Microstructural Characterisation of Fibre-Reinforced Composites

Author: John Summerscales
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849338823
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 320
View: 8018
In the past 50 years, great progress has been made in developing artificial fiber-reinforced composite materials, generally using filaments with microscopic diameters. An array of reinforcement forms can be used in commercial applications - with the microstructure being a critical factor in realizing the required properties in a material. Microstructural Characterisation of Fibre-Reinforced Composites comprehensively examines the application of advanced microstructural characterization techniques to fiber-reinforced composites.

The Structural Integrity of Carbon Fiber Composites

Fifty Years of Progress and Achievement of the Science, Development, and Applications
Author: Peter W. R. Beaumont,Constantinos Soutis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319461206
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 969
View: 1856
This book brings together a diverse compilation of inter-disciplinary chapters on fundamental aspects of carbon fiber composite materials and multi-functional composite structures: including synthesis, characterization, and evaluation from the nano-structure to structure meters in length. The content and focus of contributions under the umbrella of structural integrity of composite materials embraces topics at the forefront of composite materials science and technology, the disciplines of mechanics, and development of a new predictive design methodology of the safe operation of engineering structures from cradle to grave. Multi-authored papers on multi-scale modelling of problems in material design and predicting the safe performance of engineering structure illustrate the inter-disciplinary nature of the subject. The book examines topics such as Stochastic micro-mechanics theory and application for advanced composite systems Construction of the evaluation process for structural integrity of material and structure Nano- and meso-mechanics modelling of structure evolution during the accumulation of damage Statistical meso-mechanics of composite materials Hierarchical analysis including "age-aware," high-fidelity simulation and virtual mechanical testing of composite structures right up to the point of failure. The volume is ideal for scientists, engineers, and students interested in carbon fiber composite materials, and other composite material systems.

Textile Technology Digest

Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
Category: Textile industry
Page: N.A
View: 6459

Flow Induced Alignment in Composite Materials

Author: T. D. Papathanasiou,D. C. Guell
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 9781855732544
Category: Computers
Page: 363
View: 5600
The purpose of aligning short fibers in a fiber-reinforced material is to improve the mechanical properties of the resulting composite. Aligning the fibers, generally in a preferred direction, allows them to contribute as much as possible to reinforcing the material. In some cases, the mechanical properties of these aligned, short-fiber composites can approach those of continuous-fiber composites, with the advantages of lower production costs and greater ease of production. Since its publication, this book has been consistently recognized as one of the most important contributions to this field.

Quality handbook for composite materials

Author: Michel H. Geier
Publisher: Springer
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 278
View: 362
As the use of composite materials has become widespread in recent years quality control in their manufacture has become essential. This book is the first compilation of the quality control methods used in industry and academia. This is essentially a practical book, accessible to anyone working in - or wanting to know more about - quality control in composite material manufacture.

Engineered Interfaces in Fiber Reinforced Composites

Author: Jang-Kyo Kim,Yiu-Wing Mai
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080530970
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 416
View: 1531
The study and application of composite materials are a truly interdisciplinary endeavour that has been enriched by contributions from chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics and manufacturing engineering. The understanding of the interface (or interphase) in composites is the central point of this interdisciplinary effort. From the early development of composite materials of various nature, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. While there are many reference books available on composite materials, few of them deal specifically with the science and mechanics of the interface of fiber reinforced composites. Further, many recent advances devoted solely to research in composite interfaces have been scattered in a variety of published literature and have yet to be assembled in a readily accessible form. To this end this book is an attempt to bring together recent developments in the field, both from the materials science and mechanics perspective, in a single convenient volume. The central theme of the book is tailoring the interface properties to optimise the mechanical peformance and structural integrity of composites with enhanced strength/stiffness and fracture toughness (or specific fracture resistance). It deals mainly with interfaces in advanced composites made from high performance fibers, such as glass, carbon, aramid, ultra high modulus polyethylene and some inorganic (e.g. B/W, A12O3, SiC) fibers, and matrix materials encompassing polymers, metals/alloys and ceramics. The book is intended to provide a comprehensive treatment of composite interfaces in such a way that it should be of interest to materials scientists, technologists and practising engineers, as well as graduate students and their supervisors in advanced composites. We hope that this book will also serve as a valuable source of reference to all those involved in the design and research of composite interfaces. The book contains eight chapters of discussions on microstructure-property relationships with underlying fundamental mechanics principles. In Chapter 1, an introduction is given to the nature and definition of interfaces in fiber reinforced composites. Chapter 2 is devoted to the mechanisms of adhesion which are specific to each fiber-matrix system, and the physio-chemical characterization of the interface with regard to the origin of adhesion. The experimental techniques that have been developed to assess the fiber-matrix interface bond quality on a microscopic scale are presented in Chapter 3, along with the techniques of measuring interlaminar/intralaminar strengths and fracture toughness using bulk composite laminates. The applicability and limitations associated with loading geometry and interpretation of test data are compared. Chapter 4 presents comprehensive theoretical analyses based on shear-lag models of the single fiber composite tests, with particular interest being placed on the interface debond process and the nature of the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding. Chapter 5 is devoted to reviewing current techniques of fiber surface treatments which have been devised to improve the bond strength and the fiber-matrix compatibility/stability during the manufacturing processes of composites. The micro-failure mechanisms and their associated theories of fracture toughness of composites are discussed in Chapter 6. The roles of the interface and its effects on the mechanical performance of fiber composites are addressed from several viewpoints. Recent research efforts to augment the transverse and interlaminar fracture toughness by means of controlled interfaces are presented in Chapters 7 and 8.

Optical Microscopy of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Author: Brian S. Hayes,Luther M. Gammon
Publisher: ASM International
ISBN: 161503143X
Category: Composite materials
Page: 271
View: 4881
Optical microscopy is one of the most valuable--but under utilized--tools for analyzing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. This hands-on instructional book covers everything: sample preparation, microscopic techniques, and applications. The power of optical microscopy to study the microstructure of these heterogeneous, anisotropic materials is illustrated with over 180 full color images.

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition

Author: Peter J. Goodhew,John Humphreys,Richard Beanland
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748409686
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 254
View: 9884
Electron Microscopy and Analysis deals with several sophisticated techniques for magnifying images of very small objects by large amounts - especially in a physical science context. It has been ten years since the last edition of Electron Microscopy and Analysis was published and there have been rapid changes in this field since then. The authors have vastly updated their very successful second edition, which is already established as an essential laboratory manual worldwide, and they have incorporated questions and answers in each chapter for ease of learning. Equally as relevant for material scientists and bioscientists, this third edition is an essential textbook.

Science and Engineering of Short Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

Author: S-Y Fu,B Lauke,Y.-W. Mai
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845696492
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 364
View: 973
When fibres in a composite are discontinuous and are shorter than a few millimetres, the composite is called a ‘short fibre reinforced composite (SFRP)’. SFRPs have found extensive applications in automobiles, business machines, durable consumer items, sporting goods and electrical industries owing to their low cost, easy processing and superior mechanical properties over the parent polymers. The book summarises recent developments in this area, focusing on the fundamental mechanisms that govern the mechanical properties including strength, modulus, fracture toughness and thermal properties of SFRP materials. This book covers the following topics: extrusion compounding and injection moulding, major factors affecting mechanical performance, stress transfer, strength, elastic modulus flexural modulus, thermal conductivity and expansion, non-linear stress-strain behaviour and fracture mechanics of short fibre reinforced polymers. With its distinguished team of authors, Science and engineering of short fibre reinforced polymer composites is a standard reference for anyone involved in the development, manufacture and use of SFRPs. It will also provide an in-depth understanding of the behaviour of these versatile materials. Reviews the mechanical properties and functions of short fibre reinforced polymer composites (SFRP) Examines recent developments in the fundamental mechanisms of SFRP's Assesses major factors affecting mechanical performance such as stress transfer and strength

New Fibers, Second Edition

Author: Tatsuya Hongu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781855733343
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 257
View: 8858
Second edition (1997): We have taken this opportunity to revise the original and to add new information about developments since 1990. . . . Since 1990 there have been considerable changes in the nature of the fibers being produced, the production methods and in consumers values and expectations. . . . Since 1990, the march of high-tech fibers has continued with an ever-increasing sub-division to meet the specialised applications, as in high-performance, high-function and high-sense fibers. New research and development has produced fibers with high tenacity and modulus to give the super-fibers now used as industrial materials. . . . [n]ew . . . ultrafine fibers can emulate the functionality and ambience of biological fibers. The synthetic cellulosics have made a particular resurgence since 1990, and the various solvent-spun fibers . . . are now making a great impact on the market. They now offer the processability of synthetics along with the in-built advantages of natural cotton. We hope . . . that the approach of the 1st edition is now extended to illustrate the dynamism of this frontier industry, pointing the way forward into the next century. If you think fiber technology is a mature technology, this new book may change your mind. It examines many new high-performance, application-specific synthetic fibers recently introduced. Included are details of chemistry, research and development, properties and performance, processing, and specific industrial, consumer and medical applications. This extensive survey of new fibers and fiber technology serves the information needs of all those involved in the development and commercialization of new and improved fibers. (It also provides fascinating reading for all those interested in this subject.)

Engineering with Fibre-Polymer Laminates

Author: P.C. Powell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412496103
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 441
View: 9476
This book has its recent origins in a Master's course in Polymer Engineering at Manchester. It is a rather extended version of composite mechanics covered in about twenty five hours within a two-week intensive programme on Fibre Polymer Composites which also formed part of the UK Government and Industry-sponsored Integrated Graduate Development Scheme in Polymer Engineering. The material has also been used in other courses, and in teaching to students of engineering and of polymer technology both in the UK and in mainland Europe. There are already many books describing the analysis of and mechanical behaviour of polymer/fibre composites, so why write another? Most of these excellent books appear to be aimed at readers who already have a substantial understanding of stress analysis for linear elastic isotropic materials, who are thoroughly at home with mathematical analysis, and who seem often not to need much of the reassurance which numerical examples and illustrated applications can offer. In teaching the mechanics of composites to many groups of scientists, technologists and engineers, I have found that most of them need and seek an introduction before consulting the advanced texts. This book is intended to fill the gap. Throughout this text is interspersed a substantial range of examples to bring out the practical implications of the basic principles, and a wide range of problems (with outline solutions) to test the reader and extend understanding.

Microstructural Design of Fiber Composites

Author: Tsu-Wei Chou
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521019651
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 592
View: 8789
The book is intended as a text for graduate or advanced undergraduate students, but will also be an excellent reference for all materials scientists and engineers.

Biofiber Reinforcements in Composite Materials

Author: Omar Faruk,Mohini Sain
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782421270
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 772
View: 897
Natural fiber-reinforced composites have the potential to replace synthetic composites, leading to less expensive, stronger and more environmentally-friendly materials. This book provides a detailed review on how a broad range of biofibers can be used as reinforcements in composites and assesses their overall performance. The book is divided into five major parts according to the origins of the different biofibers. Part I contains chapters on bast fibers, Part II; leaf fibers, Part III; seed fibers, Part IV; grass, reed and cane fibers, and finally Part V covers wood, cellulosic and other fibers including cellulosic nanofibers. Each chapter reviews a specific type of biofiber providing detailed information on the sources of each fiber, their cultivation, how to process and prepare them, and how to integrate them into composite materials. The chapters outline current and potential applications for each fiber and discuss their main strengths and weaknesses. The book is divided into five major parts according to the origins of the different biofibers - bast, leaf, seed; grass, reed and cane fibers, and finally wood, cellulosic and other fibers including cellulosic nanofibers. This book provides a detailed review on how a broad range of biofibers can be used as reinforcements in composites and assesses their overall performance The chapters outline current and potential applications for each fiber and discuss their main strengths and weaknesses

Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

Author: M.H. Lewis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400908172
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 392
View: 3040
The emergence of synthetic ceramics as a prominent class of materials with a unique combination of properties has been an important part of the materials-science scene over the past 20 years. These 'high-technology' ceramics have varied applications in areas utilizing their exceptional mechanical, thermal, optical, magnetic or electronic properties. A notable development of the 1970s was that of 'Si-based' ceramics (Si3N4' SiC and 'Sialons') as high-temperature engineering solids. More recently the zirconia-based ceramics have evolved as a class of material with significant improvements in fracture-toughness. In the 1980s we are on the threshold of development of ceramic-matrix composites with the promise of over coming major limitations in engineering design with 'brittle' ceramics and the development of novel properties unattainable with monolithic micro structures. Throughout this period there have been significant but less well-publicized developments in the field of glass-ceramics and glasses. It is the purpose of this publication to review selected topics within this important area of materials science. A key element in understanding the relation between properties and microstructure is a knowledge of atomic arrangement in ceramic phases. Recent developments in NMR and X-ray absorption spectroscopies have had considerable impact on studies of atomic co-ordination in glasses and crystalline ceramic materials and are reviewed in Chapters 1 and 2. Glass-ceramics are derived from the parent glasses by controlled crystal lization and have properties dictated, in part, by the efficiency of crystal nucleation within the glass volume.

Stochastic models of heterogeneous materials

Author: H. Hermann
Publisher: Trans Tech Pubn
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 177
View: 7499

Thermoplastic Aromatic Polymer Composites

A Study of the Structure, Processing and Properties of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polyetheretherketone and Related Materials
Author: Frederic Neil Cogswell
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483164764
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 288
View: 1413
Thermoplastic Aromatic Polymer Composites: A Study of the Structure, Processing and Properties of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polyetheretherketone and Related Materials deals with the field of thermoplastic composite materials through a study of carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone. The book is composed of twelve chapters. The first four chapters are an introduction and basic learning of thermoplastic composite materials. These chapters include discussions on the components of thermoplastics, product forms, and the microstructure of aromatic polymer composites. The processing and manufacturing technology, including the fundamental operations, control, and the wide implications of manufacturing the composite material, are analyzed. The service performance structure of three interactions, namely, material, design, and processing, are illustrated. The strength of thermoplastic composites is then considered through an analysis of both shear and extensions with elastic modulus, but in the case of material strength, the differences between tension and compression properties should be taken into account. The book also notes that the durability, temperature sensitivity, and environmental resistance should likewise be regarded for a structural composite to have practical value and satisfactory performance. Lastly, the text explains that the numerous applications of thermoplastic structural composites, such as in medicine, aviation, marine and space technology, automotive, and industrial machinery, are all important and a rigorous evaluation is therefore necessary. The book finally suggests that the research into the future developments in the thermoplastic structural composites and the trend toward new design strategies and processing technology are important in optimizing the composite's great potential. Industrial researchers in the field of chemistry and polymer composites, students, and academicians interested in the design and application of polymer composites will find this book relevant.

Advanced Composites for Aerospace, Marine, and Land Applications II

Author: T. Sano,T.S. Srivatsan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331948141X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 372
View: 9921
The papers in this volume cover a broad spectrum of topics that represent the truly diverse nature of the field of composite materials. In recent years, composite materials have grown in strength, stature, and significance to become a key material of enhanced scientific interest and resultant research into understanding their behavior for selection and safe use in a wide spectrum of technology-related applications. This collection presents research and findings relevant to the latest advances in composites materials, specifically their use in aerospace, maritime, and even land applications. The editors have made every effort to bring together authors who put forth recent advances in their research while concurrently both elaborating on and thereby enhancing our prevailing understanding of the salient aspects related to the science, engineering, and far-reaching technological applications of composite materials.

Natural Fiber-Reinforced Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Polymer Composites

Author: Alan Kin-tak Lau,Ada Pui Yan Hung
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081006691
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 208
View: 7277
Natural Fiber-Reinforced Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Polymer Composites focuses on key areas of fundamental research and applications of biocomposites. Several key elements that affect the usage of these composites in real-life applications are discussed. There will be a comprehensive review on the different kinds of biocomposites at the beginning of the book, then the different types of natural fibers, bio-polymers, and green nanoparticle biocomposites are discussed as well as their potential for future development and use in engineering biomedical and domestic products. Recently mankind has realized that unless the environment is protected, he himself will be threatened by the over consumption of natural resources as well as a substantial reduction in the amount of fresh air produced in the world. Conservation of forests and the optimal utilization of agricultural and other renewable resources like solar, wind, and tidal energy, have become important topics worldwide. With such concern, the use of renewable resources—such as plant and animal-based, fiber-reinforced polymeric composites—are now becoming an important design criterion for designing and manufacturing components for a broad range of different industrial products. Research on biodegradable polymeric composites can contribute, to some extent, to a much greener and safer environment. For example, in the biomedical and bioengineering fields, the use of natural fiber mixed with biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers can produce joint and bone fixtures to alleviate pain in patients. Includes comprehensive information about the sources, properties, and biodegradability of natural fibers Discusses failure mechanisms and modeling of natural fibers composites Analyzes the effectiveness of using natural materials for enhancing mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable properties

Molecular Characterization of Composite Interfaces

Author: Hatsuo Ishida,Ganesh Kumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489922512
Category: Science
Page: 454
View: 5446
This book is an extended version of the proceedings of the Symposium on Polymer Composites, Interfaces, which was held under the auspices of the Division of Polymer Chemistry, American Chemical Society (ACS) during the annual ACS meeting in Seattle, March, 1983. The importance of the interface in composite materials has been recognized since the inception of modern composite technology. Specifically, silane coupling agents were developed for glass fiber reinforced compOSites at a very early date. Ever since then the diversity of composite materials and the development of various surface treatment methods have led to the establishment of an "interface art." A trial-and-error approach has dominated the interfacial aspects of composite technology until very recently. With the advent of modern analytical techniques for surface characterization, it became possible to study detailed surface and interface structures. It was hoped that this symposium would catalyze such a fundamental and scientific approach in composite studies. For this reason, the symposium was structured to verify the influence of interfacial structures on the mechanical and physical performance of composites and to improve our knowledge of the microstructure of composite interfaces. As the word ·composite" indicates, interdisciplinary interaction is indispensable for proper understanding of multiphase systems.

Composite Reinforcements for Optimum Performance

Author: Philippe Boisse
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857093711
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 704
View: 7442
Reinforcements are an integral part of all composites and the quality and performance of the composite can be optimised by modelling the type and structure of the reinforcement before moulding. Composite reinforcements for optimum performance reviews the materials, properties and modelling techniques used in composite production and highlights their uses in optimising performance. Part one covers materials for reinforcements in composites, including chapters on fibres, carbon nanotubes and ceramics as reinforcement materials. In part two, different types of structures for reinforcements are discussed, with chapters covering woven and braided reinforcements, three-dimensional fibre structures and two methods of modelling the geometry of textile reinforcements: WiseTex and TexGen. Part three focuses on the properties of composite reinforcements, with chapters on topics such as in-plane shear properties, transverse compression, bending and permeability properties. Finally, part four covers characterising and modelling of reinforcements in composites, with chapters focusing on such topics as microscopic and mesoscopic approaches, X-ray tomography analysis and modelling reinforcement forming processes. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Composite reinforcements for optimum performance is an essential reference for designers and engineers in the composite and composite reinforcement manufacturing industry, as well as all those with an academic research interest in the subject. Reviews the materials, properties and modelling techniques used in composite production and highlights their uses in performance optimisation Covers materials for reinforcements in composites, including fibres, carbon nanotubes and ceramics Discusses characterising and modelling of reinforcements in composites, focusing on such topics as microscopic and mesoscopic approaches, X-ray tomography analysis and modelling reinforcement forming processes