Optical Radiometry


Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080454924
Category: Science
Page: 586
View: 1337
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This book deals with the practice of Optical Radiation Measurements with introductory material to introduce the topics discussed. It will be most useful for students, scientists and engineers working in any academic, industrial or governmental projects related to optical radiation. The book contains chapters that treat in detail the procedures and techniques for the characterization of both sources and detectors to the highest degree of accuracy and reliability. It has a chapter devoted specifically to optical measurements of laser sources and fiberoptics for communication and a chapter devoted to uncertainty in measurement and its treatment with real examples of optical measurements. The book contains introductory materials that will allow a newcomer to radiometry to develop the expertise to perform exacting and accurate measurement. The authors stress the various causes of uncertainty in each phase of a measurement and thus allow for users to arrive at a correct assessment of their uncertainty of measurement in their particular circumstance. · Authors are from the Standards laboratories of AUSTRALIA, CANADA, ENGLAND, GERMANY and the USA. · Latest techniques and practice of laboratory measurements to achieve the highest accuracy in the use of sources or detectors. · Unique illustrations of the apparatus and measurement techniques. · Practical measurement examples of calibration with full uncertainty analysis. · Comprehensive treatment of optical standards such as sources, detectors and radiometers. · A complete chapter on laser power measurements and standards for fiber optic measurements · A complete chapter on correlations in radiometry and practical examples. · A chapter devoted to diffraction effects in radiometry

Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124169945
Category: Science
Page: 722
View: 7475
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This book presents the state-of-the-art of optical remote sensing applied for the generation of marine climate-quality data products, with contributions by international experts in the field. The chapters are logically grouped into six thematic parts, each introduced by a brief overview. The different parts include: i. requirements for the generation of climate data records from satellite ocean measurements and additionally basic radiometry principles addressing terminology, standards, measurement equation and uncertainties; ii. satellite visible and thermal infrared radiometry embracing instrument design, characterization and, pre- and post-launch calibration; iii. in situ visible and thermal infrared radiometry including overviews on basic principles, technology and measurements methods required to support satellite missions devoted to climate change investigations; iv. simulations as fundamental tools to support interpretation and analysis of both in situ and satellite radiometric measurements; v. strategies for in situ radiometry to satisfy mission requirements for the generation of climate data records; and finally, vi. methods for the assessment of satellite data products. Fundamentals of measurement theory are taken through to implementation of practical ground based radiometers and their application to validate satellite data used to generate climate data records. This book presents practical solutions for those involved or contemplating the validation of optical climate measurements from satellite instruments. Exhaustive coverage of important topics Fundamental and advanced discussions of many types of instruments Emphasis on calibration and uncertainty analysis of results

Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124169945
Category: Science
Page: 722
View: 7186
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This book presents the state-of-the-art of optical remote sensing applied for the generation of marine climate-quality data products, with contributions by international experts in the field. The chapters are logically grouped into six thematic parts, each introduced by a brief overview. The different parts include: i. requirements for the generation of climate data records from satellite ocean measurements and additionally basic radiometry principles addressing terminology, standards, measurement equation and uncertainties; ii. satellite visible and thermal infrared radiometry embracing instrument design, characterization and, pre- and post-launch calibration; iii. in situ visible and thermal infrared radiometry including overviews on basic principles, technology and measurements methods required to support satellite missions devoted to climate change investigations; iv. simulations as fundamental tools to support interpretation and analysis of both in situ and satellite radiometric measurements; v. strategies for in situ radiometry to satisfy mission requirements for the generation of climate data records; and finally, vi. methods for the assessment of satellite data products. Fundamentals of measurement theory are taken through to implementation of practical ground based radiometers and their application to validate satellite data used to generate climate data records. This book presents practical solutions for those involved or contemplating the validation of optical climate measurements from satellite instruments. Exhaustive coverage of important topics Fundamental and advanced discussions of many types of instruments Emphasis on calibration and uncertainty analysis of results

Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses


Author: Michael Bukshtab
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940072165X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 712
View: 3703
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Applied Photometry, Radiometry, and Measurements of Optical Losses reviews and analyzes physical concepts of radiation transfer, providing quantitative foundation for the means of measurements of optical losses, which affect propagation and distribution of light waves in various media and in diverse optical systems and components. The comprehensive analysis of advanced methodologies for low-loss detection is outlined in comparison with the classic photometric and radiometric observations, having a broad range of techniques examined and summarized: from interferometric and calorimetric, resonator and polarization, phase-shift and ring-down decay, wavelength and frequency modulation to pulse separation and resonant, acousto-optic and emissive - subsequently compared to direct and balancing methods for studying free-space and polarization optics, fibers and waveguides. The material is focused on applying optical methods and procedures for evaluation of transparent, reflecting, scattering, absorbing, and aggregated objects, and for determination of power and energy parameters of radiation and color properties of light.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Physics and Applications
Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123876966
Category: Science
Page: 616
View: 6408
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Single-photon generation and detection is at the forefront of modern optical physics research. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared. The use of single photons, produced on demand with well-defined quantum properties, offers an unprecedented set of capabilities that are central to the new area of quantum information and are of revolutionary importance in areas that range from the traditional, such as high sensitivity detection for astronomy, remote sensing, and medical diagnostics, to the exotic, such as secretive surveillance and very long communication links for data transmission on interplanetary missions. The goal of this volume is to provide researchers with a comprehensive overview of the technology and techniques that are available to enable them to better design an experimental plan for its intended purpose. The book will be broken into chapters focused specifically on the development and capabilities of the available detectors and sources to allow a comparative understanding to be developed by the reader along with and idea of how the field is progressing and what can be expected in the near future. Along with this technology, we will include chapters devoted to the applications of this technology, which is in fact much of the driver for its development. This is set to become the go-to reference for this field. Covers all the basic aspects needed to perform single-photon experiments and serves as the first reference to any newcomer who would like to produce an experimental design that incorporates the latest techniques Provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared, thus giving broad background that should enable newcomers to the field to make rapid progress in gaining proficiency Written by leading experts in the field, among which, the leading Editor is recognized as having laid down the roadmap, thus providing the reader with an authenticated and reliable source

Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover

Principles and Applications
Author: Chandra P. Giri
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420070754
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 477
View: 5666
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Filling the need for a comprehensive book that covers both theory and application, Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover: Principles and Applications provides a synopsis of how remote sensing can be used for land-cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring from the local to the global scale. With contributions by leading scientists from around the world, this well-structured volume offers an international perspective on the science, technologies, applications, and future needs of remote sensing of land cover and land use. After an overview of the key concepts and history of land-use and land-cover mapping, the book discusses the relationship between land cover and land use and addresses the land-cover classification system. It then presents state-of-the-art methods and techniques in data acquisition, preprocessing, image interpretation, and accuracy assessment for land-use and land-cover characterization and mapping. Case studies from around the world illustrate land-cover applications at global, continental, and national scales. These examples use multiple data sources and provide in-depth understanding of land cover and land-cover dynamics in multiple spatial, thematic, and temporal resolutions. Looking to the future, the book also identifies new frontiers in land-cover mapping and forecasting. The availability and accessibility of accurate and timely land-cover data sets play an important role in many global change studies, highlighting the need for better land-use and land-cover change information at multiple scales. A synthesis of current knowledge in remote sensing of land-use and land-cover science, this book promotes more effective use of Earth observation data and technology to assess, monitor, and manage land resources.

Spectrophotometry

Accurate Measurement of Optical Properties of Materials
Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123860237
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 560
View: 5179
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This volume is an essential handbook for anyone interested in performing the most accurate spectrophotometric or other optical property of materials measurements. The chapter authors were chosen from the leading experts in their respective fields and provide their wisdom and experience in measurements of reflectance, transmittance, absorptance, emittance, diffuse scattering, color, and fluorescence. The book provides the reader with the theoretical underpinning to the methods, the practical issues encountered in real measurements, and numerous examples of important applications. Written by the leading international experts from industry, government, and academia Written as a handbook, with in depth discussion of the topics Focus on making the most accurate and reproducible measurements Many practical applications and examples

Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy


Author: James A. Samson,David L. Ederer
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080543482
Category: Science
Page: 307
View: 6198
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Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy was first published in 1967. In the three decades since, the techniques associated with vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy have been greatly expanded. Originally published as two volumes in the serial "Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences," Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy combines in one paperback volume information on the many advances in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) research. In addition, the book provides students and researchers with concise reviews of the important aspects of designing experiments in the VUV region. This is the only comprehensive treatise describing the use of synchrotron and other light sources for research, along with the new technologies in optical elements, multilayers, mirror coatings, soft x-ray zone plates, VUV detectors, interferometric spectrometers, and subjects such as spectromicroscopy, lithography, and photon-induced fluorescence. Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy is an ideal handbook both for the beginner and for the experienced researcher in any field requiring the use of VUV radiation. Key Features * Detailed review of synchrotron radiation sources including undulators and wigglers * Comprehensive outline of monochromator design * Concise review of optics theory for multilayers, spectrometers, and zone plates * Information about other important VUV sources such as laser produced plasmas and Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) sources * Applications such as spectromicroscopy, lithography, and fluorescence

Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Atoms and Molecules


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080860183
Category: Science
Page: 435
View: 7228
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Combined with the other two volumes, this text is a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, as well as an excellent experimental handbook for the field. Thewide availability of tunable lasers in the past several years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

Radiometric Temperature Measurements

I. Fundamentals
Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080920627
Category: Science
Page: 376
View: 5433
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This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems. The authors of each chapter were chosen from a group of international scientists who are experts in the field and specialists on the subject matter covered in the chapter. A large number of references are included at the end of each chapter as a resource for those seeking a deeper or more detailed understanding. This book is more than a practice guide, readers will gain in-depth knowledge in: (1) the proper selection of the type of thermometer; (2) the best practice in using the radiation thermometers; (3) awareness of the error sources and subsequent appropriate procedure to reduce the overall uncertainty; and (4) understanding of the calibration chain and its current limitations. Covers all fundamental aspects of the radiometric measurements Discusses practical applications with details on the instrumentation, calibration, and error sources Authors are from leading national labs working in R&D of temperature measurements

Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences


Author: James A. R. Samson,D. L. Ederer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780124759787
Category: Physics
Page: 420
View: 7225
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Advanced Optical Instruments and Techniques


Author: Daniel Malacara Hernández
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351646273
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 782
View: 9255
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Advanced Optical Instruments and Techniques includes twenty-three chapters providing processes, methods, and procedures of cutting-edge optics engineering design and instrumentation. Topics include biomedical instrumentation and basic and advanced interferometry. Optical metrology is discussed, including point and full-field methods. Active and adaptive optics, holography, radiometry, the human eye, and visible light are covered as well as materials, including photonics, nanophotonics, anisotropic materials, and metamaterials.

Methods of the Physics of Porous Media


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080524733
Category: Science
Page: 485
View: 8007
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Over the past 25 years, the field of VUV physics has undergone significant developments as new powerful spectroscopic tools, VUV lasers, and optical components have become available. This volume is aimed at experimentalists who are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation in this applied field. In particular, it contains a detailed chapter on laboratory sources. This volume provides an up-to-date description of state-of-the-art equipment and techniques, and a broad reference bibliography. It treats phenomena from the standpoint of an experimental physicist, whereby such topics as imaging techniques (NMR, X-ray, ultrasonic, etc.) computer modeling, eletro-kinetic phenomena, diffusion, non-linear wave propagation surface adsorption/desorption, convective mixing, and fracture are specifically addressed.

Neutron Scattering – Applications in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science


Author: Felix Fernandez-Alonso,David L Price
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128092300
Category: Science
Page: 782
View: 2736
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Neutron Scattering: Applications in Chemistry, Materials Science and Biology, Volume 49, provides an in-depth overview of the applications of neutron scattering in the fields of physics, materials science, chemistry, biology, the earth sciences, and engineering. The book describes the tremendous advances in instrumental, experimental, and computational techniques over the past quarter-century. Examples include the coming-of-age of neutron reflectivity and spin-echo spectroscopy, the advent of brighter accelerator-based neutron facilities and associated techniques in the United States and Japan over the past decade, and current efforts in Europe to develop long-pulse, ultra-intense spallation neutron sources. It acts as a complement to two earlier volumes in the Experimental Methods in the Physical Science series, Neutron Scattering: Fundamentals(Elsevier 2013) and Neutron Scattering: Magnetic and Quantum Phenomena (Elsevier 2015). As a whole, the set enables researchers to identify aspects of their work where neutron scattering techniques might contribute, conceive the important experiments to be done, assess what is required, write a successful proposal for one of the major facilities around the globe, and perform the experiments under the guidance of the appropriate instrument scientist. Completes a three-volume set, providing extensive coverage on emerging and highly topical applications of neutron scattering Addresses the increasing use of neutrons by chemists, life scientists, material scientists, and condensed-matter physicists Presents up-to-date reviews of recent results, enabling readers to identify new opportunities and plan neutron scattering experiments in their own field

Radiometric Temperature Measurements

II. Applications
Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123785657
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 1436
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This book describes the practice of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will a) apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice b) use radiation thermometers for scientific research, c) the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute d) developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers and e) developers non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems. The author(s) of each chapter were chosen from a group of international scientists who are experts in the field and specialist(s) on the subject matter covered in the chapter. A large number of references are included at the end of each chapter as a resource for those seeking a deeper or more detailed understanding. This book is more than a practice guide. Readers will gain in-depth knowledge in: (1) the proper selection of the type of thermometer; (2) the best practice in using the radiation thermometers; (3) awareness of the error sources and subsequent appropriate procedure to reduce the overall uncertainty; and (4) understanding of the calibration chain and its current limitations. Coverage of all fundamental aspects of the radiometric measurements Coverage of practical applications with details on the instrumentation, calibration, and error sources Authors are from the national labs internationally leading in R&D in temperature measurements Comprehensive coverage with large number of references

Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy I


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080860213
Category: Science
Page: 420
View: 2666
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This volume is for practitioners, experimentalists, and graduate students in applied physics, particularly in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, who work with vacuum ultraviolet applications and are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation. It provides first-hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art equipment sources and gives technical information on how to use it, along with a broad reference bibliography. Key Features * Aimed at experimentalists who are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation in this applied field * Contains a detailed chapter on laboratory sources * Provides an up-to-date description of state-of-the-art equipment and techniques * Includes a broad reference bibliography

Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy II


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080860220
Category: Science
Page: 307
View: 3549
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This volume is for practitioners, experimentalists, and graduate students in applied physics, particularly in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, who work with vacuum ultraviolet applications and are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation. It provides first-hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art equipment sources and gives technical information on how to use it, along with a broad reference bibliography.

Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Atoms and Molecules


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080860183
Category: Science
Page: 435
View: 5063
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Combined with the other two volumes, this text is a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, as well as an excellent experimental handbook for the field. Thewide availability of tunable lasers in the past several years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Chemistry
Page: N.A
View: 6633
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Treatise on geophysics

Mineral physics. Vol. 2
Author: G. David Price,Gerald Schubert
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780444519283
Category:
Page: 642
View: 430
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