Muscles, Reflexes, and Locomotion


Author: Thomas A. McMahon
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 069102376X
Category: Science
Page: 331
View: 9622
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Principles of Animal Locomotion


Author: R. McNeill Alexander
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849519
Category: Science
Page: 384
View: 5088
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How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.

Skeletal Function and Form

Mechanobiology of Skeletal Development, Aging, and Regeneration
Author: Dennis R. Carter,Gary S. Beaupré
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521714754
Category: Medical
Page: 332
View: 5518
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The intimate relationship between form and function inherent in the design of animals is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the musculoskeletal system. In the bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and muscles of all vertebrates there is a graceful and efficient physical order. This book is about how function determines form. It addresses the role of mechanical factors in the development, adaptation, maintenance, ageing and repair of skeletal tissues. The authors refer to this process as mechanobiology and develop their theme within an evolutionary framework. They show how the normal development of skeletal tissues is influenced by mechanical stimulation beginning in the embryo and continuing throughout life into old age. They also show how degenerative disorders such as arthritis and osteoporosis are regulated by the same mechanical processes that influence development and growth. Skeletal Function and Form bridges important gaps among disciplines, providing a common ground for understanding, and will appeal to a wide audience of bioengineers, zoologists, anthropologists, palaeontologists and orthopaedists.

Sensorimotor Control of Movement and Posture


Author: Simon C. Gandevia,Uwe Proske,Douglas G. Stuart
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461507138
Category: Medical
Page: 518
View: 4191
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This collection of contributions on the subject of the neural mechanisms of sensorimotor control resulted from a conference held in Cairns, Australia, September 3-6, 2001. While the three of us were attending the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Congress in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1997, we discussed the implications of the next Congress being awarded to New Zealand. We agreed to organise a satellite to this congress in an area of mutual interest -the neuroscience of movement and sensation. Australia has a long-standing and enviable reputation in the field of neural mechanisms of sensorimotor control. Arguably this reached its peak with the award of a Nobel Prize to Sir John Eccles in 1963 for his work on synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Since that time, the subject of neuroscience has progressed considerably. One advance is the exploitation of knowledge acquired from animal experiments to studies on conscious human subjects. In this development, Australians have achieved international prominence, particularly in the areas of kinaesthesia and movement control. This bias is evident in the choice of subject matter for the conference and, subsequently, this book. It was also decided to assign a whole section to muscle mechanics, a subject that is often left out altogether from conferences on motor control. Cairns is a lovely city and September is a good time to visit it.

Control of Posture and Locomotion


Author: R. Stein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461345472
Category: Medical
Page: 635
View: 1641
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R. B. Stein Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada The impetus for this volume and the conference that gave rise to it was the feeling that studies on motor control had reached a turning point. In recent years, studies on motor units and muscle receptors have become increasingly detailed. Attempts to integrate these studies into quantitative models for the spinal control of posture have appeared and preliminary attempts have been made to include the most direct supraspinal pathways into these models (see for example the chapters by Nashner and Melvill Jones et al. in this volume). Thus, we felt that the time was ripe to summarize these developments in a way which might be useful not only to basic medical scientists, but also to clinicians dealing with disorders of motor control, and to bioengineers attempting to build devices to assist or replace normal control. Over the past few years, computer methods have also made possible increasingly detailed studies of mammalian locomotion, and improved physiological and pharmacological studies have appeared. There seems to be almost universal agreement now that the patterns for locomotion are generated in the spinal cord, and that they can be generated with little, if any, phasic sensory information (see chapters by Grillner and Miller et al. ). This concludes a long controversy on whether chains of reflexes or central circuits generate stepping patterns. The nature of the pattern generators in mammals remains obscure, but invertebrate studies on locomotion have recently made striking advances.

Veterinary Neuroanatomy - E-Book

A Clinical Approach
Author: Christine E Thomson,Caroline Hahn
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702051985
Category: Medical
Page: 208
View: 6212
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Veterinary Neuroanatomy: A Clinical Approach is written by veterinary neurologists for anyone with an interest in the functional, applied anatomy and clinical dysfunction of the nervous system in animals, especially when of veterinary significance. It offers a user-friendly approach, providing the principal elements that students and clinicians need to understand and interpret the results of the neurological examination. Clinical cases are used to illustrate key concepts throughout. The book begins with an overview of the anatomical arrangement of the nervous system, basic embryological development, microscopic anatomy and physiology. These introductory chapters are followed by an innovative, hierarchical approach to understanding the overall function of the nervous system. The applied anatomy of posture and movement, including the vestibular system and cerebellum, is comprehensively described and illustrated by examples of both function and dysfunction. The cranial nerves and elimination systems as well as behaviour, arousal and emotion are discussed. The final chapter addresses how to perform and interpret the neurological examination. Veterinary Neuroanatomy: A Clinical Approach has been prepared by experienced educators with 35 years of combined teaching experience in neuroanatomy. Throughout the book great care is taken to explain key concepts in the most transparent and memorable way whilst minimising jargon. Detailed information for those readers with specific interests in clinical neuroanatomy is included in the text and appendix. As such, it is suitable for veterinary students, practitioners and also readers with a special interest in clinical neuroanatomy. Contains nearly 200 clear, conceptual and anatomically precise drawings, photographs of clinical cases and gross anatomical specimens Keeps to simple language and focuses on the key concepts Unique ‘NeuroMaps’ outline the location of the functional systems within the nervous system and provide simple, visual aids to understanding and interpreting the results of the clinical neurological examination The anatomical appendix provides 33 high-resolution gross images of the intact and sliced dog brain and detailed histological images of the sectioned sheep brainstem. An extensive glossary explains more than 200 neuroanatomical structures and their function.

Equine Locomotion - E-Book


Author: Willem Back,Hilary M. Clayton
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702052930
Category: Medical
Page: 528
View: 9422
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The first edition of Equine Locomotion has established itself as the book in the equine literature that discusses all aspects of equine locomotion and gait analysis, written by an international team of editors and contributors. The new edition continues this trend and gives the reader a complete picture of the horse in motion, at the same time including many recent findings in this area. The book begins with a history of man’s association with the horse and then continues to discuss with comprehensive descriptions of the present state of knowledge beginning with the initiation of gait and ending with the more scientific area of computer modeling. In the new edition, the list of contributors continues to comprise of authors who are acknowledged experts in their subject areas and includes many new illustrations. • international team of editors and contributors, with leading experts from the USA, the Netherlands, Sweden and France (all centres of excellence for the study of equine locomotion) • editors are from two of the worlds leading locomotion centres – Utrecht and Michigan • highly illustrated with nearly 500 detailed line drawings and illustrations • covers all you will ever need to know about equine locomotion, gait analysis and much more • international team of editors and contributors, with leading experts from the USA, the Netherlands, Sweden and France (all centres of excellence for the study of equine locomotion) • editors are from two of the worlds leading locomotion centres – Utrecht and Michigan • highly illustrated with nearly 500 detailed line drawings and illustrations • covers all you will ever need to know about equine locomotion, gait analysis and much more

Neuromechanical Modeling of Posture and Locomotion


Author: Boris I. Prilutsky,Donald H. Edwards
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493932675
Category: Medical
Page: 368
View: 5279
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Neuromechanics is a new, quickly growing field of neuroscience research that merges neurophysiology, biomechanics and motor control and aims at understanding living systems and their elements through interactions between their neural and mechanical dynamic properties. Although research in Neuromechanics is not limited by computational approaches, neuromechanical modeling is a powerful tool that allows for integration of massive knowledge gained in the past several decades in organization of motion related brain and spinal cord activity, various body sensors and reflex pathways, muscle mechanical and physiological properties and detailed quantitative morphology of musculoskeletal systems. Recent work in neuromechanical modeling has demonstrated advantages of such an integrative approach and led to discoveries of new emergent properties of neuromechanical systems. Neuromechanical Modeling of Posture and Locomotion will cover a wide range of topics from theoretical studies linking the organization of reflex pathways and central pattern generating circuits with morphology and mechanics of the musculoskeletal system (Burkholder; Nichols; Shevtsova et al.) to detailed neuromechanical models of postural and locomotor control (Bunderson; Edwards, Marking et al., Ting). Furthermore, uniquely diverse modeling approaches will be presented in the book including a theoretical dynamic analysis of locomotor phase transitions (Spardy and Rubin), a hybrid computational modeling that allows for in vivo interactions between parts of a living organism and a computer model (Edwards et al.), a physical neuromechanical model of the human locomotor system (Lewis), and others.

Bioinspired Legged Locomotion

Models, Concepts, Control and Applications
Author: Maziar Ahmad Sharbafi,André Seyfarth
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128037741
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 638
View: 3318
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Bioinspired Legged Locomotion: Models, Concepts, Control and Applications explores the universe of legged robots, bringing in perspectives from engineering, biology, motion science, and medicine to provide a comprehensive overview of the field. With comprehensive coverage, each chapter brings outlines, and an abstract, introduction, new developments, and a summary. Beginning with bio-inspired locomotion concepts, the book's editors present a thorough review of current literature that is followed by a more detailed view of bouncing, swinging, and balancing, the three fundamental sub functions of locomotion. This part is closed with a presentation of conceptual models for locomotion. Next, the book explores bio-inspired body design, discussing the concepts of motion control, stability, efficiency, and robustness. The morphology of legged robots follows this discussion, including biped and quadruped designs. Finally, a section on high-level control and applications discusses neuromuscular models, closing the book with examples of applications and discussions of performance, efficiency, and robustness. At the end, the editors share their perspective on the future directions of each area, presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the subject using a structured and consistent approach that will help researchers in both academia and industry formulate a better understanding of bioinspired legged robotic locomotion and quickly apply the concepts in research or products. Presents state-of-the-art control approaches with biological relevance Provides a thorough understanding of the principles of organization of biological locomotion Teaches the organization of complex systems based on low-dimensional motion concepts/control Acts as a guideline reference for future robots/assistive devices with legged architecture Includes a selective bibliography on the most relevant published articles

Muscle and Exercise Physiology


Author: Jerzy Andrzej Zoladz
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128145937
Category:
Page: 608
View: 2811
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Muscle and Exercise Physiology is a comprehensive reference covering muscle and exercise physiology from basic science to advanced knowledge including muscle power generating capabilities, muscle energetics, fatigue, aging and the cardio-respiratory system in exercise performance. Written by experts in respective fields, the book presents the clinical importance of body responses to physical exercise, including its impact on the body reactive oxygen species production, body immune system, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, cardiac energetics and its functional reserves as well as the health-related effects of physical activity and inactivity of humans. Novel topics like critical power, ROS and muscle, and heart muscle physiology are explored in context of exercise physiology to provide the perfect balance of science and application for researchers and scientists interested in muscle and exercise physiology as well as students of biological sciences, including medicine, human movements and sport sciences. The cover image is courtesy of Adam Marczukiewicz. Contains basic and state-of-the-art knowledge on the most important issues of muscle and exercise physiology, including muscle and body adaptation to physical training, the impact of aging and physical activity / inactivity on human exercise tolerance Provides both basic and advanced knowledge required to understand mechanisms that limit physical capacity from untrained people to top class athletes, including adaptation to physical training Provides advanced content on muscle power generating capabilities, muscle energetics, fatigue, and aging as well as the importance of cardio-respiratory system in exercise performance

Neurobiology of Arachnids


Author: Friedrich G. Barth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642703488
Category: Medical
Page: 388
View: 424
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Arachnids rarely come to mind when one discusses arthropod neurobiology. In fact much more is now known and written about the nervous systems of insects and crustaceans. Several arguments have led us to conclude, however, that the time has come to document impor tant aspects of the neurobiology of spiders, scorpions, and their kin, as well. Studies of arachnid neurobiology have made considerable progress since the last comprehensive treatment by Bullock and Horridge in their monumental monograph on invertebrate nervous systems pub lished in 1965. This is especially true for research performed in the last decade. Several problems related to the structure and function of arachnid nervous and sensory systems have now been studied in con siderable depth but have so far not been given adequate space under one cover. A particular incentive to produce this book has been the impor tance attributed to comparative approaches in neurobiology. Neglect ing a large taxonomic group such as the arachnids - which comprises some 60,000 species living a wide range of different lives - would mean ignoring an enormous potential source of knowledge. In writing the chapters of this book we have striven to present some of the unique features of the arachnids. But the result of our efforts is not just meant to contribute to an understanding of the particularities of the arach nids.

Vestibulospinal Control of Posture and Locomotion


Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080862019
Category: Medical
Page: 439
View: 2169
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This volume publishes the review articles presented by the invited speakers at the Satellite Meeting to the Barany Society Meeting held in Bologna, Italy during June 1987. The subject matter in this book is divided into seven main sections. The first three present basic neuroanatomical and neurophysiological aspects of vestibulospinal reflexes and document the neck afferent and visual influences on these reflexes. The following sections deal with the control of locomotion, posture, and eye-head-trunk coordination by vestibulospinal signals. The final section provides current knowledge on the processes underlying compensation of vestibulospinal deficits. An overall review precedes each main section so that the reader is informed as to which questions are still controversial and require further investigation. In this way a basis is provided for those needing a current account of the field of vestibulospinal reflexes. Due to the extensive length of the contents, only the number of articles presented per session is listed below.

Replace, Repair, Restore, Relieve – Bridging Clinical and Engineering Solutions in Neurorehabilitation

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR2014), Aalborg, 24-26 June, 2014
Author: Winnie Jensen,Ole Kæseler Andersen,Metin Akay
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319080725
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 893
View: 7018
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The book is the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR 2014), held 24th-26th June 2014 in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference featured the latest highlights in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of neural rehabilitation engineering and identified important healthcare challenges the scientific community will be faced with in the coming years. Edited and written by leading experts in the field, the book includes keynote papers, regular conference papers, and contributions to special and innovation sessions, covering the following main topics: neuro-rehabilitation applications and solutions for restoring impaired neurological functions; cutting-edge technologies and methods in neuro-rehabilitation; and translational challenges in neuro-rehabilitation. Thanks to its highly interdisciplinary approach, the book will not only be a highly relevant reference guide for academic researchers, engineers, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, physicians and physiotherapists working at the forefront of their field, but will also help to act as bridge between the scientific, engineering and medical communities.

Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual

Tests, Procedures and Data
Author: Roger Eston,Thomas Reilly
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9780419178804
Category: Sports & Recreation
Page: 343
View: 8423
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This manual describes laboratory practicals used in typical kinanthropometry courses. Each chapter commences with the theoretical background and significance of the area as it relates to general health and athletic performance. The methods of determining and assessing each component in a variety of populations are then presented.

Neuromechanical Modeling of Posture and Locomotion


Author: Boris I. Prilutsky,Donald H. Edwards
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493932675
Category: Medical
Page: 368
View: 9648
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Neuromechanics is a new, quickly growing field of neuroscience research that merges neurophysiology, biomechanics and motor control and aims at understanding living systems and their elements through interactions between their neural and mechanical dynamic properties. Although research in Neuromechanics is not limited by computational approaches, neuromechanical modeling is a powerful tool that allows for integration of massive knowledge gained in the past several decades in organization of motion related brain and spinal cord activity, various body sensors and reflex pathways, muscle mechanical and physiological properties and detailed quantitative morphology of musculoskeletal systems. Recent work in neuromechanical modeling has demonstrated advantages of such an integrative approach and led to discoveries of new emergent properties of neuromechanical systems. Neuromechanical Modeling of Posture and Locomotion will cover a wide range of topics from theoretical studies linking the organization of reflex pathways and central pattern generating circuits with morphology and mechanics of the musculoskeletal system (Burkholder; Nichols; Shevtsova et al.) to detailed neuromechanical models of postural and locomotor control (Bunderson; Edwards, Marking et al., Ting). Furthermore, uniquely diverse modeling approaches will be presented in the book including a theoretical dynamic analysis of locomotor phase transitions (Spardy and Rubin), a hybrid computational modeling that allows for in vivo interactions between parts of a living organism and a computer model (Edwards et al.), a physical neuromechanical model of the human locomotor system (Lewis), and others.

Loving Little Egypt

A Novel
Author: Thomas McMahon
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226561134
Category: Fiction
Page: 280
View: 8715
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In the early 1920s, nearly blind physics prodigy Mourly Vold finds out how to tap into the nation's long distance telephone lines. With the help of Alexander Graham Bell, Vold tries to warn the phone companies that would-be saboteurs could do the same thing, but they ignore him. Unfortunately, his taps do catch the notice of William Randolph Hearst, who hires Thomas Edison to get to the bottom of them—and the chase is on!

The Muscle Spindle


Author: Ian A. Boyd,M.H. Gladden
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349076953
Category: Science
Page: 415
View: 8170
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Multiple Muscle Systems

Biomechanics and Movement Organization
Author: Jack M. Winters,Savio L-Y. Woo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461390303
Category: Science
Page: 801
View: 5377
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The picture on the front cover of this book depicts a young man pulling a fishnet, a task of practical relevance for many centuries. It is a complex task, involving load transmission throughout the body, intricate balance, and eye head-hand coordination. The quest toward understanding how we perform such tasks with skill and grace, often in the presence of unpredictable pertur bations, has a long history. However, despite a history of magnificent sculptures and drawings of the human body which vividly depict muscle ac tivity and interaction, until more recent times our state of knowledge of human movement was rather primitive. During the past century this has changed; we now have developed a considerable database regarding the com position and basic properties of muscle and nerve tissue and the basic causal relations between neural function and biomechanical movement. Over the last few decades we have also seen an increased appreciation of the impor tance of musculoskeletal biomechanics: the neuromotor system must control movement within a world governed by mechanical laws. We have now col lected quantitative data for a wealth of human movements. Our capacity to understand the data we collect has been enhanced by our continually evolving modeling capabilities and by the availability of computational power. What have we learned? This book is designed to help synthesize our current knowledge regarding the role of muscles in human movement. The study of human movement is not a mature discipline.

Brain Mechanisms for the Integration of Posture and Movement


Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080494081
Category: Medical
Page: 550
View: 2964
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Brain Mechanisms for the Integration of Posture and Movement

The Integrative action of the nervous system


Author: Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: 411
View: 5865
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