Essays on the Islamic Republic
Author: Ervand Abrahamian
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520085039
Category: History
Page: 188
View: 2151
"Fanatic," "dogmatic," "fundamentalist"--these are the words most often used in the West to describe the Ayatollah Khomeini. The essays in this book challenge that view, arguing that Khomeini and his Islamic movement should be seen as a form of Third World political populism--a radical but pragmatic middle-class movement that strives to enter, rather than reject, the modern age. Ervand Abrahamian, while critical of Khomeini, asks us to look directly at the Ayatollah's own works and to understand what they meant to his principal audience--his followers in Iran. Abrahamian analyzes political tracts dating back to 1943, along with Khomeini's theological writings and his many public statements in the form of speeches, interviews, proclamations and fatwas (judicial decrees). What emerges, according to Abrahamian, is a militant, sometimes contradictory, political ideology that focuses not on issues of scripture and theology but on the immediate political, social, and economic grievances of workers and the middle class. These essays reveal how the Islamic Republic has systematically manipulated history through televised "recantations," newspapers, school textbooks, and even postage stamps. All are designed to bolster the clergy's reputation as champions of the downtrodden and as defenders against foreign powers. Abrahamian also discusses the paranoia that permeates the political spectrum in Iran, contending that such deep distrust is symptomatic of populist regimes everywhere.

Key Islamic Political Thinkers

Author: John L. Esposito,Emad El-Din Shahin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190900377
Category: Religion
Page: 224
View: 9824
Islam has become a potent political force around the world since it reemerged in the late 1960's and 1970's as a religio-political alternative to failed nationalist ideologies. In countries throughout the world, individuals and movements have attempted to reconstruct the political, economic, and social dimensions of their societies along Islamic lines, taking different approaches to the shari`a and to the questions of whether and how to establish an Islamic state. Key Islamic Political Thinkers offers an examination of some of the leading intellectuals behind the resurgence of political Islam. The essays in this volume cover a selection of thinkers that is representative of the main strands of contemporary Muslim political thought. It starts with the forefathers of contemporary political Islam, Hasan al-Banna and Abu al A`la al-Mawdudi, analyzes the revolutionary ideas of Sayyid Qutb, Ali Shari`ati, and Ayatollah Khomeini, and ends with the "intellectuals" of political Islam, Hassan al-Turabi, Rashid al-Ghannoushi, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Muhammad Khatami, and Abdolkarim Soroush, who exemplify the diversity and complexity of contemporary Muslim political discourse. This volume provides a valuable guide to the most important intellectual architects of the Islamic revival.

A Critical Introduction to Khomeini

Author: Arshin Adib-Moghaddam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107729068
Category: History
Page: 344
View: 464
As the architect of the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini remains one of the most inspirational and enigmatic figures of the twentieth century. The revolution placed Iran at the forefront of Middle East politics and the Islamic revival. Twenty years after his death, Khomeini is revered as a spiritual and political figurehead in Iran and in large swathes of the Islamic world, while in the West he is remembered by many as a dictator and the instigator of Islamist confrontation. Arshin Adib-Moghaddam brings together distinguished and emerging scholars in this comprehensive volume, which covers all aspects of Khomeini's life and critically examines Khomeini the politician, the philosopher, and the spiritual leader, while considering his legacy in Iran and further afield in other parts of the Islamic world and the West. Written by scholars from varying disciplines, the book will prove invaluable to students and general readers interested in the life and times of Khomeini and the politics that he inspired.

Khatami and Gorbachev

Politics of Change in the Islamic Republic of Iran and the USSR
Author: Zhand Shakibi
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857714023
Category: Political Science
Page: 400
View: 6970
Mohammad Khatami, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1997 to 2005, continues to be an influential figure in Iranian politics, especially in the upheavals following the 2009 presidential election. 2005, the year in which Khatami was replaced by the radical populist Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, also marked the twentieth anniversary of Mikhail Gorbachev’s appointment to the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev and Khatami both attempted to breathe new life into the ideological polities that emerged from two of the most significant events of the twentieth century, the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917 and Iran’s Islamic Revolution of 1979, both of which proclaimed new forms of universalist utopian modernities claiming superiority to that of the West. Their institutional arrangements, ideological dynamics, historical goals, geopolitics and drive for change share much in common. Zhand Shakibi here offers the first comparative analysis of these two influential leaders based heavily on interviews, archives and memoirs. By taking Khatami and Gorbachev out of the narrow Iranian and Soviet contexts and comparing their leadership styles, political and historical outlooks and the domestic and geopolitical environments in which they found themselves, the author provides intriguing conclusions on why these men achieved the exact opposite of what they sought - in the one case, the collapse of the USSR and in the other, the domination of the institutions of the Islamic Republic by a coalition of conservatives and radical Islamists, which in the aftermath of the 2009 election, found itself under increasing pressure from so-called reformists and outright rejectionists of the Islamist Republic. The importance of this study lies in its demonstration of how similar political features in completely different political environments can produce common political outcomes. This book is a fascinating resource for political scientists, international relations specialists and historians of twentieth century politics. It also includes new analysis of the 2009 Iranian elections, providing fascinating insights for those who follow the unfolding of the Iranian political scene.

The History of Shi'ism and Iranian Shi'ism

Author: Sophie Duhnkrack
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640517180
Category: Shīʻah
Page: 16
View: 6389
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Near East, Near Orient, grade: 85, Ben Gurion University, course: Iran, language: English, abstract: Ervand Abrahamian introduces his work Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic with a discussion of two terms interesting for an analysis of the Islamic Revolution, particularly considering Western images of Khomeini and his movement: fundamentalism and populism. These ideologically loaded concepts depict the book's central thesis, namely that fundamentalism is not an appropriate term for describing Khomeini, his ideas and movement. According to Abrahamian, it alludes "religious inflexibility, ... political traditionalism, ... social conservatism, the centrality of scriptural-doctrinal principles, and] ... the rejection of the modern world." He instead presents populism as a more apposite term, which "connotes attempts made by nation-states to enter that world." The scholars Daniele Albertazzi and Duncam McDonnell define 'populism' in a widely accepted definition as an ideology which pits a virtuous and homogeneous people against a set of elites and dangerous 'others' who are together depicted as depriving (or attempting to deprive) the sovereign people of their rights, values, prosperity, identity and voice. Essentially approving of Abrahamian's cited thesis, this essay attempts to illustrate that the Islamic Revolution, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, does not represent a movement driven by "religious fundamentalism" or "fanaticism," but the Iranian way of emancipation from domestic and foreign oppression and domination, materialized by the Shah and the West. This thesis will be developed through exploring the Shi'ite history and especially its appearance in Iran. Furthermore it will continually explore the religion's revolutionary and supposedly fanatical characteristics and its contribution to the 1979 revolution, which, as its leader Khomeini, Western mainstream media often

The Iranian revolution and the Muslim world

Author: Daṿid Menashri
Publisher: Westview Pr
Category: Political Science
Page: 282
View: 1350

The Cult of Power

Dictators in the Twentieth Century
Author: Joseph Held
Publisher: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 173
View: 5505

From the Ruins of Empire

The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia
Author: Pankaj Mishra
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 1429945982
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 513
A surprising, gripping narrative depicting the thinkers whose ideas shaped contemporary China, India, and the Muslim world A little more than a century ago, as the Japanese navy annihilated the giant Russian one at the Battle of Tsushima, original thinkers across Asia, working independently, sought to frame a distinctly Asian intellectual tradition that would inform and inspire the continent's anticipated rise to dominance. Asian dominance did not come to pass, and those thinkers—Tagore, Gandhi, and later Nehru in India; Liang Qichao and Sun Yatsen in China; Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Abdurreshi al Ibrahim in the ruins of the Ottoman Empire—are seen as outriders from the main anticolonial tradition. But Pankaj Mishra shows that it was otherwise in this stereotype-shattering book. His enthralling group portrait of like minds scattered across a vast continent makes clear that modern Asia's revolt against the West is not the one led by faith-fired terrorists and thwarted peasants but one with deep roots in the work of thinkers who devised a view of life that was neither modern nor antimodern, neither colonialist nor anticolonialist. In broad, deep, dramatic chapters, Mishra tells the stories of these figures, unpacks their philosophies, and reveals their shared goal of a greater Asia. Right now, when the emergence of a greater Asia seems possible as at no previous time in history, From the Ruins of Empire is as necessary as it is timely—a book essential to our understanding of the world and our place in it.

The Persian Night

Iran Under the Khomeinist Revolution
Author: Amir Taheri
Publisher: Encounter Books
ISBN: 1594034796
Category: History
Page: 417
View: 4938
An insider's history of the Khomeinist movement in Iran describes its pro-war agenda while discussing how it can be resisted, fought, and defeated, in a report that poses an optimistic argument for Iran's potential as a nation-state in the global mainstream.

The Islamic Movement in North Africa

Author: François Burgat,William Dowell
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Category: History
Page: 310
View: 7031

Book Review of Shi'a Islam

From Religion to Revolution by Heinz Halm
Author: Sophie Duhnkrack
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640341848
Page: 20
View: 9411
Thesis (M.A.) from the year 2009 in the subject Theology - Comparative Religion Studies, grade: 96, Ben Gurion University, course: Formation of Islam, language: English, abstract: Professor Heinz Halm's work Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution deals with the origins and developments of Shi'ism in general and the Shi'i history of Iran, with special attention paid to the Iranian Revolution, which gave rise to the Islamic Republic of Iran. Professor Halm's study aims to synthesize these two major thematic blocks which are located in quite distant historical periods. Within the analysis of Shi'ism the author depicts the major rituals and their history, utilizing travelogues and descriptions of majorly European observers. He compares and examines historical processes which led to the revolution, as well as the revolution itself and its outcome on the basis of previously described characteristics of Shi'ism. . Firstly this article will give a short presentation of the book's structure and a summary of its contents. Further on, it will compare the work with Jonathan Berkey's The Formation of Islam and Ervand Abrahamian's Khomeinism: Essays of the Islamic Republic of Iran in order to examine different approaches and interpretations of various issues covered by all three works. Successively the article will focus on the methodology, the use of sources and the style of Shi'a Islam and it will conclude with some criticism and suggestions for further reading in this field.

My people shall fight!

transformation or truncation for the Arab homeland?
Author: George Hajjar
Publisher: N.A
Category: History
Page: 633
View: 8239

Low-Intensity Conflict in the Third World

Author: Stephen Blank,Lewis B. Ware,Air University (U.S.). Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education
Publisher: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 178
View: 7826

The Middle East Challenge, 1980-1985

Author: Thomas Naff
Publisher: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 179
View: 3750
Hermann F. Eilts, former Ambassador to Egypt and Saudi Arabia, takes a broad look ahead: “The Middle East in 1985—Through a Murky Crystal.” Eric Rouleau, Le Monde, discusses “Prospects for Instability and New Leadership.” Michael Sterner, U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, counters with “Prospects for Stability and New Leader­ship.” William B. Quandt, Brookings Institu­tion, examines “American Policy Toward the Arab-Israeli Conflict,” while Stephen S. Ros­enfield, Washington Post, offers “An Alter­native View of the Arab-Israeli Conflict.” William G. Hyland, Center for Strategic In­ternational Studies, discusses “The Soviet Union and the Middle East”; his view is modified by Robert Legvold, Council on Foreign Relations, in “The Soviet Union and the Middle East: Another View.” Lawrence R. Klein, Professor of Econom­ics, University of Pennsylvania, explores “Oil Prices and the World Economy” and is an­swered by John H. Lichtblau, Executive Di­rector, Petroleum Industry Research Foun­dation, Inc., “OPEC’s Pricing Policy and Its Limits.” George T. Abed, International Mon­etary Fund, scrutinizes “Development Pros­pects in Arab Nations,” while Odeh F. Abur­dene, First National Bank, Chicago, cites “The Hard Realities of Arab Development.” “International Migration, Manpower, and Economic Growth in the Arab Region” is the topic of three from the World Bank: J. S. Birks, C. A. Sinclair, and J. A. Socknat. Charles B. Keely, Population Council, dis­cusses “Policy Dilemmas for International Migration in the Middle East.” John V. James, Chairman, Dressler Industries, discusses “Rebuilding America’s Productive Capac­ity.” Raymond Garcia, President, GRC Client Services, considers the “Outlook for Con­gressional Action Affecting Middle East Eco­nomics.” James Noyes, Hoover Institution, concludes with “Military Factors Determin­ing Middle East Security in the Eighties.”

The Islamic Revival Since 1988

A Critical Survey and Bibliography
Author: Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad,John L. Esposito
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Reference
Page: 295
View: 2344
Facilitates access to the many publications that have flooded the market since 1989 and is a continuation of the first edition of the work published in 1991.

Travails of Perestroika, the Breakaway Syndrome

Author: Padma Lochan Dash
Publisher: N.A
Category: Former Soviet republics
Page: 445
View: 7385

Iran's Unresolved Revolution

Author: Mark Downes
Publisher: Ashgate Pub Limited
ISBN: 9780754631880
Category: Political Science
Page: 199
View: 5108
This work pinpoints the main influences in Iranian society. The wide variety of influences upon Iran's social and political structure has resulted in many ways in an identity crisis of sorts. This book aims to clarify this internal structure within Iranian society while highlighting the potential consequences for Iran's relations with the international community.


Yearbook on the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
Category: European cooperation
Page: N.A
View: 3056