be rendered more precisely. Since both "control" and "violence" are all but clear-cut terms but rather highly debatable and contested concepts that may take multiple connotations. The main question is whether an increase in certain forms of violence can be explained by the failure or, in turn, "overeffectiveness" of certain control mechanisms. It is asked, for instance, which contribution religion can make to limit violence and, in turn, which destructive potential religion might have in its fundamentalist form. Moreover, the concept of individual self-control as well as social institutions and strategies of collective disengagement and de-radicalization are investigated with regard to their potential for controlling violence. The Control of Violence in Modern Society concludes with a re-examination of the hypothesis of a loss of control by specifying in what cases and under which circumstances we can speak of a loss of control over violence.

Applying a Human Rights Approach to Social Work Research and Evaluation

A Rights Research Manifesto
Author: Tina Maschi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319260367
Category: Social Science
Page: 159
View: 5025

This brief introduces a human rights approach to social work research and evaluation, compares it to traditional research approaches, and explains how to apply it in real world social work research. The author draws from a human rights framework that incorporates dignity and respect for all persons, the universality and interrelatedness of rights (political, civil, social, economic, and cultural), nondiscrimination, participation, accountability, and transparency. To advance a human rights approach, it introduces a rights-based model that accentuates the use of mixed methods and participatory research and evaluation. This brief aims to increase competencies in how to apply a rights based approach to research decision-making process from the formulation of research questions, research and practice design, and participatory action strategies that advance human rights.​ It is a call to action for social workers to forge a rights-based research agenda that fosters empowerment.

Archaeological Human Remains

Global Perspectives
Author: Barra Odonnabhain,María Cecilia Lozada Cerna
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319063707
Category: Social Science
Page: 252
View: 7066

This volume addresses the directions that studies of archaeological human remains have taken in a number of different countries, where attitudes range from widespread support to prohibition. Overlooked in many previous publications, this diversity in attitudes is examined through a variety of lenses, including academic origins, national identities, supporting institutions, archaeological context and globalization. The volume situates this diversity of attitudes by examining past and current tendencies in studies of archaeologically-retrieved human remains across a range of geopolitical settings. In a context where methodological approaches have been increasingly standardized in recent decades, the volume poses the question if this standardization has led to a convergence in approaches to archaeological human remains or if significant differences remain between practitioners in different countries. The volume also explores the future trajectories of the study of skeletal remains in the different jurisdictions under scrutiny.

Confidential Informants

A Closer Look at Police Policy
Author: Jon Shane
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331922252X
Category: Social Science
Page: 112
View: 8109

While confidential informants (CI’s) can play a crucial role in police investigations, they also have the potential to cause great harm if they are dishonest. The process by which police agencies qualify a CI to work and the strength of agency policy may be the source of the problem. This Brief examines the integrity problem involving CIs in police operations within the United States, provides an overview of pitfalls and problems related to veracity and informant integrity including the difficulties in detecting when a CI is lying, and compares the provisions of actual published police policy to the model CI policy published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The analysis shows a wide divergence between actual police policy and the national standard promulgated by the IACP. The Brief provides policy recommendations for improving use of CIs that can potentially reduce or eliminate integrity problems that can lead to organizational accidents such as wrongful arrests and convictions, injuries or deaths. Some Courts have issued measures to ensure that information received from CIs is reliable by examining sworn testimony and documents related to their work. However, as this Brief explores, this judicial effort arises only after a police operation has taken place, and the use of force – even deadly force—has already been employed. The author proposes integrity testing beforehand, which would allow police to have a greater understanding of a CI’s motivation, ability and veracity when conducting law enforcement operations. In addition, there are aspects of police policy that can enhance CI management such as training, supervision and entrapment that can further guard against integrity problems. Although integrity testing is not flawless, it does interpose an additional step in the CI management process that can help guard against wrongful conviction and perjury that harms the judicial process.

Quality of Life in Communities of Latin Countries


Author: Graciela Tonon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319531832
Category: Social Science
Page: 286
View: 1800

This book presents a reconfiguration of the concepts of community in Latin countries as well as the community quality of life and well-being of different groups: children, young people, older adults, migrants. The traditional concept of community has changed together with the way people participate in community spaces. Community nowadays is more than a geographic concentration; it is related to social support, inter-subjectivity, participation, consensus, common beliefs, joint effort aiming at a major objective, and intense and extensive relationships. This volume presents unique experiences about culture, social development, health, water, armed conflicts, the digital media, and sports within communities, written by authors from Latin countries. This volume is a valuable resource for researchers, students, and policy makers in quality of life studies.

Labor Unions, Management Innovation and Organizational Change in Police Departments


Author: John DeCarlo,Michael J. Jenkins
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319215841
Category: Social Science
Page: 60
View: 696

This Brief examines the role of Police Unions in law enforcement policy development. It provides an overview of the historical and political background of police labor unions, and takes a critical look at the shifting perception of labor unions from generally positive to somewhat negative, to compare this perception with their real impact. It examines the perceived role that unions play, whether positive, negative, or neutral in the development and advancement of contemporary law enforcement agencies and their respective policies. This work provides a multisite survey of police administrators’ views and opinions on police union impact on a variety of police functions including: delivery of services, prevention of crime and disorder, and interaction with the public. The results of this research provide a comprehensive look at ways to improve the ways police departments operate and how they improve and enhance legitimacy in their communities.It provides a context for the current state of the public sector labor relations environment. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, police science, and public policy.

Ethical Concerns in Research on Human Trafficking


Author: Dina Siegel,Roos de Wildt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319215213
Category: Social Science
Page: 277
View: 6926

This book presents a vivid description of the solutions that researchers have discovered for ethical dilemmas that pose themselves at studying disadvantaged, vulnerable and victimized populations. Ethical codes prescribe that the scholar should in all circumstances avoid potential harm, that informed consent is necessary and that the limits of confidentiality should always be respected. However, in the practice of research among women involved in prostitution, illegal immigrant workers, enslaved children, people who sell their organs and all the traffickers thereof, the ethical rules cannot always be followed. This book shows that there is a surprising variety of arguable possibilities in dealing with ethical dilemmas in the field. Authors reflect on concrete experiences from their own fieldwork in a wide variety of settings such as the USA, Singapore, Kosovo and The Netherlands. Some choose to work on the basis of conscientious partiality, others negotiate the rules with their informants and still others purposely break the rules in order to disclose and damage the exploiters. Researchers may find themselves in a vulnerable position. Their experiences, as presented in this volume, will help field workers, university administrators, representatives of vulnerable groups, philosophers of ethics and most of all students to go into the field well-prepared. This is a book that every researcher planning to do fieldwork in the difficult field of hidden, illicit and victimized people should read in advance. Dr. Frank Bovenkerk, Professor (Emeritus), Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands This book allows a peek in the kitchen of empirical fieldwork, going into not only “best practices,” but mistakes made, in a frank, courageous and honest way. Dr. Brenda C. Oude Breuil, Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands

Neighborhood Disorganization and Social Control

Case Studies from Three Russian Cities
Author: Olga Siegmunt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319215906
Category: Social Science
Page: 82
View: 2418

This Brief presents a framework for understanding the role of school and neighborhood contexts in the development of self-control. Through the application of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime and Shaw and McKay’s social disorganization theory, the authors of this Brief examine the importance of family socialization and school and neighborhood for self-control of youth in three Russian cities, replicating results from an earlier study in Germany. The cases presented in the Brief found that family socialization is important for self-control, but it interacts with school and neighbourhood contexts. According to the study, school social control as a structural characteristic can lead to less delinquency, even if students did not develop self-control. Self-control mediates parental supervision and attachment to parents on one hand, and juvenile delinquency on the other hand. However it was not found to mediate neighbourhood context characteristics. The results of the study provide a research framework that can be applied to other international, comparative contexts. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, as well as related fields such as Public Policy and Social Work.

The Two Mafias

A Transatlantic History, 1888-2008
Author: Salvatore Lupo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 113749137X
Category: Social Science
Page: 236
View: 5199

A realistic understanding of the mafia must avoid depictions both of a monolithic organization and of localized, isolated groups. Here, renowned historian Salvatore Lupo analyzes the mafia as a network of varied relationships and institutions, the result of a complex cultural and social encounter that was shaped by multiple, diverse environments.

Culture Of Honor

The Psychology Of Violence In The South
Author: Richard E Nisbett
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429980779
Category: Social Science
Page: 144
View: 7545

This is an exploration of the reasons behind the higher rate for homicides among whites in the southern United States. The authors conclude that what makes the difference is not socio-economic class, population density, the legacy of slavery, or the heat of the South, but the traditional "culture of honour", in which a man's reputation is seen as central to his economic survival.

Cybercrime Risks and Responses

Eastern and Western Perspectives
Author: Russell G. Smith,Ray Cheung,Laurie Yiu-Chung Lau
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137474165
Category: Social Science
Page: 286
View: 6843

This book examines the most recent and contentious issues in relation to cybercrime facing the world today, and how best to address them. The contributors show how Eastern and Western nations are responding to the challenges of cybercrime, and the latest trends and issues in cybercrime prevention and control.

Financial Crime in China

Developments, Sanctions, and the Systemic Spread of Corruption
Author: Hongming Cheng
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137571063
Category: Social Science
Page: 194
View: 4971

Given China's rapid development, many observers assert that world economic growth and key economic indicators are now depending on the country alone, including the prospects of the dollar, the Euro, oil prices, industrial commodities, global equity markets and bond prices. On the other hand, China faces a number of major social and economic challenges which could undermine future growth, such as prevalent corruption, financial crime, and the relative lack of the rule of law. Financial Crime in China builds upon original research into the topic and offers a never-before-seen look at the systemic spread of state-controlled corruption in the form of bank fraud, securities fraud, insider trading, and Ponzi schemes. Cheng presents an authentic picture of financial crime in China by identifying the latest manifestations, analyzing empirical data and case studies, and drawing conclusions about the origin, characteristics, dynamics, and developmental features of financial criminality in the context of political economy.

Youth On Religion

The development, negotiation and impact of faith and non-faith identity
Author: Nicola Madge,Peter Hemming,Kevin Stenson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317914562
Category: Psychology
Page: 256
View: 5586

Globalisation has led to increasing cultural and religious diversity in cities around the world. What are the implications for young people growing up in these settings? How do they develop their religious identities, and what roles do families, friends and peers, teachers, religious leaders and wider cultural influences play in the process? Furthermore, how do members of similar and different cultural and faith backgrounds get on together, and what can young people tell us about reducing conflict and promoting social solidarity amid diversity? Youth On Religion outlines the findings from a unique large-scale project investigating the meaning of religion to young people in three multi-faith locations. Drawing on survey data from over 10,000 young people with a range of faith positions, as well as a series of fascinating interviews, discussion groups and diary reports involving 160 adolescents, this book examines myriad aspects of their daily lives. It provides the most comprehensive account yet of the role of religion for young people growing up in contemporary, multicultural urban contexts. Youth On Religion is a rigorous and engaging account of developing religiosity in a changing society. It presents young people’s own perspectives on their attitudes and experiences and how they negotiate their identities. The book will be an instructive and valuable resource for psychologists, sociologists, criminologists, educationalists and anthropologists, as well as youth workers, social workers and anyone working with young people today. It will also provide essential understanding for policy makers tackling issues of multiculturalism in advanced societies.

Policing in Russia

Combating Corruption since the 2009 Police Reforms
Author: Serguei Cheloukhine
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319611003
Category: Social Science
Page: 67
View: 9139

This Brief provides an in-depth look at crime and corruption in Russian Law Enforcement, in the fifteen years since the 2009 police reforms. It focuses on corruption and organized crime at various levels of public services and law enforcement, how these organized crime networks operate, and how to enhance police integrity and legitimacy in this context. It begins with a short overview of the history of law enforcement in the Soviet and Post-Soviet context, and the scope of organized crime on the operations of local businesses, public services, and bureaucratic offices. It provides an in depth examination of how organized crime developed in this context, to fill a void between the supply and demand of various goods and services. Based on an in-depth survey of police integrity and corruption in Russia, it provides key insights into how countries in a transition to democracy can maintain and enhance legitimacy of their police force. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with a focus on policing, corruption or organized crime, as well as related disciplines such as political science.

Offending from Childhood to Young Adulthood

Recent Results from the Pittsburgh Youth Study
Author: Wesley G. Jennings,Rolf Loeber,Dustin A. Pardini,Alex R. Piquero,David P. Farrington
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319259660
Category: Social Science
Page: 74
View: 6647

This Brief examines criminal careers by providing the most extensive and comprehensive investigation to date on the official offending, self-reported offending, and trajectories of offending of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS) participants. The PYS is a longitudinal study, which was initiated in 1987, and involves repeated follow-ups on several community cohorts (starting in grades 1, 4, and 7) of inner-city boys in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This Brief covers the Youngest and Oldest PYS cohorts (which had the most follow-up and most data available) from ages 10-30. It provides the most complete descriptive analyses of the criminal careers of these males to date. The three cohorts are commonly referred to as the Youngest, Middle, and Oldest cohorts, respectively. Consistent with several prior publications with the PYS data (Loeber et al., 2008), this book focuses only on data from the Youngest and Oldest cohorts as these cohorts were followed up the most frequently and have the longest time window of data available. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related fields like Sociology, Developmental Psychology, Social Policy, and Education.

Statistical Handbook on Violence in America


Author: Adam Dobrin
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: N.A
Category: Reference
Page: 394
View: 8466

Collects statistics on violent crime