Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice


Author: Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Law and Justice,Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309068428
Category: Law
Page: 404
View: 9255
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Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem. This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates. Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions: Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives. Intervention within the juvenile justice system. Role of the police. Processing and detention of youth offenders. Transferring youths to the adult judicial system. Residential placement of juveniles. The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice


Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Law and Justice,Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309172356
Category: Law
Page: 404
View: 2237
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Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem. This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates. Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions: Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives. Intervention within the juvenile justice system. Role of the police. Processing and detention of youth offenders. Transferring youths to the adult judicial system. Residential placement of juveniles. The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice


Author: Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control,Committee on Law and Justice,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309068420
Category: Law
Page: 404
View: 1793
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Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem. This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates. Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions: Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives. Intervention within the juvenile justice system. Role of the police. Processing and detention of youth offenders. Transferring youths to the adult judicial system. Residential placement of juveniles. The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice


Author: Barry C. Feld,Donna M. Bishop
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195385101
Category: Law
Page: 934
View: 6726
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State-of-the-art critical reviews of recent scholarship on the causes of juvenile delinquency, juvenile justice system responses, and public policies to prevent and reduce youth crime are brought together in a single volume authored by leading scholars and researchers in neuropsychology, developmental and social psychology, sociology, history, criminology/criminal justice, and law.

Rethinking Juvenile Justice


Author: Elizabeth S Scott,Laurence D Steinberg
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674043367
Category: Law
Page: 378
View: 1267
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What should we do with teenagers who commit crimes? In this book, two leading scholars in law and adolescent development argue that juvenile justice should be grounded in the best available psychological science, which shows that adolescence is a distinctive state of cognitive and emotional development. Although adolescents are not children, they are also not fully responsible adults.

Reforming Juvenile Justice

A Developmental Approach
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309278937
Category: Law
Page: 462
View: 8296
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Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.

Delinquency and Juvenile Justice in American Society

Second Edition
Author: Randall G. Shelden
Publisher: Waveland Press
ISBN: 1478610174
Category: Social Science
Page: 528
View: 1944
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Extensively revised, the second edition blends theory, research, and applications into a superb overview of the complex issues surrounding juvenile delinquency and societys attempts to address juvenile crime. After providing an excellent historical foundation, Shelden presents the theories essential to understanding crime and delinquency. He then explores the system and its effects on juveniles and society, including comprehensive coverage of female delinquency. The social, legal, and political influences on how the public perceives juveniles and the inequality in U.S. society that affects families, communities, and schools are highlighted throughout the book. The concluding chapter looks at solutions that have worked and identifies trends in treating juvenile delinquency. The authors almost four decades of teaching about and researching juveniles and the system make him eminently qualified to offer readers the tools necessary to think critically about delinquency and to evaluate the policies enacted to manage the juveniles who violate the laws. Delinquency and Juvenile Justice in American Society, 2/E provides affordable, up-to-date, easily accessible, and thorough analysis of a significant topic.

Juvenile Crime and Justice


Author: William J. Chambliss
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412978580
Category: Law
Page: 336
View: 3228
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Presents arguments both in favor of and opposed to various treatments, programs, and punishments, examining issues such as youth curfews, juveniles in adult courts, legal representation for juveniles, juvenile boot camps, group homes, and out-of-home placement.

The Handbook of Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice


Author: Marvin D. Krohn,Jodi Lane
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118513177
Category: Social Science
Page: 664
View: 3407
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This handbook is an up-to-date examination of advances in the fields of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice that includes interdisciplinary perspectives from leading scholars and practitioners. Examines advances in the fields of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice with interdisciplinary perspectives from leading scholars and practitioners Provides a current state of both fields, while also assessing where they have been and defining where they should go in years to come Addresses developments in theory, research, and policy, as well as cultural changes and legal shifts Contains summaries of juvenile justice trends from around the world, including the US, the Netherlands, Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa, and China Covers central issues in the scholarly literature, such as social learning theories, opportunity theories, criminal processing, labeling and deterrence, gangs and crime, community-based sanctions and reentry, victimization, and fear of crime

Education and Delinquency

Summary of a Workshop
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309171520
Category: Social Science
Page: 58
View: 8252
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The Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control convened a workshop on October 2, 1998, to explore issues related to educational performance, school climate, school practices, learning, student motivation and commitment to school, and their relationship to delinquency. The workshop was designed to bring together researchers and practitioners with a broad range of perspectives on the relationship between such specific issues as school safety and academic achievement and the development of delinquent behavior. Education and Delinquencyreviews recent research findings, identifies gaps in knowledge and promising areas of future research, and discusses the need for program evaluation and the integration of empirical research findings into program design.

Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency

A Comprehensive Framework
Author: James C. Howell
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412956382
Category: Social Science
Page: 377
View: 1634
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This text aims to inform students about the latest research and the most promising and effective programs and provides a wealth of information for understanding, preventing and controlling juvenile delinquency. The history of current juvenile justice system policies and practices is examined, including the juvenile violence ′epidemic.′ Key myths about juvenile violence and the ability of the juvenile justice system to handle modern-day juvenile delinquents are discussed in depth. Developmental theories of juvenile delinquency are applied to understanding how juvenile offender careers evolve. Effective prevention and rehabilitation programs and what does not work are reviewed. And finally, a comprehensive framework for building a continuum of effective programs is presented. This book is intended as a supplementary text for undergraduate and graduate courses in juvenile delinquency, juvenile justice, and violent offender intervention courses. It is also essential reading for juvenile justice and social services research and development specialists.

Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform

The Federal Role
Author: Committee on a Prioritized Plan to Implement a Developmental Approach in Juvenile Justice Reform,Committee on Law and Justice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academy Press
ISBN: 9780309303477
Category: Law
Page: 122
View: 8435
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"In the past decade, a number of state, local, and tribal jurisdictions have begun to take significant steps to overhaul their juvenile justice systems - for example, reducing the use of juvenile detention and out-of-home placement, bringing greater attention to racial and ethnic disparities, looking for ways to engage affected families in the process, and raising the age at which juvenile court jurisdiction ends. These changes are the result of heightening awareness of the ineffectiveness of punitive practices and accumulating knowledge about adolescent development. Momentum for reform is growing. However, many more state, local, and tribal jurisdictions need assistance, and practitioners in the juvenile justice field are looking for guidance from the federal government, particularly from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in the Department of Justice. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform identifies and prioritizes strategies and policies to effectively facilitate reform of the juvenile justice system and develop an implementation plan for OJJDP. Based on the 2013 report Reforming Juvenile Justice, this report is designed to provide specific guidance to OJJDP regarding the steps that it should take, both internally and externally, to facilitate juvenile justice reform grounded in knowledge about adolescent development. The report identifies seven hallmarks of a developmental approach to juvenile justice to guide system reform: accountability without criminalization, alternatives to justice system involvement, individualized response based on needs and risks, confinement only when necessary for public safety, genuine commitment to fairness, sensitivity to disparate treatment, and family engagement. Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform outlines how these hallmarks should be incorporated into policies and practices within OJJDP, as well as in actions extended to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions to achieve the goals of the juvenile justice system through a developmentally informed approach. This report sets forth a detailed and prioritized strategic plan for the federal government to support and facilitate developmentally oriented juvenile justice reform. The pivotal component of the plan is to strengthen the role, capacity, and commitment of OJJDP, the lead federal agency in the field. By carrying out the recommendations of Implementing Juvenile Justice Reform, the federal government will both reaffirm and advance the promise of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act."--Publisher's description.

Juvenile Justice

An Introduction
Author: John T. Whitehead,Steven P. Lab
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351122452
Category: Social Science
Page: 526
View: 3810
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Juvenile Justice: An Introduction, Ninth Edition, presents a comprehensive picture of juvenile offending, delinquency theories, and the ways juvenile justice actors and agencies react to delinquency. Whitehead and Lab offer evidence-based suggestions for successful interventions and treatment and examine the prospects for rebalancing the model of juvenile court. This new edition includes insightful analysis and the latest available statistics on juvenile crime and victimization, drug use, court processing, and corrections. Recent developments include the possible influence of biosocial factors on delinquency; use of social media both for recruiting gang members and for combatting gangs; new probation models; responses to cyberbullying; the renewed emphasis on status offenses; the implications of drug legalization; police shootings; and specialty courts for teens and those with mental illness. Chapter 12 has been recast to cover specific information on prevention programs in addition to restorative justice approaches. Each chapter enhances student understanding with Key Terms, a "What You Need to Know" section, and Discussion Questions. Links at key points in the text show students where to get the latest information.

Juvenile Offenders & Victims

A National Report
Author: Howard N. Snyder,Melissa Sickmund
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 9780788124402
Category: Law
Page: 188
View: 7808
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Consolidates the most requested information on juvenile offenders & victims. Presents statistical information in a user-friendly format. Bridges the gap between existing information& the juvenile justice community. Designed as a series of briefing papers on specific topics -- short sections designed to be read in isolation from other parts of the report. Makes use of easy-to-understand graphics & tables.

School Crime and Juvenile Justice


Author: Richard A. Lawrence
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195172904
Category: Social Science
Page: 338
View: 9742
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School Crime and Juvenile Justice, Second Edition, examines the nature, extent, and causes of school crime and disruptive behavior, offering a comprehensive overview of this significant and growing problem. Drawing on numerous sources and on studies conducted over the past ten years, the second edition reviews the most up-to-date theories on the relationship between school crime and crime in the community, the role of parents and peers, and schools' organization and policies. Lawrence discusses current research findings, laws and school policies, prevention strategies, and alternative schools and special education programs for at-risk and delinquent students. Extensively revised and updated, this edition includes two new chapters: Chapter 6 examines the school environment and how school size, structure, and related factors affect school crime and safety, while Chapter 7 discusses recent research on identifying which students may be at risk of committing school violence. Chapters on the causes of juvenile delinquency and the role of police, courts, and corrections in the administration of juvenile justice have been expanded and updated to reflect the latest available research and resources. Ideal for criminal justice courses and an indispensable resource for scholars and school administrators, School Crime and Juvenile Justice, Second Edition, takes a closer look at the problem of crime and violence in and around schools. It offers a clear understanding of how people can work together to create safer schools and how educators and juvenile justice officials can develop cooperative delinquency prevention programs.

Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency

Theory, Research, and Interventions
Author: Ricky Greenwald
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317787668
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 306
View: 491
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Learn how and why trauma is relevant to juvenile delinquency—and what to do about it! This groundbreaking book addresses the connection between childhood trauma and juvenile delinquency. Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Research, and Interventions begins with two chapters presenting theoretical models of the relationship between trauma and the development/persistence of antisocial behavior. Another chapter addresses trauma-related assessment issues for juveniles, and several chapters present cutting-edge research on various aspects of the relationship between trauma and delinquency. Finally, several chapters focus on theory-based and empirically supported trauma-focused therapeutic interventions for juvenile delinquents. No other single source provides such breadth and depth of coverage on this topic! From the editor: “Disruptive behavior disorders are by far the largest type of mental health referral for children and adolescents, while juvenile crime and violence continue to be major social concerns. Several bodies of literature have converged to suggest that trauma is more than incidental to the problem of juvenile delinquency, it contributes to the problem.” Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Research, and Interventions explores: how trauma relates to conduct disorder the connection between traumatic victimization and oppositional/defiance problems ways to assess PTSD in adolescents how exposure to violence, delinquent activity, and posttraumatic stress symptomatology are related the unique trauma histories of incarcerated girls and the problems they have adjusting to life within the juvenile justice system how to develop group therapy services for incarcerated male juvenile offenders with PTSD This valuable book also examines the effectiveness of EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) for boys with conduct problems, MASTR (Motivation - Adaptive Skills - Trauma Resolution) for teens with school-related problems, and CPT (Cognitive Processing Therapy) for juvenile delinquents with post-traumatic stress disorder.

Juvenile Delinquency

Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention
Author: Kirk Heilbrun,Naomi E. Sevin Goldstein,Richard E. Redding
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198036289
Category: Medical
Page: 368
View: 3179
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Juvenile offending and anti-social behavior are enormous societal concerns. This broad-reaching volume summarizes the current evidence on prevention, diversion, causes, and rates of delinquency, as well as assessment of risk and intervention needs. A distinguished cast of contributors from law, psychology, and psychiatry describe what we know about interventions in school, community, and residential contexts, focusing particularly on interventions that are risk reducing and cost effective. Equally important, each chapter comments on what is not well supported through research, distinguishing aspects of current practice that are likely to be effective from those that are not and mapping new directions for research, policy, and practice. Finally, the volume provides a description of a model curriculum for training legal and mental health professionals on conducting relevant assessments of adolescents for the courts. Effectively bridging research and practice, this will be an important resource for legal and mental health professionals involved in the juvenile justice system, policy makers seeking humane but effective interventions in the context of society's need for safety, and those involved in teaching about and training in juvenile delinquency.

Juvenile Delinquency

Causes and Control
Author: Robert Agnew,Timothy Brezina
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780190641610
Category: Social Science
Page: 624
View: 9382
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Now in its sixth edition, Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control offers a clear and concise overview of the latest theories and research on the causes and control of delinquency. The text is organized around three major questions in the field: What is the nature and extent of delinquency? What are the causes of delinquency? and What strategies should we employ to control delinquency? These thought-provoking questions draw students into the text, challenging them to use major theories to explain the basic facts about delinquency, to understand the research on its causes, and to develop and evaluate programs and policies for its control.

The Juvenile Justice System


Author: N.A
Publisher: N A S W Press
ISBN: 9780871014160
Category: Law
Page: 54
View: 2138
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Adolescent Crime


Author: Per-Olof H. Wikstrom,David A. Butterworth
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134008260
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 8059
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This book examines young people's involvement in crime (including crimes of violence, vandalism, shoplifting, burglary and car crime) as both victims and offenders. Although adolescence is the time when involvement in crime peaks, few previous UK-based studies have attempted to provide a methodical and comprehensive understanding of adolescent offending on a city-wide basis. This book seeks a better understanding of adolescent crime by studying the relationship between individual characteristics (social bonds and morality and self-control) and lifestyles (as defined by delinquent peers, substance use and exposure to risky behaviour settings) and their joint influence on adolescent involvement in crime, against the backdrop of the juveniles' social context - taking into account family, school and neighbourhood influences. The findings of this study suggest the existence of three main groups of adolescent offenders; propensity induced offenders, life-style dependent offenders and situationally limited offenders, groups of offenders having different causal backgrounds to their crime involvement, and who therefore may warrant different strategies for effective prevention.