Optical Radiometry


Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080454924
Category: Science
Page: 586
View: 4239
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This book deals with the practice of Optical Radiation Measurements with introductory material to introduce the topics discussed. It will be most useful for students, scientists and engineers working in any academic, industrial or governmental projects related to optical radiation. The book contains chapters that treat in detail the procedures and techniques for the characterization of both sources and detectors to the highest degree of accuracy and reliability. It has a chapter devoted specifically to optical measurements of laser sources and fiberoptics for communication and a chapter devoted to uncertainty in measurement and its treatment with real examples of optical measurements. The book contains introductory materials that will allow a newcomer to radiometry to develop the expertise to perform exacting and accurate measurement. The authors stress the various causes of uncertainty in each phase of a measurement and thus allow for users to arrive at a correct assessment of their uncertainty of measurement in their particular circumstance. · Authors are from the Standards laboratories of AUSTRALIA, CANADA, ENGLAND, GERMANY and the USA. · Latest techniques and practice of laboratory measurements to achieve the highest accuracy in the use of sources or detectors. · Unique illustrations of the apparatus and measurement techniques. · Practical measurement examples of calibration with full uncertainty analysis. · Comprehensive treatment of optical standards such as sources, detectors and radiometers. · A complete chapter on laser power measurements and standards for fiber optic measurements · A complete chapter on correlations in radiometry and practical examples. · A chapter devoted to diffraction effects in radiometry

Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124169945
Category: Science
Page: 722
View: 6353
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This book presents the state-of-the-art of optical remote sensing applied for the generation of marine climate-quality data products, with contributions by international experts in the field. The chapters are logically grouped into six thematic parts, each introduced by a brief overview. The different parts include: i. requirements for the generation of climate data records from satellite ocean measurements and additionally basic radiometry principles addressing terminology, standards, measurement equation and uncertainties; ii. satellite visible and thermal infrared radiometry embracing instrument design, characterization and, pre- and post-launch calibration; iii. in situ visible and thermal infrared radiometry including overviews on basic principles, technology and measurements methods required to support satellite missions devoted to climate change investigations; iv. simulations as fundamental tools to support interpretation and analysis of both in situ and satellite radiometric measurements; v. strategies for in situ radiometry to satisfy mission requirements for the generation of climate data records; and finally, vi. methods for the assessment of satellite data products. Fundamentals of measurement theory are taken through to implementation of practical ground based radiometers and their application to validate satellite data used to generate climate data records. This book presents practical solutions for those involved or contemplating the validation of optical climate measurements from satellite instruments. Exhaustive coverage of important topics Fundamental and advanced discussions of many types of instruments Emphasis on calibration and uncertainty analysis of results

Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses


Author: Michael Bukshtab
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940072165X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 712
View: 823
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Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses reviews and analyzes physical concepts of radiation transfer, providing quantitative foundation for the means of measurements of optical losses, which affect propagation and distribution of light waves in various media and in diverse optical systems and components. The comprehensive analysis of advanced methodologies for low-loss detection is outlined in comparison with the classic photometric and radiometric observations, having a broad range of techniques examined and summarized: from interferometric and calorimetric, resonator and polarization, phase-shift and ring-down decay, wavelength and frequency modulation to pulse separation and resonant, acousto-optic and emissive - subsequently compared to direct and balancing methods for studying free-space and polarization optics, fibers and waveguides. The material is focused on applying optical methods and procedures for evaluation of transparent, reflecting, scattering, absorbing, and aggregated objects, and for determination of power and energy parameters of radiation and color properties of light.

Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover

Principles and Applications
Author: Chandra P. Giri
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420070754
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 477
View: 321
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Filling the need for a comprehensive book that covers both theory and application, Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover: Principles and Applications provides a synopsis of how remote sensing can be used for land-cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring from the local to the global scale. With contributions by leading scientists from around the world, this well-structured volume offers an international perspective on the science, technologies, applications, and future needs of remote sensing of land cover and land use. After an overview of the key concepts and history of land-use and land-cover mapping, the book discusses the relationship between land cover and land use and addresses the land-cover classification system. It then presents state-of-the-art methods and techniques in data acquisition, preprocessing, image interpretation, and accuracy assessment for land-use and land-cover characterization and mapping. Case studies from around the world illustrate land-cover applications at global, continental, and national scales. These examples use multiple data sources and provide in-depth understanding of land cover and land-cover dynamics in multiple spatial, thematic, and temporal resolutions. Looking to the future, the book also identifies new frontiers in land-cover mapping and forecasting. The availability and accessibility of accurate and timely land-cover data sets play an important role in many global change studies, highlighting the need for better land-use and land-cover change information at multiple scales. A synthesis of current knowledge in remote sensing of land-use and land-cover science, this book promotes more effective use of Earth observation data and technology to assess, monitor, and manage land resources.

Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences


Author: James A. R. Samson,D. L. Ederer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780124759787
Category: Physics
Page: 420
View: 3124
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Radiometric Temperature Measurements

II. Applications
Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123785657
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 1016
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This book describes the practice of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will a) apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice b) use radiation thermometers for scientific research, c) the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute d) developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers and e) developers non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems. The author(s) of each chapter were chosen from a group of international scientists who are experts in the field and specialist(s) on the subject matter covered in the chapter. A large number of references are included at the end of each chapter as a resource for those seeking a deeper or more detailed understanding. This book is more than a practice guide. Readers will gain in-depth knowledge in: (1) the proper selection of the type of thermometer; (2) the best practice in using the radiation thermometers; (3) awareness of the error sources and subsequent appropriate procedure to reduce the overall uncertainty; and (4) understanding of the calibration chain and its current limitations. Coverage of all fundamental aspects of the radiometric measurements Coverage of practical applications with details on the instrumentation, calibration, and error sources Authors are from the national labs internationally leading in R&D in temperature measurements Comprehensive coverage with large number of references

Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy II


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080860220
Category: Science
Page: 307
View: 590
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This volume is for practitioners, experimentalists, and graduate students in applied physics, particularly in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, who work with vacuum ultraviolet applications and are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation. It provides first-hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art equipment sources and gives technical information on how to use it, along with a broad reference bibliography.

Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Atoms and Molecules


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080860183
Category: Science
Page: 435
View: 7144
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Combined with the other two volumes, this text is a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, as well as an excellent experimental handbook for the field. Thewide availability of tunable lasers in the past several years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

Radiometry in Modern Scientific Experiments


Author: Pravilov Anatoly
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783709101049
Category: Science
Page: 196
View: 1668
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The reader is provided with information about methods of calibration of light sources and photodetectors as well as responsiveness of spectral instruments ranging from near infrared to vacuum UV spectral, 1200 – 100 nm, and radiation intensities of up to several quanta per second in absolute and arbitrary units. The author describes for the first time original methods of measurements they created and draws upon over 40 years of experience in working with light sources and detectors to provide accurate and precise measurements. This book is the first to cover these aspects of radiometry and is divided into seven chapters that examine information about terminology, units, light sources and detectors, methods, including author’s original ones, of absolute calibration of detectors, spectral instruments responsiveness, absolute measurements of radiation intensity of photoprocesses, and original methods of their study. Of interest to researchers measuring; luminescence spectra, light intensities from IR to vacuum UV, spectral range in wide-light intensity ranges, calibrate light sources and detectors, absolute or relative quantum yields of photoprocess determination.

UV-Visible Reflection Spectroscopy of Liquids


Author: Jukka A. Räty,Kai-Erik Peiponen,Toshimitsu Asakura
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540405825
Category: Science
Page: 224
View: 7687
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An up-to-date overview of reflectometers used for optical spectroscopy of various kinds of liquids, ranging from well-known transparent liquids to "pathological" industrial liquids. The book reviews and explains basic materials for anyone wanting to get to know the theory, spectral analysis and modern devices needed for the measurement of refractive index and absorption of liquids. Moreover, the book gives an introduction to reflectivity from optically nonlinear liquids such as liquids containing nanoparticles.

Metrology and Fundamental Constants


Author: Theo W. Hänsch
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1586037846
Category: Science
Page: 649
View: 8045
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One of the exciting characteristics of metrology is its intimate relationship between fundamental physics and the leading edge of technology which is needed to perform advanced and challenging experiments and measurements. This title includes a set of lectures which present the relevant progress in Metrology.

Breaking Ocean Waves

Geometry, Structure and Remote Sensing
Author: Eugene A. Sharkov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540298282
Category: Science
Page: 278
View: 7273
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Eugene Sharkov, of the Space Research Institute in Moscow, has here put together the most comprehensive description of the physical findings of an investigation into the spatio-temporal characteristics of the gravity of breaking waves. He’s also described the foam activity in the open sea using methods and instruments of optical and microwave remote sensing. Numerous practical applications and illustrations are provided from air-borne, ship-borne and laboratory up-to-date experiments.

Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of the Earth

Physical Foundations
Author: Eugene A. Sharkov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540439462
Category: Science
Page: 613
View: 9271
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The most comprehensive description of the physical foundations of methods and instruments in the fields of passive remote sensing applied to investigations of the Earth, Solar system bodies and space. Emphasis is placed on the physical aspects necessary to judge the possibilities and limitations of passive remote sensing methods in specific observation cases. Numerous practical applications and illustrations are given referring to airspace up-to-date experiments. Due to the lack in traditional separation on methods and instruments of remote sensing of the Earth and outerterrestrial space this book aims to supply more information in this field.

Osteopathie und Rückenschmerz


Author: Philip Van Caille,Dave Bruckenburg,Pathik Hagemann,Christiane Billen-Mertes,Luc Roggen
Publisher: Elsevier,Urban&FischerVerlag
ISBN: 3437592262
Category: Medical
Page: 448
View: 6410
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Rückenschmerzen osteopathisch behandeln Rückenschmerzen gehören zu den häufigsten Beschwerdebildern in der (ärztlichen) Praxis. Sie sind häufig multifaktoriell bedingt. Die Voraussetzung für ein effektives Behandeln dieser Beschwerden mit Osteopathie ist ein gutes Verständnis über die strukturellen und funktionellen Zusammenhänge des menschlichen Körpers. Das Ziel von „Osteopathie und Rückenschmerz" ist, dass Sie praxisnah und kompetent alles erfahren, was Sie brauchen, um die funktionellen Zusammenhänge zu verstehen, die richtige Diagnose zu stellen und entsprechend die Beschwerden therapieren zu können. Erfahren Sie alle Indikationen und Therapieansätze aus konventioneller und osteopathischer Sicht, ergänzt durch viele praktische Patientenfälle – für ein optimales Management bei Rückenschmerzen! Das erwartet Sie in „Osteopathie und Rückenschmerz": Wissen über alle Facetten des axialen Syndroms inkl. wichtiger Hinweise auf mögliche schwerwiegende Erkrankungen Übersichtliche differenzialdiagnostische Darstellung aller „schulmedizinischen" Krankheitsbilder Indikationen und Therapieansätze aus konventioneller und osteopathischer Sicht Anpassung der „osteopathischen Sprache" an die in der konventionellen Medizin übliche Nomenklatur – das erleichtert die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Osteopath und Schulmediziner Exemplarische Patientenfälle repräsentieren typische Beschwerdebilder im osteopathischen Praxisalltag

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Physics and Applications
Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123876966
Category: Science
Page: 616
View: 6403
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Single-photon generation and detection is at the forefront of modern optical physics research. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared. The use of single photons, produced on demand with well-defined quantum properties, offers an unprecedented set of capabilities that are central to the new area of quantum information and are of revolutionary importance in areas that range from the traditional, such as high sensitivity detection for astronomy, remote sensing, and medical diagnostics, to the exotic, such as secretive surveillance and very long communication links for data transmission on interplanetary missions. The goal of this volume is to provide researchers with a comprehensive overview of the technology and techniques that are available to enable them to better design an experimental plan for its intended purpose. The book will be broken into chapters focused specifically on the development and capabilities of the available detectors and sources to allow a comparative understanding to be developed by the reader along with and idea of how the field is progressing and what can be expected in the near future. Along with this technology, we will include chapters devoted to the applications of this technology, which is in fact much of the driver for its development. This is set to become the go-to reference for this field. Covers all the basic aspects needed to perform single-photon experiments and serves as the first reference to any newcomer who would like to produce an experimental design that incorporates the latest techniques Provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared, thus giving broad background that should enable newcomers to the field to make rapid progress in gaining proficiency Written by leading experts in the field, among which, the leading Editor is recognized as having laid down the roadmap, thus providing the reader with an authenticated and reliable source

Advances in Standards and Methodology in Spectrophotometry


Author: C. Burgess,K.D. Mielenz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444599053
Category: Science
Page: 416
View: 665
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These conference proceedings form a worthy contribution to the literature on spectrometry reviving the tradition begun at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards conferences in the 1970's of holding interdisciplinary conferences on advances in the standardisation and methodology of spectrometry. The papers and poster abstracts presented in this volume maintain the high professional standards of these earlier NBS conferences, providing a basis for further progress in this discipline.

Metrology and Fundamental Constants


Author: T. Haensch,S. Leschiutta,A. Wallard
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1607502739
Category: Science
Page: 684
View: 6393
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This volume can be justified by the following three facts, the need to provide, from time to time, a co-ordinated set of lectures which present the relevant progress in Metrology, the increasing intertwining between Fundamental Physics and the practice of Metrological Measurements, and, third, the flurry of new and unexpected discoveries in this field, with a correlated series of Nobel Prizes bestowed to individuals working in Fundamental Constants research and novel experimental methods. One of the most fascinating and exciting characteristics of metrology is its intimate relationship between fundamental physics and the leading edge of technology which is needed to perform advanced and challenging experiments and measurements, as well as the determination of the values and interrelations between the Fundamental Constants. In some cases, such as the caesium fountains clocks or the optical frequency standards, the definition of the value of a quantity is, in the laboratory, in the region of 10-16 and experiments are under way to reach 10-18. Many of these results and the avenues leading to further advances are discussed in this volume, along a major step in metrology, expected in the near future, which could change the “old” definition of the kilogram, still based on a mechanical artefact, toward a new definition resting on a fixed value of a fundamental constant.

Radiation Measurement in Photobiology


Author: B. L. Diffey
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483276783
Category: Science
Page: 244
View: 6724
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Radiation Measurement in Photobiology deals with the measurement of optical radiation and its application in photobiology. Optical radiation detectors as well as the calibration of light sources and detectors are discussed, together with techniques for spectroradiometry and broadband radiometry. Action spectroscopy and ultraviolet radiation dosimetry are also considered. Comprised of nine chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the basic principles of light measurement, followed by a survey of optical radiation detectors based on physical principles and the problems associated with calibration. The next three chapters deal with important applications and extensions of these radiant measurements, including a short review of biological and medical users of lasers. The final three chapters on specialized studies and developments illustrate the wide diversity that exists in photobiology. These cover ultraviolet radiation dosimetry using polymer films, computer modeling of terrestrial ultraviolet radiation, and the "diffusion optics" in biological media. This book should be of interest to photobiologists.

Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy I


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080860213
Category: Science
Page: 420
View: 9425
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This volume is for practitioners, experimentalists, and graduate students in applied physics, particularly in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, who work with vacuum ultraviolet applications and are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation. It provides first-hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art equipment sources and gives technical information on how to use it, along with a broad reference bibliography. Key Features * Aimed at experimentalists who are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation in this applied field * Contains a detailed chapter on laboratory sources * Provides an up-to-date description of state-of-the-art equipment and techniques * Includes a broad reference bibliography

Geodäsie


Author: Wolfgang Torge
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110198177
Category: Science
Page: 379
View: 6779
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This book gives a systematic overview of the fundamental theories, frameworks and methods for measurement and evaluation applying to geodesy, though the contribution of geodetic spatial techniques for positioning and for establishing the gravitational field receives particular emphasis. These methods have led to a change in the setting up of geodetic basic networks that is also of importance in practical terms; for interdisciplinary geodynamics research geodesy can likewise make major contributions with their assistance. The current status of geodesy is illustrated by numerous examples from survey, evaluation and analysis; an extensive literature list makes further study all the easier. The book conveys an extensive overview of the profound changes that geodesy has undergone in the past twenty years.