How Apollo Flew to the Moon


Author: W. David Woods
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441971793
Category: Science
Page: 555
View: 928

Stung by the pioneering space successes of the Soviet Union - in particular, Gagarin being the first man in space, the United States gathered the best of its engineers and set itself the goal of reaching the Moon within a decade. In an expanding 2nd edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, David Woods tells the exciting story of how the resulting Apollo flights were conducted by following a virtual flight to the Moon and its exploration of the surface. From launch to splashdown, he hitches a ride in the incredible spaceships that took men to another world, exploring each step of the journey and detailing the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. While describing the tremendous technological accomplishment involved, he adds the human dimension by calling on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. He provides a wealth of fascinating and accessible material: the role of the powerful Saturn V, the reasoning behind trajectories, the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health between two worlds, the exploration of the lunar surface and the sheer daring involved in traveling to the Moon and the mid-twentieth century. Given the tremendous success of the original edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, the second edition will have a new chapter on surface activities, inspired by reader's comment on Amazon.com. There will also be additional detail in the existing chapters to incorporate all the feedback from the original edition, and will include larger illustrations.

How Apollo Flew to the Moon


Author: W. David Woods
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387740669
Category: Science
Page: 412
View: 9799

Between 1968 and 1972, twenty four daring men journeyed from Earth to the Moon. This fascinating book traces what was a massive accomplishment right from the early launches through manned orbital spaceflights, detailing each step. Out of the battlefields of World War II came the gifted German engineers and designers who developed the V-2 rocket, which evolved into the powerful Saturn V booster that propelled men to the Moon. David Woods tells this exciting story, starting from America’s postwar astronautical research facilities. The techniques and procedures developed have been recognised as an example of human exploration at its greatest, demonstrating a peak of technological excellence.

The Apollo Guidance Computer

Architecture and Operation
Author: Frank O'Brien
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441908773
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 440
View: 533

The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. In the 1960s most computers filled an entire room, but the spacecraft’s computer was required to be compact and low power. Although people today find it difficult to accept that it was possible to control a spacecraft using such a ‘primitive’ computer, it nevertheless had capabilities that are advanced even by today’s standards. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. As a comprehensive account, it will span the disciplines of computer science, electrical and aerospace engineering. However, it will also be accessible to the ‘space enthusiast’. In short, the intention is for this to be the definitive account of the Apollo guidance computer. Frank O’Brien’s interest in the Apollo program began as a serious amateur historian. About 12 years ago, he began performing research and writing essays for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, and the Apollo Flight Journal. Much of this work centered on his primary interests, the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) and the Lunar Module. These Journals are generally considered the canonical online reference on the flights to the Moon. He was then asked to assist the curatorial staff in the creation of the Cradle of Aviation Museum, on Long Island, New York, where he helped prepare the Lunar Module simulator, a LM procedure trainer and an Apollo space suit for display. He regularly lectures on the Apollo computer and related topics to diverse groups, from NASA's computer engineering conferences, the IEEE/ACM, computer festivals and university student groups.

The First Men on the Moon

The Story of Apollo 11
Author: David M. Harland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387495444
Category: Science
Page: 378
View: 9470

This book tells the story of Apollo 11 and dispels the myth that NASA faked the moon landings. The story is brought to life by exploiting the flight plan, mission report, in-flight transcripts (including conversations among the crew in the spacecraft that were not transmitted) and post-flight debriefing. It features scans recently produced by NASA of the original Hasselblad film. The final chapters discuss what was learned of the moon rocks, and reviews the follow-on missions. The author’s impressive expertise and knowledge of the Moon landings shines through and seamlessly unites the myriad details of the mission.

Apollo

The Definitive Sourcebook
Author: Richard W. Orloff,David M. Harland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387300436
Category: Nature
Page: 633
View: 2840

A complete resource for Apollo program information covers the technological and managerial setbacks, tracks the development of the Saturn rocket, and details each Apollo mission.

Countdown to a Moon Launch

Preparing Apollo for Its Historic Journey
Author: Jonathan H. Ward
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319177923
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 435
View: 7346

Thousands of workers labored at Kennedy Space Center around the clock, seven days a week, for half a year to prepare a mission for the liftoff of Apollo 11. This is the story of what went on during those hectic six months. Countdown to a Moon Launch provides an in-depth look at the carefully choreographed workflow for an Apollo mission at KSC. Using the Apollo 11 mission as an example, readers will learn what went on day by day to transform partially completed stages and crates of parts into a ready-to-fly Saturn V. Firsthand accounts of launch pad accidents, near misses, suspected sabotage, and last-minute changes to hardware are told by more than 70 NASA employees and its contractors. A companion to Rocket Ranch, it includes many diagrams and photographs, some never before published, to illustrate all aspects of the process. NASA’s groundbreaking use of computers for testing and advanced management techniques are also covered in detail. This book will demystify the question of how NASA could build and launch Apollo missions using 1960s technology. You’ll discover that there was no magic involved – just an abundance of discipline, willpower, and creativity.

Moon Lander

How We Developed the Apollo Lunar Module
Author: Thomas J. Kelly
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution
ISBN: 1588343618
Category: Science
Page: 304
View: 694

Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module. It was, he writes, “an aerospace engineer’s dream job of the century.” Kelly’s account begins with the imaginative process of sketching solutions to a host of technical challenges with an emphasis on safety, reliability, and maintainability. He catalogs numerous test failures, including propulsion-system leaks, ascent-engine instability, stress corrosion of the aluminum alloy parts, and battery problems, as well as their fixes under the ever-present constraints of budget and schedule. He also recaptures the exhilaration of hearing Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong report that “The Eagle has landed,” and the pride of having inadvertently provided a vital “lifeboat” for the crew of the disabled Apollo 13. From the Hardcover edition.

Rocket Ranch

The Nuts and Bolts of the Apollo Moon Program at Kennedy Space Center
Author: Jonathan H. Ward
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319177893
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 331
View: 9641

Jonathan Ward takes the reader deep into the facilities at Kennedy Space Center to describe NASA’s first computer systems used for spacecraft and rocket checkout and explain how tests and launches proceeded. Descriptions of early operations include a harrowing account of the heroic efforts of pad workers during the Apollo 1 fire. A companion to the author’s book Countdown to a Moon Launch: Preparing Apollo for Its Historic Journey, this explores every facet of the facilities that served as the base for the Apollo/Saturn missions. Hundreds of illustrations complement the firsthand accounts of more than 70 Apollo program managers and engineers. The era of the Apollo/Saturn missions was perhaps the most exciting period in American space exploration history. Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center were buzzing with activity. Thousands of workers came to town to build the facilities and launch the missions needed to put an American on the Moon before the end of the decade. Work at KSC involved much more than just launching rockets. It was a place like none other on Earth. Technicians performed intricate operations, and hazards abounded everywhere, including lightning, fire, highly-toxic fuels, snakes, heat, explosives, LOX spills, and even plutonium. The reward for months of 7-day workweeks under intense pressure was witnessing a Saturn V at liftoff. For anyone who ever wished they had worked at Kennedy Space Center during the Apollo era, this book is the next best thing. The only thing missing is the smell of rocket fuel in the morning.

Apollo

The Lost and Forgotten Missions
Author: David Shayler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781852335755
Category: Science
Page: 344
View: 959

Drawing upon combinations of archival documentation from the first four manned Apollo missions and future mission plans evolved in the summer of 1969, Apollo - The Lost and Forgotten Missions explains how the machines and the men were prepared for the landing on the moon and what would have followed the initial landings.

To Orbit and Back Again

How the Space Shuttle Flew in Space
Author: Davide Sivolella
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461409837
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 502
View: 1947

The Space Shuttle has been the dominant machine in the U.S. space program for thirty years and has generated a great deal of interest among space enthusiasts and engineers. This book enables readers to understand its technical systems in greater depth than they have been able to do so before. The author describes the structures and systems of the Space Shuttle, and then follows a typical mission, explaining how the structures and systems were used in the launch, orbital operations and the return to Earth. Details of how anomalous events were dealt with on individual missions are also provided, as are the recollections of those who built and flew the Shuttle. Many photographs and technical drawings illustrate how the Space Shuttle functions, avoiding the use of complicated technical jargon. The book is divided into two sections: Part 1 describes each subsystem in a technical style, supported by diagrams, technical drawings, and photographs to enable a better understanding of the concepts. Part 2 examines different flight phases, from liftoff to landing. Technical material has been obtained from NASA as well as from other forums and specialists. Author Davide Sivolella is an aerospace engineer with a life-long interest in space and is ideally qualified to interpret technical manuals for a wider audience. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the topic including the evolution of given subsystems, reviewing the different configurations, and focusing on the solutions implemented.

Digital Apollo

Human and Machine in Spaceflight
Author: David A. Mindell
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262266680
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 384
View: 3713

As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

Rocketman

Astronaut Pete Conrad's Incredible Ride to the Moon and Beyond
Author: Nancy Conrad,Howard A. Klausner
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781101099537
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 320
View: 5364

HE WAS THE THIRD MAN TO WALK ON THE MOON— BUT THE FIRST TO DANCE ON IT. HE WAS THE ROCKETMAN. For Pete Conrad, it was all about the ride. Whether he was hot-dogging at Mach 2, test-flying every supersonic jet the Navy developed (and some they shouldn’t have), orbiting the Earth at almost 20,000 mph, or redlining his Corvette, he loved pushing the envelope. Pete wasn’t the squeaky-clean astronaut poster boy. The guy every NASA pilot wanted to happy-hour with after work—and would kill to fly with—Pete had a natural outspokenness that got him washed out of the Mercury program. But the “Comeback Kid” came roaring back—flying two Gemini missions, walking on the Moon as commander of Apollo 12, commanding the first Skylab, and logging more time in space than all the original astronauts combined. This is a surprisingly candid insider’s view of the greatest ride in history: America’s glorious race to the stars, as seen through the eyes of a real space cowboy.

Stages to Saturn

A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicle
Author: Roger E. Bilstein
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 0788181866
Category:
Page: 511
View: 6717

A classic study of the development of the Saturn launch vehicle that took Americans to the Moon in the 1960s. This Saturn rocket was developed as a means of accomplishing President Kennedy1s 1961 commitment for the U.S. to reach the Moon before the end of the decade. This book not only tells the important story of the development of the Saturn rocket, and the people who designed and built it, but also recounts the stirring exploits of its operational life from orbital missions around Earth testing Apollo equipment to the Moon and back. Essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the development of space flight in America. Black and white photos.

Chariots for Apollo

The NASA History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft to 1969
Author: Courtney G. Brooks,James M. Grimwood,Loyd S. Swenson
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486140938
Category: Science
Page: 576
View: 2867

This illustrated history by a trio of experts is the definitive reference on the Apollo spacecraft and lunar modules. It traces the vehicles' design, development, and operation in space. More than 100 photographs and illustrations.

Apollo 12 - On the Ocean of Storms


Author: David M. Harland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441976079
Category: Science
Page: 522
View: 6630

In July 1969 the ‘amiable strangers’ that made up the crew of the historic Apollo 11 flight successfully achieved the first manned lunar landing. Several months later, three close friends set off on an even more challenging mission. Free of the burden of making history, the Apollo 12 astronauts were determined to really enjoy their experience while taking care of business. This is the story of their mission, told largely in their own words. Their exploits and accomplishments showed how conservative the inaugural mission had been. With its two moonwalks, deployment of the first geophysical station on the Moon, and geological sampling, Apollo 12 did what many had hoped would be achieved by the first men to land on the Moon. The Apollo 12 mission also spectacularly demonstrated the precision landing capability required for success in future lunar surface explorations. In addition to official documents, published prior to and after the mission, APOLLO 12 – ON THE OCEAN OF STORMS draws on the flight transcript and post-mission debriefing to recreate the drama.

Chariots for Apollo

The Untold Story Behind the Race to the Moon
Author: Charles R. Pellegrino,Joshua Stoff
Publisher: Quill
ISBN: 9780380802616
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 3287

Describes the design and construction of the lunar module, behind-the-scenes conflicts at NASA, and the drama of the Apollo Moon missions

Exploring the Moon

The Apollo Expeditions
Author: David M. Harland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387746418
Category: Science
Page: 404
View: 399

In this comprehensive overview of Man’s relationship with his planet’s nearest neighbor, David Harland opens with a review of the robotic probes, namely the Rangers which returned television before crashing into the Moon, the Surveyors which 'soft landed' in order to investigate the nature of the surface, and the Lunar Orbiters which mapped prospective Apollo landing sites. He then outlines the historic landing by Apollo 11 and the final three missions of comprehensive geological investigations. He concludes with a review of the robotic spacecraft that made remote-sensing observations of the Moon. This Commemorative Edition includes a foreword by one of the original astronauts as well as an extra section reviewing the prospect of renewed exploration there. New graphics and images are also included.

Doing the Impossible

George E. Mueller and the Management of NASA’s Human Spaceflight Program
Author: Arthur L. Slotkin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461437016
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 306
View: 2074

Apollo was known for its engineering triumphs, but its success also came from a disciplined management style. This excellent account of one of the most important personalities in early American human spaceflight history describes for the first time how George E. Mueller, the system manager of the human spaceflight program of the 1960s, applied the SPO methodology and other special considerations such as “all-up”testing, resulting in the success of the Apollo Program. Wernher von Braun and others did not readily accept such testing or Mueller’s approach to system management, but later acknowledged that without them NASA would not have landed astronauts on the Moon by 1969. While Apollo remained Mueller’s priority, from his earliest days at the agency, he promoted a robust post-Apollo Program which resulted in Skylab, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. As a result of these efforts, Mueller earned the sobriquet: “the father of the space shuttle.” Following his success at NASA, Mueller returned to industry. Although he did not play a leading role in human spaceflight again, in 2011 the National Air and Space Museum awarded him their lifetime achievement trophy for his contributions. Following the contributions of George E. Mueller, in this unique book Arthur L. Slotkin answers such questions as: exactly how did the methods developed for use in the Air Force ballistic missile programs get modified and used in the Apollo Program? How did George E. Mueller, with the help of others, manage the Apollo Program? How did NASA centers, coming from federal agencies with cultures of their own, adapt to the new structured approach imposed from Washington? George E. Mueller is the ideal central character for this book. He was instrumental in the creation of Apollo extension systems leading to Apollo, the Shuttle, and today’s ISS and thus was a pivotal figure in early American human spaceflight history.

The Saturn V F-1 Engine

Powering Apollo into History
Author: Anthony Young
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387096292
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 304
View: 6957

The launch of Sputnik in 1957 not only began the space age, it also showed that Soviet rockets were more powerful than American ones. Within months, the US Air Force hired Rocketdyne for a feasibility study of an engine capable of delivering at least 1 million pounds of thrust. Later, NASA ran the development of this F-1 engine in order to use it to power the first stage of the Saturn V rocket that would send Apollo missions to the Moon. It is no exaggeration to say that without the F-1 engine NASA would not have been able to achieve President Kennedy’s 1961 challenge to his nation to land a man on the Moon before the decade was out.

Gemini - Steps to the Moon


Author: David Shayler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781852334055
Category: Science
Page: 433
View: 2750

The Gemini program was a breakthrough in technology with the first spacecraft dockings and rendezvous. This book describes those events in detail from the perspective of the engineers, flight controllers and astronauts.