Interpreting TRIPS

Globalisation of Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines
Author: Hiroko Yamane
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318150
Category: Law
Page: 582
View: 4341
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Protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has become a global issue. The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement outlines the minimum standards for IPR protection for WTO members and offers a global regime for IPR protection. However, the benefits of TRIPS are more questionable in poorer countries where national infrastructure for research and development (R&D) and social protection are inadequate, whereas the cost of innovation is high. Today, after more than a decade of intense debate over global IPR protection, the problems remain acute, although there is also evidence of progress and cooperation. This book examines various views of the role of IPRs as incentives for innovation against the backdrop of development and the transfer of technology between globalised, knowledge-based, high technology economies. The book retraces the origins, content and interpretations of the TRIPS Agreement, including its interpretations by WTO dispute settlement organs. It also analyses sources of controversy over IPRs, examining pharmaceutical industry strategies of emerging countries with different IPR policies. The continuing international debate over IPRs is examined in depth, as are TRIPS rules and the controversy about implementing the 'flexibilities' of the Agreement in the light of national policy objectives. The author concludes that for governments in developing countries, as well as for their business and scientific communities, a great deal depends on domestic policy objectives and their implementation. IPR protection should be supporting domestic policies for innovation and investment. This, in turn requires a re-casting of the debate about TRIPS, to place cooperation in global and efficient R&D at the heart of concerns over IPR protection.

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

Impact of Changes in the IPR Regime
Author: Yaeko Mitsumori
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811067902
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 120
View: 4560
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This study analyzes the impact of the revision of the Indian Patent Act (2005) on the Indian pharmaceutical industry, which has been achieving healthy growth over the past 30 to 40 years or more. As of 2005, the Indian pharmaceutical industry was ranked as No. 4 in the world in terms of volume and 15th in terms of value. WTO/TRIPS required India to revise its patent law, however, and to introduce product patents in the pharmaceutical field. Many not only in India but also in the world had argued that the local pharmaceutical industry could deteriorate once a strong patent law (such as a product patent) was introduced. However, the Indian pharmaceutical industry has continued to develop rapidly even after the revision of the patent law in 2005. This present study started with efforts to work out the reason the Indian pharmaceutical industry successfully expanded even after the introduction of product patents. The study found that a unique article (the so-called '3-d‘) inserted in the Patent Act 2005 might have played a role in diminishing or preventing a negative impact from the introduction of a strong patent system, such as a product patents. The study also considers that a change of the business model adopted by the Indian pharmaceutical industry might have contributed to diminishing the effect of the negative impact from the introduction of a strong patent law. This study also covers recent developments in India regarding intellectual property rights and the pharmaceutical industry. One is India’s very first compulsory license granted to an Indian pharmaceutical company, Natco, against the large German pharmaceutical firm Bayer; and the second is the Supreme Court decision on Novartis’ Gleevec. The study analyzes the fundamental problems that caused these two events: access to medicine and gaps in the concept of intellectual property in the pharmaceutical industry. As possible solutions to these fundamental issues, this book explores the ideas of voluntary licensing and tiered pricing.

Die Vereinbarkeit des EU-Grenzbeschlagnahmeverfahrens mit dem TRIPS-Abkommen

Eine Untersuchung unter Einbeziehung der Verfahrensumsetzung in Deutschland
Author: Nora Louisa Hesse
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3161559932
Category: Law
Page: 285
View: 733
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Basierend auf dem durch Verordnung Nr. 608/2013 neu ausgestalteten Grenzbeschlagnahmeverfahren der Europäischen Union können Zollbeamte der Mitgliedstaaten auf Antrag der Berechtigten Waren festhalten, die die EU-Außengrenzen überqueren und bei denen der Verdacht besteht, dass sie Gegenstand von Immaterialgüterrechtsverletzungen sein könnten. Das Verfahren ist für Rechtsinhaber ein wichtiges Mittel, um die Durchsetzung eventueller Ansprüche sicherzustellen, die ihnen aus Verletzungen ihrer Schutzrechte zustehen. Jedoch ist in den letzten Jahren bemängelt worden, dass das europäische Grenzbeschlagnahmeverfahren unausgeglichen sei und keine ausreichenden Schutzmechanismen zugunsten der Handeltreibenden vorsehe, deren Waren ohne vorherige Feststellung einer Schutzrechtsverletzung festgehalten werden. Die Autorin untersucht, wie das Verfahren nach der aktuellen europäischen Grenzbeschlagnahmeverordnung in Deutschland umgesetzt wird und inwieweit es noch mit den verpflichtenden Vorschriften des TRIPS-Abkommens vereinbar ist.

Public Health in International Investment Law and Arbitration


Author: Valentina Vadi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415507499
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 224
View: 7458
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Is a State free to adopt measures to protect the public health of its citizens? If so, what are the limits, if any, to such regulatory powers? This book addresses these questions by focusing on the clash between the regulatory autonomy of the state and international investment governance. As a wide variety of state regulations allegedly aimed at protecting public health may interfere with foreign investments, a tension exists between the public health policies of the host state and investment treaty provisions. Under most investment treaties, States have waived their sovereign immunity, and have agreed to give arbitrators a comprehensive jurisdiction over what are essentially regulatory disputes. Some scholars and practitioners have expressed concern regarding the magnitude of decision-making power allocated to investment treaty tribunals. This book contributes to the current understanding of international investment law and arbitration, addressing the fundamental question of whether public health has and/or should have any relevance in contemporary international investment law and policy. With a focus on the 'clash of cultures' between international investment law and public health, the author critically analyses the emerging case law of investment treaty arbitration and considers the theoretical interplay between public health and investor rights in international investment law. The book also explores the interplay between investment law and public health in practice, focusing on specific sectors such as pharmaceutical patents, tobacco regulation and environmental health. It then goes on to analyze the available means for promoting consideration of public health in international investment law and suggests new methods and approaches to better reconcile public health and investor rights.

Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation

Intersections Between Public Health, Intellectual Property and Trade
Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Intellectual Property Organization
ISBN: N.A
Category: Law
Page: 257
View: 9379
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"This publication is the product of extensive collaboration between the WHO, WIPO and WTO Secretariats .... Research, authoring and substantive review was done by: Hans Georg Bartels [and six others]"--Page 6.

The Globalization and Development Reader

Perspectives on Development and Global Change
Author: J. Timmons Roberts,Amy Bellone Hite,Nitsan Chorev
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118735382
Category: Political Science
Page: 632
View: 6197
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This revised and updated second edition of The Globalization and Development Reader builds on the considerable success of a first edition that has been used around the world. It combines selected readings and editorial material to provide a coherent text with global coverage, reflecting new theoretical and empirical developments. Main text and core reference for students and professionals studying the processes of social change and development in “third world” countries. Carefully excerpted materials facilitate the understanding of classic and contemporary writings Second edition includes 33 essential readings, including 21 new selections New pieces cover the impact of the recession in the global North, global inequality and uneven development, gender, international migration, the role of cities, agriculture and on the governance of pharmaceuticals and climate change politics Increased coverage of China and India help to provide genuinely global coverage, and for a student readership the materials have been subject to a higher degree of editing in the new edition Includes a general introduction to the field, and short, insightful section introductions to each reading New readings include selections by Alexander Gershenkron, Alice Amsden, Amartya Sen, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Cecile Jackson, Dani Rodrik, David Harvey, Greta Krippner, Kathryn Sikkink, Leslie Sklair, Margaret E. Keck, Michael Burawoy, Nitsan Chorev, Oscar Lewis, Patrick Bond, Peter Evans, Philip McMichael, Pranab Bardhan, Ruth Pearson, Sarah Babb, Saskia Sassen, and Steve Radelet

World Health Organization


Author: Gian Luca Burci,Claude-Henri Vignes
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041122737
Category: Law
Page: 256
View: 984
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The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1946, as an essential step in the construction of a postwar system of international cooperation. The authors, a former legal counsel of WHO and senior official of WHO's legal office, have written a thorough and systematic review of WHO in its changing historical and political context, aiming in particular at practitioners and scholars without a specific medical background.

An International Law Perspective on the Protection of Human Rights in the TRIPS Agreement

An Interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement in Relation to the Right to Health
Author: Ping Xiong
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004211977
Category: Law
Page: 368
View: 5980
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This book analyses the relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the right to health and relevant human rights norms by using the tools of treaty interpretation of public international law.

The Law of Globalization

An Introduction
Author: Laurence Boulle
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 904112828X
Category: Law
Page: 421
View: 9378
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There is a growing clamour - particularly from the main beneficiaries of globalization - that rules need to be established to govern the international economy, with a specific focus on questions such as copyright violations, trade sanctions and protections for foreign investment. Those who perceive they are disadvantaged by globalization demand other legal protections in relation to employment, cultural traditions and the environment.

Archiv des Völkerrechts


Author: Walter Schätzel,Hans Wehberg,Hans Jürgen Schlochauer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: International law
Page: N.A
View: 5747
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Public Policy in International Economic Law

The ICESCR in Trade, Finance, and Investment
Author: Diane Desierto
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191026484
Category: Law
Page: 432
View: 3304
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States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.

Globalization and access to drugs

perspectives on the WTO/TRIPS agreement
Author: Action Programme on Essential Drugs and Vaccines (World Health Organization)
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Page: 98
View: 8962
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New Medicines, the Practice of Medicine, and Public Policy

A Strategic View of how Innovation in the Development of Medicine Will Impact on the Practice of Medicine and the Delivery of Healthcare During the Next Two Decades
Author: Sir Richard Sykes
Publisher: Stationery Office Books (TSO)
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medical innovations
Page: 202
View: 1288
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This essay - by the chairman of Glaxo Wellcome Plc - takes a strategic view of how innovation in the development of medicines will impact on the practice of medicine and the delivery of healthcare in the first two decades of the 21st century. It opens with a brief review of the impact of modern medicines on society and goes on to describe some of the new processes that are transforming the processes of medicines and what this will mean for the biopharmaceutical industry, and consequently medical practice. A vision of how medical practice could develop and policy issues related to this are discussed in further chapters. The emphasis in the book is on global developments and global issues using country-specific examples only when necessary. A broad industry perspective is also taken.

Intellectual property rights under globalisation


Author: Talwar Sabanna
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9788183870153
Category: Law
Page: 243
View: 5221
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Human Rights and Capitalism

A Multidisplinary Perspective on Globalisation
Author: Janet Dine,Andrew Fagan
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 372
View: 8700
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Human Rights and Capitalism brings together two important facets of the globalisation debate and examines the complex relationship between human rights, property rights and capitalist economies.

Die Chancen der Globalisierung


Author: Joseph Stiglitz
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
ISBN: 3641051304
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 448
View: 1549
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Wir wissen, was an der Globalisierung faul ist. Joseph Stiglitz sagt uns, wie sie funktionieren kann. Der Nobelpreisträger Joseph Stiglitz kehrt mit diesem Buch zurück zu den Fragen seines Bestsellers »Die Schatten der Globalisierung«. Er untersucht, welche Veränderungen die Weltwirtschaftsordnung in den letzten Jahren erlebt hat und erläutert die großen politischen Herausforderungen, vor denen wir heute stehen. Vor allem entwickelt er seine Vision einer gerechteren Zukunft und zeigt konkrete Wege aus der Globalisierungsfalle auf. Der weltweite Wohlstand nimmt infolge der Globalisierung zwar insgesamt zu, doch auch das Gefälle zwischen Reich und Arm wird immer größer. Seitdem Stiglitz mit seinem Bestseller „Die Schatten der Globalisierung“ für Furore sorgte, hat sich das Bewusstsein für dieses Ungleichgewicht und für die Gefahren sozialer Ungerechtigkeit geschärft. Doch den zahlreichen Bekenntnissen für eine gerechtere Welt müssen nun politische Taten folgen. An diesem Punkt setzt das neue Buch des Wirtschaftsnobelpreisträgers an. Auf der Grundlage seiner wissenschaftlichen Forschung und seiner Erfahrungen in der politischen Praxis zeigt Stiglitz, wie die Chancen für positive Veränderungen, die in der fortschreitenden Globalisierung liegen, genutzt werden können. Dabei spricht er zahlreiche Themen an, die uns in Europa, in den USA aber auch in den sich entwickelnden Ländern auf den Nägeln brennen. Ob es um weltweites Outsourcing geht oder um Energieprobleme, die notwenige Reform des weltweiten Währungssystems oder die Kontrolle transnationaler Konzerne – stets behält Stiglitz das Machbare im Auge. Joseph Stiglitz ist Nobelpreisträger und auch hierzulande ein gefragter Autor.

Regional Strategy for Improving Access to Essential Medicines in the Western Pacific Region, 2005-2010


Author: World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medical
Page: 40
View: 6749
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The Regional Committee for the Western Pacific Region examined the access to essential medicines for the coming years 2005-2010, based on present strategies and policies. Such strategies and policies need to ensure that the medicines get to the areas and peoples who need them the most. The Committee expressed concerns about the present lack of access to important medicines, irrational use of medicines to deal with certain medical situations and the poor quality of some of the pharmaceutical products being supplied. These failings often contribute further to the public health problems that exist in some areas of the world. Regional strategies need to complement the WHO global strategy, covering such areas as rational selection and use, affordable prices and sustainable financing.

The McGill international journal of sustainable development law and policy


Author: McGill University. Faculty of Law
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: N.A
View: 8623
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Health, Rights and Globalisation


Author: Belinda Bennett
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780754625902
Category: Law
Page: 403
View: 8469
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This volume draws together essays from leading scholars on the challenges that arise for health, law, policy and ethics at the intersections of health, rights and globalization.

Die globale Regulierung geistiger Eigentumsrechte

Interessen, Strategien und Einfluss Brasiliens, Indiens und Chinas
Author: Ruth Knoblich
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658037253
Category: Political Science
Page: 159
View: 5850
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Angesichts des Aufstiegs von Staaten wie Brasilien, Indien und China zu neuen Wissensmächten fragt das Buch nach den Konsequenzen, die diese Dynamik für die globale Regulierung geistiger Eigentumsrechte mit sich bringen könnte und prüft entlang des Fallbeispiels 'Zugangsregelungen zu genetischen Ressourcen und dem Schutz traditionellen Wissens' den Einfluss der BIC-Staaten auf das bestehende internationale Schutzsystem.