Infanticide

Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives
Author: Glenn Hausfater
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351512617
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 9129
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Recent field studies of a variety of mammalian species reveal a surprisingly high frequency of infanticide - the killing of unweaned or otherwise maternally dependent offspring. Similarly, studies of birds, fish, amphibians, and invertebrates demonstrate egg and larval mortality in these species, a phenomenon directly analogous to infanticide in mammals. In this collection, Hausfater and Hrdy draw together work on animal and human infanticide and place these studies in a broad evolutionary and comparative perspective.Infanticide presents the theoretical background and taxonomic distribution of infanticide, infanticide in nonhuman primates, infanticide in rodents, and infanticide in humans. It examines closely sex allocation and sex ratio theory, surveys the phylogeny of mammalian interbirth intervals, and reviews data on sources of egg and larval mortality in a variety of invertebrate and lower vertebrate species. Dealing with infanticide in nonhuman primates, two chapters critically examine data on infanticide in langurs and its broader theoretical implications. By reviewing sources of infant mortality in populations of small mammals and new laboratory analyses of the causes and consequences of infanticide, this work explores such issues as the ontogeny of infanticide, proximate cues of infants and females which elicit infanticidal behavior in males, the genetical basis of infanticide, and the hormonal determinants.Hausfater and Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, through their selection of materials for this book, evaluate the frequency, causes, and function of infanticide. Historical, ethnographic, and recent data on infanticide are surveyed. "Infanticide" summarizes current research on the evolutionary origins and proximate causation of infanticide in animals and man. As such it will be indispensable reading for anthropologists and behavioral biologists as well as ecologists, psychologists, demographers, and epidemiologists.

The Adapted Mind

Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture
Author: Jerome H. Barkow,Leda Cosmides,John Tooby
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195356472
Category: Science
Page: 688
View: 934
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Although researchers have long been aware that the species-typical architecture of the human mind is the product of our evolutionary history, it has only been in the last three decades that advances in such fields as evolutionary biology, cognitive psychology, and paleoanthropology have made the fact of our evolution illuminating. Converging findings from a variety of disciplines are leading to the emergence of a fundamentally new view of the human mind, and with it a new framework for the behavioral and social sciences. First, with the advent of the cognitive revolution, human nature can finally be defined precisely as the set of universal, species-typical information-processing programs that operate beneath the surface of expressed cultural variability. Second, this collection of cognitive programs evolved in the Pleistocene to solve the adaptive problems regularly faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors--problems such as mate selection, language acquisition, cooperation, and sexual infidelity. Consequently, the traditional view of the mind as a general-purpose computer, tabula rasa, or passive recipient of culture is being replaced by the view that the mind resembles an intricate network of functionally specialized computers, each of which imposes contentful structure on human mental organization and culture. The Adapted Mind explores this new approach--evolutionary psychology--and its implications for a new view of culture.

Unwanted Pregnancies and Public Policy

An International Perspective
Author: Héctor Correa
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781560721369
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 243
View: 5944
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Unwanted Pregnancies & Public Policy An International Perspective

Infanticide and Parental Care


Author: Stefano Parmigiani,Frederick S. Vom Saal
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9783718655052
Category: Science
Page: 496
View: 5648
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First Published in 1994. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Evolutionary Perspectives on Pregnancy


Author: John Avise
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231160607
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 7844
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Covering both the internal and external incubation of offspring, this book provides a biology-rich survey of the natural history, ecology, genetics, and evolution of pregnancy-like phenomena. From mammals and other live-bearing organisms to viviparous reptiles, male-pregnant fishes, larval-brooding worms, crabs, sea cucumbers, and corals, the world’s various species display pregnancy and other forms of parental devotion in surprisingly multifaceted ways. An adult female (or male) can incubate its offspring in a womb, stomach, mouth, vocal sac, gill chamber, epithelial pouch, backpack, leg pocket, nest, or an encasing of embryos, and by studying these diverse examples from a comparative vantage point, the ecological and evolutionary-genetic outcomes of different reproductive models become fascinatingly clear. John C. Avise discusses each mode of pregnancy and the decipherable genetic signatures it has left on the reproductive structures, physiologies, and innate sexual behaviors of extant species. By considering the many biological aspects of gestation from different evolutionary angles, Avise offers captivating new insights into the significance of “heavy” parental investment in progeny.

Ablehnung - Meidung - Ausschluß


Author: Margaret Gruter,Manfred Rehbinder
Publisher: Duncker & Humblot
ISBN: 9783428460151
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 822
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Mütter und andere

wie die Evolution uns zu sozialen Wesen gemacht hat
Author: Sarah Blaffer Hrdy
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783827008855
Category:
Page: 537
View: 496
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Vom Töten zum Mord

das wirkliche Böse in der Evolutionsgeschichte
Author: Christian Vogel
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ethics, Evolutionary
Page: 139
View: 6877
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Pedophilia

Biosocial Dimensions
Author: Jay R. Feierman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461396824
Category: Psychology
Page: 594
View: 480
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The Reason for this Volume If we were to judge the seriousness of a psychosocial problem by the attention that the popular media give to it, we would have to conclude that the modem world is in the midst of an epidemic of pedophilic child sexual abuse. One can scarcely go more than a few weeks in any large metropolitan area without reading about one of the community's upstanding citizens discovered to have been sexually involved with children or adolescents. The attention that the popular media give this topic is paralleled by the attention that it receives in the social sciences, where literally dozens of books and more than a thousand articles have been published on it in the past few years. In fact, "child sexual abuse," along with "co-dependency" and "dysfunctional family," have become the avant-garde psychological cliches of the decade. However, most of the lay and professional literature, although voluminous, reflect a narrow anthropo-, ethno-, and chronocentrism that precludes any real understanding of the topic with anything more than the preconceptions of our times.

Gender and Parenthood

Biological and Social Scientific Perspectives
Author: W. Bradford Wilcox,Kathleen Kovner Kline
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231530978
Category: Psychology
Page: 376
View: 3848
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The essays in this collection deploy biological and social scientific perspectives to evaluate the transformative experience of parenthood for today's women and men. They map the similar and distinct roles mothers and fathers play in their children's lives and measure the effect of gendered parenting on child well-being, work and family arrangements, and the quality of couples' relationships. Contributors describe what happens to brains and bodies when women become mothers and men become fathers; whether the stakes are the same or different for each sex; why, across history and cultures, women are typically more involved in childcare than men; why some fathers are strongly present in their children's lives while others are not; and how the various commitments men and women make to parenting shape their approaches to paid work and romantic relationships. Considering recent changes in men's and women's familial duties, the growing number of single-parent families, and the impassioned tenor of same-sex marriage debates, this book adds sound scientific and theoretical insight to these issues, constituting a standout resource for those interested in the causes and consequences of contemporary gendered parenthood.

Marriage and Family

Perspectives and Complexities
Author: H. Elizabeth Peters,Claire M. Kamp Dush
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231520026
Category: Social Science
Page: 448
View: 677
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Family life has been radically transformed over the past three decades. Half of all households are unmarried, while only a quarter of all married households have kids. A third of the nation's births are to unwed mothers, and a third of America's married men earn less than their wives. With half of all women cohabitating before they turn thirty and gay and lesbian couples settling down with increasing visibility, there couldn't be a better time for a book that tracks new conceptions of marriage and family as they are being formed. The editors of this volume explore the motivation to marry and the role of matrimony in a diverse group of men and women. They compare empirical data from several emerging family types (single, co-parent, gay and lesbian, among others) to studies of traditional nuclear families, and they consider the effect of public policy and recent economic developments on the practice of marriage and the stabilization or destabilization of family. Approaching this topic from a variety of perspectives, including historical, cross-cultural, gendered, demographic, socio-biological, and social-psychological viewpoints, the editors highlight the complexity of the modern American family and the growing indeterminacy of its boundaries. Refusing to adhere to any one position, the editors provide an unbiased account of contemporary marriage and family.

The Development of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behavior


Author: Marc Haug
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792322368
Category: Medical
Page: 493
View: 7364
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This varied and impressive volume is a record of the major presentations at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Development of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behavior held at Chateau de Bonas, Gers, France, July 14-18, 1992."

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit


Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Category: History
Page: 528
View: 555
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Internationales Handbuch der Gewaltforschung


Author: Wilhelm Heitmeyer,John Hagan
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3322803767
Category: Social Science
Page: 1583
View: 3877
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Die Forschung zur Gewalt in modernen westlichen Gesellschaften hat in den letzten Jahren zugenommen. Die Erklärungen dafür sind zahlreich: tatsächlicher Anstieg bei bestimmten Gewaltvarianten, neue Sensibilitäten, Rückkehr alter Gewaltformen, Verlagerung von Gewalt in andere gesellschaftliche Bereiche etc. Bisher fehlt jedoch ein systematischer Überblick über die tatsächlichen Entwicklungen. Das vorliegende Handbuch informiert umfassend über Gewalt als soziales Phänomen. Dabei wird fast allen Facetten dieses Themas Rechnung getragen: · Sozialstrukturelle Verhältnisse und Gewalt, · Sozialisation und Lernen von Gewalt, · Gewalterfahrungen und Gewalttätigkeit, · Gewaltopfer, · Gewalt in gesellschaftlichen Institutionen, · Gewalt durch politische Gruppen, · Gewaltdiskurse etc. In 62 Artikeln von Autorinnen und Autoren aus zehn Ländern liefert der Band ein komplexes, transdisziplinäres Bild eines Forschungsfeldes zwischen Ordnung, Zerstörung und Macht.

Records of the Zoological Survey of India


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Zoology
Page: N.A
View: 2118
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Animal Societies; Theories and Facts


Author: 伊藤嘉昭,Jerram L. Brown,Jiro Kikkawa
Publisher: International Specialized Book Service Incorporated
ISBN: N.A
Category: Animal societies
Page: 291
View: 9489
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The Biological Basis of Human Behavior

A Critical Review
Author: Robert W. Sussman
Publisher: Pearson College Division
ISBN: 9780137997350
Category: Psychology
Page: 382
View: 7520
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This collection of 59 recent studies on the biological basis of human behavior explores the questions of whether the behavioral patterns we see are genetically fixed or racially variable. It offers a broad perspective from many disciplines -- plus a critical evaluation of whether experts are now better able to answer these questions or whether this renewed interest is just a resurgence of the old racism and biological determinism of the past. The articles stimulate readers to think about the questions and read -- with a critical eye -- those writers who believe they have found a simple and simplistic answer to these very complex problems. Illustrates the growing awareness of the complex interrelationships between environmental and cultural influences on behavior in humans and other animals. Covers areas such as evolution, humans, and primates; the biological basis of human behavior; the biological basis of race and racism; the new Biological Determinism; the brain, hormones, and human behavior. Includes popular, scientific, good and bad approaches to the same themes. Uses critical examples which carefully evaluate alternate approaches, and evaluates the data available to reach various conclusions -- or lack thereof. For anyone interested in the biological basis of human behavior.

The Children's Culture Reader


Author: Henry Jenkins
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814742310
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 532
View: 2516
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Stock market euphoria and blind faith in the post cold war economy have driven the topic of poverty from popular and scholarly discussion in the United States. At the same time the gap between the rich and poor has never been wider. The New Poverty Studies critically examines the new war against the poor that has accompanied the rise of the New Economy in the past two decades, and details the myriad ways poor people have struggled against it. The essays collected here explore how global, national, and local structures of power produce poverty and affect the material well-being, social relations and politicization of the poor. In updating the 1960s encounter between ethnography and U.S. poverty, The New Poverty Studies highlights the ways poverty is constructed across multiple scales and multiple axes of difference. Questioning the common wisdom that poverty persists because of the pathology, social isolation and welfare state "dependency" of the poor, the contributors to The New Poverty Studies point instead to economic restructuring and neoliberal policy "reforms" which have caused increased social inequality and economic polarization in the U.S. Contributors include: Georges Fouron, Donna Goldstein, Judith Goode, Susan B. Hyatt, Catherine Kingfisher, Peter Kwong, Vin Lyon-Callo, Jeff Maskovsky, Sandi Morgen, Leith Mullings, Frances Fox Piven, Matthew Rubin, Nina Glick Schiller, Carol Stack, Jill Weigt, Eve Weinbaum, Brett Williams, and Patricia Zavella. "These contributions provide a dynamic understanding of poverty and immiseration" --North American Dialogue, Vol. 4, No. 1, Nov. 2001

Case Studies in Human Ecology


Author: Daniel G. Bates,Sarah H. Lees
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 147579584X
Category: Social Science
Page: 408
View: 8991
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This volume was developed to meet a much noted need for accessible case study material for courses in human ecology, cultural ecology, cultural geography, and other subjects increasingly offered to fulfill renewed student and faculty interest in environmental issues. The case studies, all taken from the journal Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Jouma~ represent a broad cross-section of contemporary research. It is tempting but inaccurate to sug gest that these represent the "Best of Human Ecology." They were selected from among many outstanding possibilities because they worked well with the organization of the book which, in turn, reflects the way in which courses in human ecology are often organized. This book provides a useful sample of case studies in the application of the perspective of human ecology to a wide variety of problems in dif ferent regions of the world. University courses in human ecology typically begin with basic concepts pertaining to energy flow, feeding relations, ma terial cycles, population dynamics, and ecosystem properties, and then take up illustrative case studies of human-environmental interactions. These are usually discussed either along the lines of distinctive strategies of food pro curement (such as foraging or pastoralism) or as adaptations to specific habitat types or biomes (such as the circumpolar regions or arid lands).