Iran, before and after Khomeini

a study in the dialectics of Shi'ism and modernity
Author: S. M. A. Sayeed
Publisher: N.A
Category: History
Page: 340
View: 914

Navigating Iran

From Carter to Obama
Author: O. Seliktar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137010886
Category: Political Science
Page: 228
View: 4050
This book provides the first full account of America's relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran from Jimmy Carter's presidency to Barack Obama's. It discusses all major facets of Iranian policy of interest to the United States: nuclear proliferation, revolutionary export and support for international terrorism, efforts to undermine the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, and violations of human rights. It compares developments in Iran to their perception in Washington, providing the clearest picture available yet of the discrepancies between the complex and elusive Iranian reality and its understanding in the United States.

Die Vernetzung der Welt

Ein Blick in unsere Zukunft
Author: Eric Schmidt,Jared Cohen
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644030618
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 7706
Welche Konsequenzen wird es haben, wenn in Zukunft die überwiegende Mehrheit der Weltbevölkerung online ist? Wenn Informationstechnologien so allgegenwärtig sind wie Elektrizität? Was bedeutet das für die Politik, die Wirtschaft – und für uns selbst? Diese Fragen beantwortet ein außergewöhnliches Autorenduo: Eric Schmidt, der Mann, der Google zu einem Weltunternehmen gemacht hat, und Jared Cohen, ehemaliger Berater von Hillary Clinton und Condoleezza Rice und jetzt Chef von Googles Denkfabrik. In diesem aufregenden Buch führen sie uns die Chancen und Gefahren jener eng vernetzten Welt vor Augen, die die meisten von uns noch erleben werden. Es ist die sehr konkrete Vision einer Zukunft, die bereits begonnen hat. Und ein engagiertes Plädoyer dafür, sie jetzt zu gestalten – weil Technologie der leitenden Hand des Menschen bedarf, um Positives zu bewirken.

Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution

Author: Misagh Parsa
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813514123
Category: History
Page: 348
View: 5670

Mein Iran

Ein Leben zwischen Hoffnung und Revolution
Author: Shirin Ebadi
Publisher: Piper ebooks
ISBN: 3492975437
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 304
View: 8836
Seit Jahrzehnten setzt sich Shirin Ebadi für Menschenrechte und eine Reform der iranischen Gesellschaft ein. In »Mein Iran« erzählt die Friedensnobelpreisträgerin von den frühen Jahren ihres politischen Engagements, ihrer Zeit als Richterin, den Demütigungen und Schikanen durch die islamische Revolution bis hin zu ihrer Verhaftung und ihrem dennoch fortwährenden Kampf. Ein beeindruckendes Zeugnis politischen Muts und ein tiefer Einblick in die Strukturen eines gespaltenen Landes.

The Iranian Revolution

The Islamic Revolution That Reshaped the Middle East
Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781985644410
Page: 104
View: 9723
*Includes pictures *Profiles Ayatollah Khomeini and his ideology and leadership before, during, and after the Revolution *Highlights the causes, key events, and effects of the Revolution *Includes footnotes and a bibliography for further reading The Iranian Revolution of 1979 has been described as an epochal event, called the peak of 20th century Islamic revivalism and revitalization, and analyzed as the one key incident that continues to impact politics across Iran, the Middle East, and the even the world as a whole. As a phenomenon that led to the creation of the first modern Islamic Republic in the world, the revolution marked the victory of Islam over secular politics, and Iran quickly became the aspiring model for Islamic fundamentalists and revivalists across the globe, regardless of nationality, culture, or religious sect. When Ayatollah Khomeini was declared ruler in December 1979 and the judicial system originally modeled on that of the West was swiftly replaced by one purely based on Islamic law, much of the world was in shock that such a religiously driven revolution could succeed so quickly, especially when it had such sweeping consequences beyond the realm of religion. Revolutions are nothing new, but most revolutions, especially those in the West, have tended to remain secular. Even when religious ideology and themes were present, as in the English Civil War of the 1640s, these were not dominant driving forces behind the revolution, nor were they a significant factor in its immediate results. Even outside the West, this has mostly proven to be true; the nationalist revolution and war for independence in Turkey, led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, was a battle for separation of church and state that called for democratic principles of equality, and the result was the formation of a modern and secular Turkey. However, the revolution that swept across Iran proved to be starkly different from past revolutions of the world. Its most influential leaders came from the orthodox clergy, and its most pronounced important goals were the ouster of the monarch, who was deemed anti-Islam and blasphemous, and the complete return of Iranian government and society to fundamental Islamic principles. As one of the leading scholars on Iran, Nikki R. Keddie, wrote, this revolution was "aberrant," refusing to fit into the theoretical and academic ideas of what modern revolutions should be like. Yet, there is no doubt that the Iranian Revolution ultimately led to a complete overhaul and restructuring of the age-old political, economic, social, religious, and ideological orders in Iran. Former Iranian Finance Minister Jahangir Amuzegar put it aptly, "The historical oddity, if not uniqueness, of the Iranian revolution can be seen in its four salient features: its unforeseen rapid rise; its wide base of urban support; its vague ideological character; and, above all, its ultimate singular objective, to oust the Shah." Furthermore, while the focus of the revolution was primarily about Islam, the revolution was also colored by disdain for the West, distaste for autocracy, and a yearning for religious and cultural identity. Though these are features of many other revolutions, the Iranian one was particularly unprecedented in the suddenness and rapidity of its occurrence, as well as the sheer amount of mass popular support it gained. Much of the world, including the U.S. and its Western allies, were initially caught off guard by the sudden occurrence and unanticipated strength of the revolution. The Islamic Revolution That Reshaped the Middle East explores the events leading up to the Iranian Revolution, as well as the political, economic, social, and religious characteristics of Iran before 1979. It also looks at the revolution and the lasting influence it has had both domestically and globally.

The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution

Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution
Author: Fereydoun Hoveyda
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313039194
Category: History
Page: 136
View: 4360
Twenty-two years after Ayatollah Khomeini's ascent to power in Iran many aspects of his 1979 Islamic revolution remain obscure if not baffling. For instance, in November 1978 an offer was made to him in his Paris exile to return to Iran with international guarantees of freedom of speech and action. He refused and demanded the departure of the Shah. Americans put pressure on the monarch to leave the country. Khomeini arrived in Tehran in early February 1979, and he immediately demanded the return of the Shah and his trial before an Islamic tribunal! No one could give a valid explanation of this contradiction in Khomeini's conduct and demands. Many other mysteries in the unfolding of the revolution and the policies of the Islamic republic which replaced the monarchy have gone unexplained up to now. Scholars and experts in the West have offered the usual explanations for the Islamic revolution-corruption, deepening gaps between the rich and the poor, rapid industrialization, sky-rocketing inflation, westernizing policies that offended traditions, lack of democratic institutions, authoritarian rule, and on and on. But such characteristics which exist in other Muslim countries, especially in the Arab world, fail to clairify the particularities of the Iranian revolution. Indeed, as Ambassador Hoveyda points out, Iran is not an Arab country. It has kept alive its ancient mythological heritage which is not Islamic. It is an Indo-European nation with a recorded history of three thousand years! To understand the real causes of the 1979 revolution one must refer to the deep-rooted beliefs of Iranians and to their very rich mythology. One must also take into account the kind of Islam-shiism-Iranians have created and nurtured. In fact, Iran is a powerful example of how mythologies remain alive and can account for the conduct of a whole nation. Hoveyda shows the influence of myths in history-in-the-making. Indeed, he has found in the Iranian revolution many points that can be clarified only by the impact of old mythology and mindsets. He provides a very original explanation of the events that led to the fall of the Shah and the ascent of Khomeini, changing the political and diplomatic situation in the Middle East, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea region. As such it will be of great interest to scholars, students, researchers, and foreign policy makers involved with the Middle East and Islamic fundamentalism.

Die Prinzipien von Staat und Regierung im Islam

Author: Muhammad Asad
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783941910034
Page: 158
View: 1119

Nicht ohne meine Tochter

Sie wird von ihrem persischen Ehemann in Teheran festgehalten.. Sie hätte fliehen können, ihre Tochter aber sollte sie zurücklassen ...
Author: Betty Mahmoody
ISBN: 3732510158
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 540
View: 7139
Nichts ahnend fliegt Betty Mahmoody zusammen mit ihrer kleinen Tochter und ihrem persischen Ehemann für einen zweiwöchigen Aufenthalt in den Iran. Bereits nach wenigen Tagen muss sie feststellen, dass ihr Mann sich immer mehr verändert. Er schlägt sie und ihre Tochter und sperrt sie ein. Von einer Rückkehr in die USA ist nicht mehr die Rede. Als es Betty gelingt, Kontakt zur Schweizer Botschaft aufzunehmen, erfährt sie, dass sie das Land nur ohne ihre Tochter verlassen kann. Das aber will sie unter keinen Umständen...

After Khomeini

Iran Under His Successors
Author: Said Amir Arjomand
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199745760
Category: Political Science
Page: 280
View: 2245
For many Americans, Iran is our most dangerous enemy--part of George W. Bush's "axis of evil" even before the appearance of Ahmadinejad. But what is the reality? How did Ahmadinejad rise to power, and how much power does he really have? What are the chances of normalizing relations with Iran? In After Khomeini, Sa?d Amir Arjomand paints a subtle and perceptive portrait of contemporary Iran. This work, a sequel to Arjomand's acclaimed The Turban for the Crown, examines Iran under the successors of Ayatollah Khomeini up to the present day. He begins, as the Islamic Republic did, with Khomeini, offering a brilliant capsule biography of the man who masterminded the revolution that overthrew the Shah. Arjomand draws clear distinctions between the moderates of the initial phrase of the revolution, radicals, pragmatists, and hardliners, the latter best exemplified by Mahmud Ahmadinejad. Taking a chronological and thematic approach, he traces the emergence and consolidation of the present system of collective rule by clerical councils and the peaceful transition to dual leadership by the ayatollah as the supreme guide and the subordinate president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. He explains the internal political quarrels among Khomeini's heirs as a struggle over his revolutionary legacy. And he outlines how the ruling clerical elite and the nation's security forces are interdependent politically and economically, speculating on the potential future role of the Revolutionary Guards. Bringing the work up to current political events, Arjomand analyzes Iran's foreign policy as well, including the impact of the fall of Communism on Iran and Ahmadinejad's nuclear policy. Few countries loom larger in American foreign relations than Iran. In this rich and insightful account, an expert on Iranian society and politics untangles the complexities of a nation still riding the turbulent wake of one of history's great revolutions.

Foucault and the Iranian Revolution

Gender and the Seductions of Islamism
Author: Janet Afary,Kevin B. Anderson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226007878
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 4973
In 1978, as the protests against the Shah of Iran reached their zenith, philosopher Michel Foucault was working as a special correspondent for Corriere della Sera and le Nouvel Observateur. During his little-known stint as a journalist, Foucault traveled to Iran, met with leaders like Ayatollah Khomeini, and wrote a series of articles on the revolution. Foucault and the Iranian Revolution is the first book-length analysis of these essays on Iran, the majority of which have never before appeared in English. Accompanying the analysis are annotated translations of the Iran writings in their entirety and the at times blistering responses from such contemporaneous critics as Middle East scholar Maxime Rodinson as well as comments on the revolution by feminist philosopher Simone de Beauvoir. In this important and controversial account, Janet Afary and Kevin B. Anderson illuminate Foucault's support of the Islamist movement. They also show how Foucault's experiences in Iran contributed to a turning point in his thought, influencing his ideas on the Enlightenment, homosexuality, and his search for political spirituality. Foucault and the Iranian Revolution informs current discussion on the divisions that have reemerged among Western intellectuals over the response to radical Islamism after September 11. Foucault's provocative writings are thus essential for understanding the history and the future of the West's relationship with Iran and, more generally, to political Islam. In their examination of these journalistic pieces, Afary and Anderson offer a surprising glimpse into the mind of a celebrated thinker.

After Khomeini

The Iranian Second Republic
Author: Anoushiravan Ehteshami
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134838859
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 9482
For Iran the years since Ayatollah Khomeini's death have been dominated by the need for political consolidation and economic reconstruction. The book assesses the critical dilemmas of the regime both previous to and since the demise of its first spiritual leader. The vital issues of political succession and constitutional reform are addressed, contributing to an analysis of the structures and politics of power. How these have reflected upon economic policy is considered with close atttention being given to the reform policies of Rafsanjani. Foreign policy and security issues are discussed in both regional and global terms and include a study of Iranian defence strategy and its controversial re-armament drive. The final chapter examines the direction and context of all of these major policy areas, providing an analysis of whether the Islamic Republic truly represents a revolutionary alternative for the Third World or whether in fact it has developed in time to fall within a similar mould to other notable revolutions, casting by the wayside any uniquely Islamic agenda and alternatives. At the heart of this study is the belief that the Islamic regime has, since the cease-fire with Iraq, but more specifically since Ayatollah Khomeini's death passed into a new stage of development, referred to in the book as the `Second Republic'.

Iran After the Revolution

Crisis of an Islamic State
Author: Saeed Rahnema,Sohrab Behdad
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860641282
Category: History
Page: 292
View: 933
In this work writers on Iran explore the ideological and political divisions within the Islamic movement and explain the post-revolutionary period in terms of economic policy, education, attitudes to women, and national and religious policies.

Khomeini’S Warriors

Foundation of Iran’S Regime, Its Guardians, Allies Around the World, War Analysis, and Strategies
Author: Mehran Riazaty
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1514470314
Category: Political Science
Page: 600
View: 1306
This book analyzes Ayatollah Khomeinis ideology, Irans official and unofficial armed forces, and its allies throughout the world and provides photographs of the regimes predominant actors. Since 1892, the Shia clergy has played a major role in Iran, such as the tobacco boycott, which led to the withdrawal of the concession given by the Shah to British citizens, Irans Constitutional Revolution of 1906, as well as organizing opposition to the Shahs policies in the 1979 revolution. Ayatollah Khomeini was a lecturer at Hawza Ilmiyya (Shia seminary of traditional Islamic school of higher learning) of Najaf and Qom for decades before he came on to the Iranian political scene. In 1977, Khomeini assumed the mantle of leadership within the Islamist opposition after the death of Ali Shariati, a leftist intellectual and one of the most influential Iranian Muslim thinkers of his generation. In 1930, Shariati contributed a new line of thinking in Iran, through his reinterpretation of jihad and shahadat (martyrdom), which was presented in his view of an authentic Islam. Shariatis new authentic Islam centered on a reinterpretation of the story of Karbala, where Imam Hussein was martyred in a battle, refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid, the Umayyad caliph. Shariati borrowed the Christian concept of martyrdom from the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus as the basis of his new Islamic philosophy. Shariati wrote that when faced with the possibility of ones own death, one must adopt an attitude of freedom-toward-death and thereby experience authentic living. In 1978, Ayatollah Khomeinis reinterpretation of Shia rituals removed the borders between the audience and the actors, turning the entire country into a stage for his casting. He imbued the old passion of the story of Karbala with a new passionate hatred for the Shahs unjust rule in Iran, as well as Israels and the United Statess influences within the world. Khomeinis memory of Dr. Mohammed Mosaddegh, whose government was toppled by the CIA in 1953, returning the Shah to Iran, resulted in the rise of various political groups such as nationalists, liberals, secularists, and Marxists. These groups were essential in assisting Khomeinis overthrow of the Shah, though they were soon stomped out by the creation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) in May 1979 in order to protect Khomeinis unique brand of a Shia Islamic Revolution. The Iran-Iraq War initiated the rapid expansion of the IRGCs size and capabilities. In September 1980, the IRGC had only 30,000 men in lightly armed units. Prior to the war, the IRGC personnel were very young in age and had little to no military experience. By the summer of 1981, the IRGC had organized basic training centers with experienced commanders and a select group of regular officers. They also had 50,000 members, and its strength would jump to 100,000 in 1983 and 250,000 in 1985. In order to meet all its manpower needs on the Iraq war front, the IRGC then turned to its volunteer militia, the Basij. The Basij members provided more troops than the IRGC could arm. The average Basij member came from Irans rural areas and can be described as poor, uneducated, and ranged in age from twelve to thirty years old. Like the IRGC, the Basij members are motivated by both religion and ideology. After the Iran-Iraq War, the IRGC focused on external threats as the Basij increased its involvement in domestic affairs. In past years, the Basij militia has been active in controlling public gatherings and disrupting demonstrations by civil or student activists.

Iran and Christianity

Historical Identity and Present Relevance
Author: Mark Bradley
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 144111114X
Category: Religion
Page: 210
View: 7311
In this enlightening study Mark Bradley looks at the growing underground church in Iran. Given the hostility of the regime, it is often assumed that Christianity is withering in Iran, but in fact more Iranian Muslims have become Christians in the last 25 years than since the seventh century, when Islam first came to Iran. Beginning with an in-depth look at the historical identity of Iran, religiously, culturally and politically, Bradley shows how this identity makes Iranians inclined towards Christianity. He goes on to look at the impact of the 1979 revolution, an event which has brought war, economic chaos and totalitarianism to Iran, and its implications for Iranian faith. The study concludes with an analysis of church growth since 1979 and an examination of the emerging underground church. This is a fascinating work, guaranteed to improve any reader's knowledge of not only Iranian faith and church growth, but of Iranian culture and history as a whole thanks to the thorough treatment given to the country's background.

The Pragmatic Entente

Israeli-Iranian Relations, 1948-1988
Author: Sohrab Sobhani
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
Category: Political Science
Page: 179
View: 8545
The Pragmatic Entente is the first comprehensive work on the long-standing yet ever-changing relationship between Israel and Iran. Sobhani draws on first-hand accounts of individuals involved in Israeli-Iranian relations before and after the 1979 arrival of Khomeini in Tehran. He studies this relationship against the complex background of Middle East politics. Sobhani's interviews with many former Iranian officials reveal much new information explaining why Iran and Israel act the way they do and why their interests have converged over the last 40 years. He concludes with a discussion of future Israeli-Iranian relations, examining the reasons why the Teheran-Tel Aviv axis will continue to be an enduring feature of the Middle Eastern power configuration.

Minorities in Iran

Nationalism and Ethnicity after Khomeini
Author: R. Elling
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137047801
Category: Political Science
Page: 267
View: 2773
Based on the premise that nationalism is a dominant factor in Iranian identity politics despite the significant changes brought about by the Islamic Revolution, this cross-disciplinary work investigates the languages of nationalism in contemporary Iran through the prism of the minority issue.

Iran under the Ayatollahs (Routledge Revivals)

Author: Dilip Hiro
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135043817
Category: History
Page: 438
View: 4376
First published in 1985, this is a comprehensive study of the Middle East's most strategic country, set against the background of the Islamic heritage of Iran and the rise and fall of the Pahlavi dynasty. Dilip Hiro describes the various phases through which the Islamic revolution has passed, gives an incisive account of the first Gulf War, and provides an historical survey of Iran's relations with the West, the Soviet bloc, and other countries of the region.