Islam and Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Sunni and Shia Perspectives
Author: Marcia C. Inhorn,Soraya Tremayne
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857454900
Category: Medical
Page: 338
View: 7698
How and to what extent have Islamic legal scholars and Middle Eastern lawmakers, as well as Middle Eastern Muslim physicians and patients, grappled with the complex bioethical, legal, and social issues that are raised in the process of attempting to conceive life in the face of infertility? This path-breaking volume explores the influence of Islamic attitudes on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and reveals the variations in both the Islamic jurisprudence and the cultural responses to ARTs.

Islam and Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Sunni and Shia Perspectives
Author: Marcia C. Inhorn,Soraya Tremayne
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857454919
Category: Medical
Page: 346
View: 4029
How and to what extent have Islamic legal scholars and Middle Eastern lawmakers, as well as Middle Eastern Muslim physicians and patients, grappled with the complex bioethical, legal, and social issues that are raised in the process of attempting to conceive life in the face of infertility? This path-breaking volume explores the influence of Islamic attitudes on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and reveals the variations in both the Islamic jurisprudence and the cultural responses to ARTs.

Contemporary Bioethics

Islamic Perspective
Author: Mohammed Ali Al-Bar,Hassan Chamsi-Pasha
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319184288
Category: Medical
Page: 267
View: 8227
This book discusses the common principles of morality and ethics derived from divinely endowed intuitive reason through the creation of al-fitr' a (nature) and human intellect (al-‘aql). Biomedical topics are presented and ethical issues related to topics such as genetic testing, assisted reproduction and organ transplantation are discussed. Whereas these natural sources are God’s special gifts to human beings, God’s revelation as given to the prophets is the supernatural source of divine guidance through which human communities have been guided at all times through history. The second part of the book concentrates on the objectives of Islamic religious practice – the maqa' sid – which include: Preservation of Faith, Preservation of Life, Preservation of Mind (intellect and reason), Preservation of Progeny (al-nasl) and Preservation of Property. Lastly, the third part of the book discusses selected topical issues, including abortion, assisted reproduction devices, genetics, organ transplantation, brain death and end-of-life aspects. For each topic, the current medical evidence is followed by a detailed discussion of the ethical issues involved.

Islam And New Kinship

Reproductive Technology and the Shariah in Lebanon
Author: Morgan Clarke
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9780857453822
Category: Social Science
Page: 262
View: 3759
Assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization have provoked global controversy and ethical debate. This book provides a groundbreaking investigation into those debates in the Islamic Middle East, simultaneously documenting changing ideas of kinship and the evolving role of religious authority in the region through a combination of in-depth field research in Lebanon and an exhaustive survey of the Islamic legal literature. Lebanon, home to both Sunni and Shiite Muslim communities, provides a valuable site through which to explore the overall dynamism and diversity of global Islamic debate. As this book shows, Muslim perspectives focus on the moral propriety of such controversial procedures as the use of donor sperm and eggs as well as surrogacy arrangements, which are allowed by some authorities using surprising and innovative legal arguments. These arguments challenge common stereotypes of the rigidity and conservatism of Islamic law and compel us to question conventional contrasts between ‘liberal’ and Islamic notions of moral freedom, as well as the epistemological assumptions of anthropology’s own ‘new kinship studies’. This book will be essential reading for anyone interested in contemporary Islam and the impact of reproductive technology on the global social imaginary.

The New Arab Man

Emergent Masculinities, Technologies, and Islam in the Middle East
Author: Marcia C. Inhorn
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140084262X
Category: Social Science
Page: 432
View: 579
Middle Eastern Muslim men have been widely vilified as terrorists, religious zealots, and brutal oppressors of women. The New Arab Man challenges these stereotypes with the stories of ordinary Middle Eastern men as they struggle to overcome infertility and childlessness through assisted reproduction. Drawing on two decades of ethnographic research across the Middle East with hundreds of men from a variety of social and religious backgrounds, Marcia Inhorn shows how the new Arab man is self-consciously rethinking the patriarchal masculinity of his forefathers and unseating received wisdoms. This is especially true in childless Middle Eastern marriages where, contrary to popular belief, infertility is more common among men than women. Inhorn captures the marital, moral, and material commitments of couples undergoing assisted reproduction, revealing how new technologies are transforming their lives and religious sensibilities. And she looks at the changing manhood of husbands who undertake transnational "egg quests"--set against the backdrop of war and economic uncertainty--out of devotion to the infertile wives they love. Trenchant and emotionally gripping, The New Arab Man traces the emergence of new masculinities in the Middle East in the era of biotechnology.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Third Phase

Global Encounters and Emerging Moral Worlds
Author: Kate Hampshire,Bob Simpson
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782388087
Category: Medical
Page: 284
View: 5010
Following the birth of the first "test-tube baby" in 1978, Assisted Reproductive Technologies became available to a small number of people in high-income countries able to afford the cost of private treatment, a period seen as the "First Phase" of ARTs. In the "Second Phase," these treatments became increasingly available to cosmopolitan global elites. Today, this picture is changing - albeit slowly and unevenly - as ARTs are becoming more widely available. While, for many, accessing infertility treatments remains a dream, these are beginning to be viewed as a standard part of reproductive healthcare and family planning. This volume highlights this "Third Phase" - the opening up of ARTs to new constituencies in terms of ethnicity, geography, education, and class.

Ethical Dilemmas in Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Author: Joseph G. Schenker
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110240211
Category: Medical
Page: 412
View: 6743
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) include the artificial or partially artificial methods to achieve pregnancy. These new technologies lead to substantial changes regarding of ethical and legal aspects in reproductive medicine. The book focuses on current hot topics about ethical dilemmas in ART, e.g. about the duties of ethical committees, guidelines regarding informed consent, ethical and legal aspects of sperm donation, embryo donation, ethics of embryonic stem cells, therapeutical cloning, patenting of human genes, commercialization.

Reconceiving the Second Sex

Men, Masculinity, and Reproduction
Author: Marcia Claire Inhorn
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781845454722
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 392
View: 9898
Extensive social science research, particularly by anthropologists, has explored womens reproductive lives, their use of reproductive technologies, and their experiences as mothers and nurturers of children. Meanwhile, few if any volumes have explored mens reproductive concerns or contributions to womens reproductive health: Men are clearly viewed as the second sex in reproduction. This volume argues that the marginalization of men is an oversight of considerable proportions, and thereby seeks to break the silence surrounding mens thoughts, experiences, and feelings about their reproductive lives. It sheds new light on male reproduction from a cross-cultural, global perspective, focusing not only upon men in Europe and America but also those in the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America. Both heterosexual and homosexual, married and unmarried men are featured in this volume, which assesses concerns ranging from masculinity and sexuality to childbirth and fatherhood. Thus, men are brought back into the equation, as reproductive partners, progenitors, fathers, nurturers, and decision-makers.

Ethics of Assisted Reproductive Medicine

A Comparative Study of Western and lslamic Bioethics
Author: Sharmin Islam
Publisher: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
ISBN: 1565645618
Category: Bioethics
Page: 220
View: 3682
Ethics of Assisted Reproductive Medicinecompares and contrasts Western and Islamic models of bioethics to make the case that the Islamic perspective (taken from the Qur’an and the Sunnah) provides a viable and clear alternative that goes beyond the dominance of the secular and its various philosophical bases, to give Revelation and spiritual understanding precedence. In doing so, keeping to principles, it charts the way out of a confused circle of opinion that is making it very hard to decide “what is best.”

Assisting Reproduction, Testing Genes

Global Encounters with New Biotechnologies
Author: Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli,Marcia Claire Inhorn
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781845456252
Category: Medical
Page: 297
View: 784
Following the routinization of assisted reproduction in the industrialized world, technologies such as in vitro fertilization, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and DNA-based paternity testing have traveled globally and are now being offered to couples in numerous non-Western countries. This volume explores the application and impact of these advanced reproductive and genetic technologies in societies across the globe. By highlighting both the cross-cultural similarities and diverse meanings that technologies may assume as they enter multiple contexts, the book aims to foster understanding of both the technologies and the settings. Enhanced by cross-cultural perspectives, the book addresses the challenges that globalization presents to local understandings of science, technology, and medicine.

Fatness and the Maternal Body

Women's Experiences of Corporeality and the Shaping of Social Policy
Author: Maya Unnithan-Kumar,Soraya Tremayne
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857451235
Category: Social Science
Page: 246
View: 4453
Obesity is a rising global health problem. On the one hand a clearly defined medical condition, it is at the same time a corporeal state embedded in the social and cultural perception of fatness, body shape and size. Focusing specifically on the maternal body, contributors to the volume examine how the language and notions of obesity connect with, or stand apart from, wider societal values and moralities to do with the body, fatness, reproduction and what is considered 'natural'. A focus on fatness in the context of human reproduction and motherhood offers instructive insights into the global circulation and authority of biomedical facts on fatness (as 'risky' anti-fit, for example). As with other social and cultural studies critical of health policy discourse, this volume challenges the spontaneous connection being made in scientific and popular understanding between fatness and ill health.

Embryo Politics

Ethics and Policy in Atlantic Democracies
Author: Thomas Banchoff
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801461071
Category: Political Science
Page: 272
View: 788
Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. Embryo, stem cell, and cloning research have provoked impassioned political debate about their religious, moral, legal, and practical implications. National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. In Embryo Politics, Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. Banchoff's book, the first of its kind, demonstrates the impact of particular national histories and institutions on very different patterns of national governance. Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. Only by recovering a robust and public ethical debate will we be able to govern revolutionary life-science technologies effectively and responsibly into the future.

Source Methodology in Islamic Jurisprudence

Author: Ṭāhā Jābir Fayyāḍ Alwānī,A. S. Al-Shikh-Ali,Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo
Publisher: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
ISBN: 1565644042
Category: Islamic law
Page: 84
View: 624
Usul Al-Fiqh is a science which is deeply embedded in the Islamic experience and one which, thanks to its methods and concerns, helped generate an empirical trend in Muslim culture, in turn benefiting western thinking. Itself a creation of influences from within and without, Al-Usul, often called “The Philosophy of Islam,” invites both reason and revelation to work for the harmony and well-being of human society. Although the science of Al-Usul is mainly concerned with legal matters, its range and the arsenal of tools it uses makes it attractive to students of Islamic Jurisprudence as well as to other scholars of Islamic Knowledge and culture. The difficulties it poses are inevitable. This book, however, attempts to simplify this “Most important method of research ever devised by Islamic thought” during its most creative period, and bring it to the understanding and appreciation of the modern learner, while underscoring its importance and relevance to the world of Islam today.

Infertility Around the Globe

New Thinking on Childlessness, Gender, and Reproductive Technologies
Author: Marcia Claire Inhorn,Frank van Balen
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520231085
Category: History
Page: 347
View: 1225
"Extremely well-written, innovative, and timely, Infertility Around the Globe is a definitive work. Together, the authors use infertility as the lens to examine numerous compelling social issues, generating a powerful argument that infertility is a globally significant phenomenon. This volume will attract anthropologists and other social scientists interested in the study of reproduction, as well as anyone interested in gender studies, women's studies, and international health."--Carolyn Sargent, co-editor of Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge: Cross-Cultural Perspectives "This groundbreaking, interdisciplinary book will change how infertility is theorized and how intervention programs are designed. It will become the primary sourcebook for international and comparative research in a variety of cultural settings. Reading this book was a distinct pleasure."--Lynn Morgan, co-editor of Fetal Subjects, Feminist Positions "A stunning achievement. Through its richly textured ethnographic accounts, this book beautifully explicates the universals and particularities of involuntary childlessness in disparate world regions. It challenges the myopic view that the heartbreak is limited to advanced industrial societies. This book is a much-needed antidote in a field mostly characterized by polemic and untested assumptions."--C. H. Browner, UCLA School of Medicine "Scholarship on infertility too often has been culture-bound, focusing on Western versions of biosocial reproductive problems and on technological solutions. This innovative volume decenters that perspective, with studies on the ostracism of elder childless men in Kenya, political suspicions of vaccination campaigns in the Cameroons, new reproductive technologies for ultraorthodox use in Israel, and China's emergent eugenics. It enlarges the 'public' in public health."--Rayna Rapp, co-editor of Conceiving the New World Order: The Global Politics of Reproduction

Reproductive Disruptions

Gender, Technology, and Biopolitics in the New Millennium
Author: Marcia Claire Inhorn
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781845454067
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 239
View: 6348
Based on research by leading medical anthropologists from around the world, this book examines such issues as local practices detrimental to safe pregnancy and birth; conflicting reproductive goals between women and men; and miscommunications between pregnant women and their genetic counselors.

Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning

Author: Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on Life Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309076374
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 9151
Human reproductive cloning is an assisted reproductive technology that would be carried out with the goal of creating a newborn genetically identical to another human being. It is currently the subject of much debate around the world, involving a variety of ethical, religious, societal, scientific, and medical issues. Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Reproductive Cloning considers the scientific and medical sides of this issue, plus ethical issues that pertain to human-subjects research. Based on experience with reproductive cloning in animals, the report concludes that human reproductive cloning would be dangerous for the woman, fetus, and newborn, and is likely to fail. The study panel did not address the issue of whether human reproductive cloning, even if it were found to be medically safe, would be-or would not be-acceptable to individuals or society.

Reproducing Reproduction

Kinship, Power, and Technological Innovation
Author: Sarah Franklin,Helena Ragone
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812215847
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 245
View: 4545
Reproducing Reproduction addresses these debates in a range of sites in which reproduction is being redefined and argues persuasively for a renewed appreciation of the centrality of reproductive politics to cultural and historical change.

Local Babies, Global Science

Gender, Religion and In Vitro Fertilization in Egypt
Author: Marcia C. Inhorn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136073302
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 6290
In the late 1990s, Egypt experienced a boom period in in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology and now boasts more IVF clinics than neighboring Israel. In this book, Marcia Inhorn writes of her fieldwork among affluent, elite couples who sought in vitro fertilization in Egypt, a country which is not only at the forefront of IVF technology in the Middle East, but also a center of Islamic education in the region. Inhorn examines the gender, scientific, religious and cultural ramifications of the transfer of IVF technology from Euro-American points of origin to Egypt - showing how cultural ideas reshape the use of this technology and in turn, how the technology is reshaping cultural ideas in Egypt.

How Civilizations Die

(And Why Islam Is Dying Too)
Author: David Goldman
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1596982802
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 8841
Thanks to collapsing birthrates, much of Europe is on a path of willed self-extinction. The untold story is that birthrates in Muslim nations are declining faster than anywhere elseâ??at a rate never before documented. Europe, even in its decline, may have the resources to support an aging population, if at a terrible economic and cultural cost. But in the impoverished Islamic world, an aging population means a civilization on the brink of total collapseâ?? something Islamic terrorists know and fear. Muslim decline poses new threats to America, challenges we cannot even understand, much less face effectively, without a wholly new kind of political analysis that explains how desperate peoples and nations behave. In How Civilizations Die, David P. Goldman, author of the celebrated Spengler column read by intelligence organizations world wide, ??reveals how, almost unnoticed, massive shifts in global power are remaking our future.

Sacred Custodians of the Earth?

Women, Spirituality and the Environment
Author: Alaine M. Low,Soraya Tremayne
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781571813169
Category: Social Science
Page: 260
View: 5396
Challenging the assumption that women have a special affinity with the Earth and therefore a historic mission for the care of the environment, this book asks whether women are truly 'sacred custodians' of the Earth