Islam and Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Sunni and Shia Perspectives
Author: Marcia C. Inhorn,Soraya Tremayne
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857454900
Category: Medical
Page: 338
View: 659
How and to what extent have Islamic legal scholars and Middle Eastern lawmakers, as well as Middle Eastern Muslim physicians and patients, grappled with the complex bioethical, legal, and social issues that are raised in the process of attempting to conceive life in the face of infertility? This path-breaking volume explores the influence of Islamic attitudes on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and reveals the variations in both the Islamic jurisprudence and the cultural responses to ARTs.

Islam and New Kinship

Reproductive Technology and the Shariah in Lebanon
Author: Morgan Clarke
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781845454326
Category: Law
Page: 249
View: 4022
Providing a ground-breaking investigation into the changing ideas of kinship in the Middle East, the author documents Islamic responses to assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization through fieldwork in Lebanon and the extensive reading of Islamic legal texts. This ethnography is brought to bear on the latest theories of Middle Eastern kinship, as well as the “new kinship” studies in anthropology generally. Lebanon is home to both Sunni and Shiite Muslims, and the book thus provides a full account of both schools of legal opinion: in the case of the latter, a number of the leading Shiite authorities are considered, including Ayatollah Khamene'i, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Lebanon's own Ayatollah Fadlallah, and Ayatollah Sistani of Iraq. The debates centre on the moral propriety of such controversial procedures as the use of donor sperm and eggs and surrogacy arrangements, allowed by some authorities in surprising and innovative legal arguments that challenge common stereotypes of Islamic law, and lead the author to question conventional contrasts between “liberal” and Islamic notions of moral freedom.

Ethics of Assisted Reproductive Medicine

A Comparative Study of Western and lslamic Bioethics
Author: Sharmin Islam
Publisher: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
ISBN: 1565645618
Category: Bioethics
Page: 220
View: 3411
Ethics of Assisted Reproductive Medicinecompares and contrasts Western and Islamic models of bioethics to make the case that the Islamic perspective (taken from the Qur’an and the Sunnah) provides a viable and clear alternative that goes beyond the dominance of the secular and its various philosophical bases, to give Revelation and spiritual understanding precedence. In doing so, keeping to principles, it charts the way out of a confused circle of opinion that is making it very hard to decide “what is best.”

Selbstgestaltung des Menschen durch Biotechniken

Author: Robert Ranisch,Sebastian Schuol,Marcus Rockoff
Publisher: Narr Francke Attempto Verlag
ISBN: 377205546X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 326
View: 7621
Entwicklungen der Lebenswissenschaften versprechen nicht mehr nur Heilerfolge, sondern auch eine Optimierung des Menschen. Stichworte wie "Hirndoping" und "Designer-Babys" verweisen dabei auf Potenziale und Gefahren von Möglichkeiten der Selbstgestaltung durch Biotechniken. Solche neuen Handlungsoptionen fordern unser Normensystem heraus und bedürfen einer bioethischen Reflexion. Der Band zeigt aus interdisziplinärer Perspektive Wege auf, die Herausforderungen insbesondere der Genetik und Neurowissenschaften anzunehmen. Dabei werden sowohl ethische Grundlagen als auch die gesellschaftlichen Auseinandersetzung mit der Selbstgestaltung des Menschen in den Blick genommen.

Islam und Bioethik

eine kritische Analyse der modernen Diskussion im islamischen Recht
Author: Thomas Eich
Publisher: Reichert Verlag
Category: History
Page: 127
View: 2064
In diesem Band werden bioethische Debatten behandelt, die sich unter den islamischen Rechtsgelehrten (fuqaha) seit den 1980er Jahren entwickelt haben. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf Fragen des Lebensanfangs, die sich anhand der Diskussion um den rechten Umgang mit Embryonen vor dem Hintergrund neuer Moglichkeiten der modernen Reproduktionsmedizin entwickelten. Dabei wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie sich moderne islamische Rechtsdiskussionen konkret entwickeln und welche Konzepte oder Faktoren diese Entwicklung beeinflussen.So wird nachgezeichnet, wie Mitte der 1980er Jahre Definitionen uber den Beginn menschlichen Lebens und der damit verbundenen Schutzrechte des Ungeborenen vorgenommen wurden, bis dato in dieser Form von islamischen Rechtsgelehrten kaum oder gar nicht vertreten worden waren. Darauf aufbauend wird gezeigt, wie sich die Diskussion des Status von extra-korporalen Embryonen - einer Kernfrage bei der Bewertung gentechnologischen Fortschritts - zu Beginn der 1990er Jahre unter den fuqaha entwickelte. Dabei zeigt sich, dass sich wegen methodischen Problemen bislang unter Rechtsgelehrten keinerlei Konsens uber grundlegende Fragen zum Beginn menschlichen Lebens etabliert hat, der einer kritischen Analyse standhalten wurde. Im Anschluss daran werden islamische Rechtsmeinungen zu den vier Themenbereichen "Praimplantationsdiagnostik", "Abtreibung nach Pranataldiagnostik", "Klonen beim Menschen" und "Vaterschaftstests" vorgestellt.In diesem Band wird der Bezug zwischen theoretischen Diskussionen und ihren praktischen Auswirkungen in den Landern mit mehrheitlich muslimischer Bevolkerung aufgezeigt. Uber das engere Fachgebiet hinaus besteht die Bedeutung des Buches darin, dass es die modernen islamischen Rechtsmeinungen auf die ihr zu Grunde liegenden Konzepte hin durchleuchtet und somit hilft, diese Meinungen in bioethischen Debatten etwa in Deutschland besser einordnen und gegebenenfalls einbeziehen oder zuruckweisen zu konnen.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Third Phase

Global Encounters and Emerging Moral Worlds
Author: Kate Hampshire,Bob Simpson
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782388087
Category: Medical
Page: 284
View: 3202
Following the birth of the first “test-tube baby” in 1978, Assisted Reproductive Technologies became available to a small number of people in high-income countries able to afford the cost of private treatment, a period seen as the “First Phase” of ARTs. In the “Second Phase,” these treatments became increasingly available to cosmopolitan global elites. Today, this picture is changing — albeit slowly and unevenly — as ARTs are becoming more widely available. While, for many, accessing infertility treatments remains a dream, these are beginning to be viewed as a standard part of reproductive healthcare and family planning. This volume highlights this “Third Phase” — the opening up of ARTs to new constituencies in terms of ethnicity, geography, education, and class.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Global South and North

Issues, Challenges and the Future
Author: Virginie Rozée,Sayeed Unisa
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317393805
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 204
View: 2107
Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Global South and North critically analyses the political and social frameworks of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), and its impact in different countries. In the context of a worldwide social pressure to conceive – particularly for women – this collection explores the effect of the development of ARTs, growing globalisation and reproductive medicalization on global societies. Providing an overview of the issues surrounding ART both in the Global South and North, this book analyses ART inequalities, commonalities and specificities in various countries, regions and on the transnational scene. From a multidisciplinary perspective and drawing on multisite studies, it highlights some new issues relating to ART (e.g. egg freezing, surrogacy) and discusses some older issues regarding infertility and its medical treatment (e.g. in vitro fertilisation, childless stigmatisation and access to treatment). This book aims to redress the balance between what is known about Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Global North, and how the issue is investigated in the Global South. It aims to draw out the global similarities in the challenges that ARTs bring between these different areas of the world. It will appeal to scholars and students in the social sciences, medicine, public health, health policy, women’s and gender studies, and demography.

Ethical Dilemmas in Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Author: Joseph G. Schenker
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110240211
Category: Medical
Page: 412
View: 8402
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) include the artificial or partially artificial methods to achieve pregnancy. These new technologies lead to substantial changes regarding of ethical and legal aspects in reproductive medicine. The book focuses on current hot topics about ethical dilemmas in ART, e.g. about the duties of ethical committees, guidelines regarding informed consent, ethical and legal aspects of sperm donation, embryo donation, ethics of embryonic stem cells, therapeutical cloning, patenting of human genes, commercialization.

Wombs in Labor

Transnational Commercial Surrogacy in India
Author: Amrita Pande
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231538189
Category: Social Science
Page: 272
View: 7832
Surrogacy is India's new form of outsourcing, as couples from all over the world hire Indian women to bear their children for a fraction of the cost of surrogacy elsewhere with little to no government oversight or regulation. In the first detailed ethnography of India's surrogacy industry, Amrita Pande visits clinics and hostels and speaks with surrogates and their families, clients, doctors, brokers, and hostel matrons in order to shed light on this burgeoning business and the experiences of the laborers within it. From recruitment to training to delivery, Pande's research focuses on how reproduction meets production in surrogacy and how this reflects characteristics of India's larger labor system. Pande's interviews prove surrogates are more than victims of disciplinary power, and she examines the strategies they deploy to retain control over their bodies and reproductive futures. While some women are coerced into the business by their families, others negotiate with clients and their clinics to gain access to technologies and networks otherwise closed to them. As surrogates, the women Pande meets get to know and make the most of advanced medical discoveries. They traverse borders and straddle relationships that test the boundaries of race, class, religion, and nationality. Those who focus on the inherent inequalities of India's surrogacy industry believe the practice should be either banned or strictly regulated. Pande instead advocates for a better understanding of this complex labor market, envisioning an international model of fair-trade surrogacy founded on openness and transparency in all business, medical, and emotional exchanges.

Religion, Religious Ethics and Nursing

Author: Marsha D. Fowler, PhD, MDiv, MS,,Sheryl Reimer Kirkham, PhD, RN,Rick Sawatzky, PhD, RN,Elizabeth Johnston Taylor, PhD, RN
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826106641
Category: Medical
Page: 432
View: 6911
"[This] is a book that challenges you to step back and broaden your thinking about religion in general and religion in nursing...Nurses at all levels will appreciate the applications to nursing practice, theory, and research."--Journal of Christian Nursing "The Reverend Dr. Marsha Fowler and her colleagues have written a landmark book that will change and enlighten the discourse on religion and spirituality in nursing. The authors address the awkward silence on religion in nursing theory and education and with insightful scholarship move beyond the current level of knowledge and limited discourse on religion in nursing theory, education and practice. This book is path-breaking in that [it] gives many new ways to think about the relationships between ethics, health, caregiving, moral imagination, religion and spirituality." From the Foreword by Patricia Benner, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor Emerita of Nursing Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences and Nursing University of California, San Francisco The past 25 years have witnessed an escalating discussion on the role of spirituality within health care. This scholarly volume is rooted in the belief that not only is religion integral to nursing care, but the religious beliefs of both nurse and patient can significantly influence care and its outcome. It offers an in-depth analysis of the ways in which religion influences the discipline of nursing, its practitioners, and treatment outcomes. Through the contributions of an international cadre of nurse scholars representing the world's major religious traditions, the book explores how theories, history and theologies shape the discipline, bioethical decision making, and the perspective of the nurse or patient who embraces a particular religion. It examines the commonalities between the values and thinking of nursing and religion and identifies basic domains in which additional research is necessary. The authors believe that ultimately, scholarly dialogue on the relationship between religion and nursing will foster and enhance nursing practice that is ethical and respectful of personal values. Key Features: Offers in-depth analysis of how religion influences the discipline of nursing, its practitioners, and treatment outcomes Uses critical theories to explore the intersections of religion, ethics, culture, health, gender, power, and health policy Includes an overview of all major world religions Focuses on the implications of religion for nursing practice rather than nursing interventions Designed for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students, nurse academicians and clinicians

Individualisierung und Integration

Neue Konfliktlinien und neuer Integrationsmodus?
Author: Peter Sopp,Ulrich Beck
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3322958183
Category: Social Science
Page: 201
View: 2117

Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402049625
Category: Medical
Page: 378
View: 7549
This book presents a critical analysis of the debate in Muslim countries at the religious, legal and political level, sparked by the introduction of new biomedical technologies such as cloning, genetics, organ transplants and in vitro fertilisation. The book draws on law, sociology, anthropology, politics and the history of science. For this reason it will be of interest to scholars and operators in a wide variety of disciplines and fields.

Handbuch der Iranistik

Author: Ludwig Paul
Publisher: Dr Ludwig Reichert
ISBN: 9783954901319
Category: Iran
Page: 552
View: 2876
Der zweite Band des Handbuchs der Iranistik schliesst an das Konzept des ersten Bandes an und entwickelt dieses weiter. Er folgt der Unterteilung des ersten Bandes in acht disziplinar definierte Abschnitte und vervollstandigt mit ca. 50 Artikeln den Forschungsuberblick des ersten Bandes auf umfassende Weise. So werden im zweiten Teil die wenigen Lucken des ersten Bandes in acht Abschnitten geschlossen und in einem neunten Abschnitt die "Iranische Philosophie und Wissenschaften" hinzugefugt Der Blick wird ausserdem verstarkt auf die geographische Peripherie der iranischen Welt gerichtet. Mehrere Artikel beschaftigen sich mit der Geschichte, der Kultur und der Gegenwart von Afghanistan, Tadschikistan, Kurdistan und weiteren Regionen. Zu grosseren Forschungsberichten des ersten Bandes werden im zweiten Band spezialisierte Forschungsberichte zu Teilbereichen hinzugefugt, so zu "Persische Literatur": Beitrage zur iranischen Exil- und Reiseliteratur, zu Theater und Pressegeschichte Der zweite Teil des Handbuchs der Iranistik bietet somit erganzend zum ersten Band Forschungsberichte zu aktuellen innovativen Themen wie: Gender, Bio-Ethik, Internet und neue Medien.

Anthropology of the Middle East

Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
Category: Ethnology
Page: N.A
View: 8659

Theologie der Barmherzigkeit?

Zeitgemäße Fragen und Antworten des Kalam
Author: Mouhanad Khorchide,Milad Karimi,Klaus von Stosch
Publisher: Waxmann Verlag
ISBN: 3830979819
Category: Philosophy
Page: 190
View: 2674
'Gott hat dich, Muhammad, als Barmherzigkeit für die Welten entsandt' (Q 21:107). Bedenkt man, wie oft im Koran die Barmherzigkeit Gottes an zentraler Stelle gepriesen wird, fällt auf, wie wenig sie in der traditionellen islamischen Gelehrsamkeit als Schlüsselbegriff theologischen Arbeitens etabliert wurde. Vor diesem Hintergrund möchte dieser Band die theologischen Dimensionen von Barmherzigkeit entwickeln und die Zentralität der Rede von Gottes Barmherzigkeit zum Anlass nehmen, alle Disziplinen islamischen Denkens mit dieser Schlüsselkategorie zu konfrontieren. Kann eine Theologie der Barmherzigkeit die grundlegende Botschaft des Korans systematisch erschließen? Welche Konsequenzen hat eine Fokussierung auf Gottes Barmherzigkeit für das Verständnis der Beziehung zwischen Gott und der Schöpfung? Welche Auswirkungen hat sie auf den Umgang mit Koran und Sunna? Bietet sie Perspektiven für eine Auseinandersetzung mit zeitgenössischen außerislamischen Diskursen? Dieser Band möchte damit auch den vielfältigen Diskurs über die Einordnung der Barmherzigkeit in der Islamischen Theologie in Deutschland darstellen und um wissenschaftliche Positionen bereichern.

Islamische Positionen zum pränatalen Leben

Author: Nils Fischer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783495484548
Category: Fetus (Islamic law)
Page: 182
View: 9391

Verkörperte Technik, entkörperte Frau

Biopolitik und Geschlecht
Author: Sigrid Graumann,Ingrid Schneider
Publisher: N.A
Category: Biopolitics
Page: 247
View: 3230

Twenty-first Century Motherhood

Experience, Identity, Policy, Agency
Author: Andrea O'Reilly
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231520476
Category: Social Science
Page: 384
View: 8363
A pioneer of modern motherhood studies, Andrea O'Reilly explores motherhood's current representation and practice, considering developments that were unimaginable decades ago: the Internet, interracial surrogacy, raising transchildren, male mothering, intensive mothering, queer parenting, the applications of new biotechnologies, and mothering in the post-9/11 era. Her work pulls together a range of disciplines and themes in motherhood studies. She confronts the effects of globalization, HIV/AIDS, welfare reform, politicians as mothers, third wave feminism, and the evolving motherhood movement, and she incorporates Chicana, African-American, Canadian, Muslim, queer, low-income, trans, and lesbian perspectives.

Muslim Medical Ethics

From Theory to Practice
Author: Jonathan E. Brockopp,Thomas Eich
Publisher: Univ of South Carolina Press
ISBN: 9781570037535
Category: Medical
Page: 298
View: 4755
Muslim Medical Ethics bring together the work of historians, health-care professionals, theologians, and social scientists to produce an interdisciplinary view of medical ethics in Muslim societies and of the impact of caring for Muslim patients in non-Muslim societies. The volume challenges traditional presumptions to demonstrate the ways in which Muslims balance respect for their heritage with the health issues of a modern world. The contributors map the breadth and boundaries of this discourse through discussions of contested issues on the cutting edge of ethical debates, from fertilized embryos in Saudi Arabia to patient autonomy in Toronto, from organ trafficking in Egypt to sterilization in Tanzania.