Optimality Theory and Language Change


Author: D.E. Holt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401001952
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 463
View: 3387
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This work discusses many optimization and linguistic issues in great detail. It treats the history of a variety of languages, including English, French, Germanic, Galician/ Portuguese, Latin, Russian, and Spanish and shows that the application of Optimality Theory allows for innovative and improved analyses. It contains a complete bibliography on OT and language change. It is of interest to historical linguists, researchers into OT and linguistic theory, and phonologists and syntacticians with an interest in historical change.

Expletive and Referential Subject Pronouns in Medieval French


Author: Michael Zimmermann
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110394308
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 256
View: 1411
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This book is an empirical study on the expression of subject pronouns in Medieval French, usually analyzed as a null subject language. In light of the frequent expression of expletives, i.e. subject pronouns in impersonal constructions, as well as of referentials, it is argued that rather than from a null subject property, the non-expression of subject pronouns generally follows from conditions pertaining to left-peripheral focalization.

Linguistic Fundamentals for Natural Language Processing

100 Essentials from Morphology and Syntax
Author: Emily M. Bender
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627050124
Category: Computers
Page: 184
View: 1144
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Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies—who did what to whom—from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual applications. The purpose of this book is to present in a succinct and accessible fashion information about the morphological and syntactic structure of human languages that can be useful in creating more linguistically sophisticated, more language-independent, and thus more successful NLP systems. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction/motivation / Morphology: Introduction / Morphophonology / Morphosyntax / Syntax: Introduction / Parts of speech / Heads, arguments, and adjuncts / Argument types and grammatical functions / Mismatches between syntactic position and semantic roles / Resources / Bibliography / Author's Biography / General Index / Index of Languages

Optimality Theory and Pragmatics


Author: Reinhard Blutner,Anne Bezuidenhout,Richard Breheny,Sam Glucksberg,Francesca Happé
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230501400
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 304
View: 9702
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Ten leading scholars provide exacting research results and a reliable and accessible introduction to the new field of optimality theoretic pragmatics. The book includes a general introduction that overviews the foundations of this new research paradigm. The book is intended to satisfy the needs of students and professional researchers interested in pragmatics and optimality theory, and will be of particular interest to those exploring the interfaces of formal pragmatics with grammar, semantics, philosophy of language, information theory and cognitive psychology.

Language Change and Linguistic Theory


Author: D. Gary Miller
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: N.A
Category: Linguistic change
Page: 912
View: 6334
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This v. 1 book investigates a large range of changes and their motivations in all parts of the grammar and lexicon. The core argument is that, in the absence of a Grand Unification Theory in linguistics, a natural language changes. Changes occur in successive formal grammars.

The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology


Author: Rochelle Lieber,Pavol Stekauer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651788
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 768
View: 7781
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The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology is intended as a companion volume to The Oxford Handbook of Compounding (OUP 2009) Written by distinguished scholars, its 41 chapters aim to provide a comprehensive and thorough overview of the study of derivational morphology. The handbook begins with an overview and a consideration of definitional matters, distinguishing derivation from inflection on the one hand and compounding on the other. From a formal perspective, the handbook treats affixation (prefixation, suffixation, infixation, circumfixation, etc.), conversion, reduplication, root and pattern and other templatic processes, as well as prosodic and subtractive means of forming new words. From a semantic perspective, it looks at the processes that form various types of adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs, as well as evaluatives and the rarer processes that form function words. The book also surveys derivation in fifteen language families that are widely dispersed in terms of both geographical location and typological characteristics.

Language Contact and Grammatical Change


Author: Bernd Heine,Tania Kuteva
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521608282
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 308
View: 383
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Offers an interesting insight into how language contact affects grammatical forms and structures.

Optimality Theory


Author: Rene Kager
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139425366
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: N.A
View: 2452
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This is an introduction to Optimality Theory, whose central idea is that surface forms of language reflect resolutions of conflicts between competing constraints. A surface form is 'optimal' if it incurs the least serious violations of a set of constraints, taking into account their hierarchical ranking. Languages differ in the ranking of constraints; and any violations must be minimal. The book does not limit its empirical scope to phonological phenomena, but also contains chapters on the learnability of OT grammars; OT's implications for syntax; and other issues such as opacity. It also reviews in detail a selection of the considerable research output which OT has already produced. Exercises accompany chapters 1-7, and there are sections on further reading. Optimality Theory will be welcomed by any linguist with a basic knowledge of derivational Generative Phonology.

Probus


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Latin language
Page: N.A
View: 2238
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The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis


Author: Bernd Heine,Heiko Narrog
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199677077
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 1180
View: 1206
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This handbook compares the main analytic frameworks and methods of contemporary linguistics. It offers a unique overview of linguistic theory, revealing the common concerns of competing approaches. By showing their current and potential applications it provides the means by which linguists and others can judge what are the most useful models for the task in hand. Distinguished scholars from all over the world explain the rationale and aims of over thirty explanatory approaches to the description, analysis, and understanding of language. Each chapter considers the main goals of the model; the relation it proposes from between lexicon, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and phonology; the way it defines the interactions between cognition and grammar; what it counts as evidence; and how it explains linguistic change and structure. The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis offers an indispensable guide for everyone researching any aspect of language including those in linguistics, comparative philology, cognitive science, developmental philology, cognitive science, developmental psychology, computational science, and artificial intelligence. This second edition has been updated to include seven new chapters looking at linguistic units in language acquisition, conversation analysis, neurolinguistics, experimental phonetics, phonological analysis, experimental semantics, and distributional typology.

An Introduction to Linguistics and Language Studies


Author: Anne McCabe
Publisher: Equinox Textbooks and Surveys
ISBN: 9781781794326
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 486
View: 5059
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This introductory textbook provides readers with a foundation in methods for analysing and understanding language from various theoretical perspectives within linguistics and language studies. Its novel approach introduces systemic functional linguistics, text and discourse analysis, and formal approaches to linguistics. It demonstrates applications of these approaches to reveal how we use language in society, how our brains process language, and how we learn language. Topics include phonetics, phonology, conversation analysis, morphology, semantics, functional and formal syntax, text linguistics, genre analysis, evaluative lexis in text, multimodal representations of meaning, language change and variation, animals and language, the brain and language, and first and second language development/acquisition. The main language focused on is English, while other languages are also drawn on to illustrate the principles, models and theories. Learning outcomes, exercises (with answer key), ideas for project work, and questions for reflection are provided throughout. A final chapter gathers explanations of various fields of practice within linguistics, written by linguists from around the world, including David Crystal (Clinical Linguistics), Frances Christie (Educational Linguistics), and Malcolm Coulthard (Forensic Linguistics). An Introduction to Linguistics and Language Studies offers an array of analytical tools for undergraduate students of language, communication, and education, and provides an overview of the field for those interested in further study in linguistics and applied language studies. Readers will come away with a heightened sensitivity to and appreciation of their own and other's use of language for creating meaning and for interaction.

The Handbook of Language Emergence


Author: Brian MacWhinney,William O'Grady
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118346092
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 656
View: 4225
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This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever

Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts

Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond
Author: Markku Filppula,Juhani Klemola,Heli Paulasto
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135850658
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 392
View: 7443
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In this book, contributors have been brought together to discuss the role of two major factors shaping the grammars of different varieties of English (and of other languages) all over the world: so-called vernacular universals and contact-induced change. Rather than assuming a general typological perspective, the studies in this volume focus on putative universal vernacular features – significant phonological or (morpho-) syntactic parallels found in non-standard varieties of English, English-based Creoles, and also varieties of other languages, all of which represent widely differing sociolinguistic and historical backgrounds. These universals are then set against the other major explanatory factor: contact-induced change, by which we understand both the possibility of dialect contact (or dialect diffusion) and language contact (including superstratal, substratal and adstratal influences).

Feminism and Linguistic Theory


Author: Deborah Cameron
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349223344
Category: Social Science
Page: 257
View: 9518
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An introduction to theories about language in attempts to understand and transform women's lives. This evolving body of work encompasses linguistics, anthropology, literary and cultural theory, psychoanalysis and postmodern philosophy.

Case, Valency and Transitivity


Author: L. I. Kulikov,Andre? L?vovich Mal?chukov,Dr Peter Swart
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027230870
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 503
View: 6173
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The three concepts of case, valency and transitivity belong to the most discussed topics of modern linguistics. On the one hand, they are crucially connected with morphological aspects of the clause, including case marking, person agreement and voice. On the other hand, they are related to several semantic issues such as the meaning of case, semantico-syntactic verbal classes, and the semantic correlates of transitivity. The volume unifies papers written within different theoretical frameworks and representing variegated approaches (Optimality Theory, Government and Binding, various versions of the Functional approach, Cross-linguistic and Typological analyses), containing both numerous new findings in individual languages and valuable observations and generalizations related to case, valency and transitivity.

Phonological Variation in French

Illustrations from three continents
Author: Randall Gess,Chantal Lyche,Trudel Meisenburg
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027273189
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 397
View: 3206
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This volume presents a selection of French varieties representing the great diversity of this language along geographical, social, and stylistic dimensions. Twelve illustrations from regions as far removed as Western Canada and Central Africa represent widely divergent social contexts of language use. Each chapter is based on original surveys conducted within the framework of the Phonology of Contemporary French project, described in the Introduction. These surveys constitute an invaluable source of new data for researchers, as many of the varieties included are otherwise undocumented in any systematic way. The chapters follow a similar format: presentation of the survey(s) and the sociolinguistic dimensions of the variety studied; description of the phonological inventory of the system(s), principal allophonic realizations, phonotactic constraints, behavior of schwa, behavior of liaison consonants, and other notable characteristics. The book opens with an informative introduction and closes with a chapter providing a synthesis of the major findings by continent.

The Mathematics of Language


Author: Marcus Kracht
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110895668
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 605
View: 8975
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This book studies language(s) and linguistic theories from a mathematical point of view. Starting with ideas already contained in Montague's work, it develops the mathematical foundations of present day linguistics. It equips the reader with all the background necessary to understand and evaluate theories as diverse as Montague Grammar, Categorial Grammar, HPSG and GB. The mathematical tools are mainly from universal algebra and logic, but no particular knowledge is presupposed beyond a certain mathematical sophistication that is in any case needed in order to fruitfully work within these theories. The presentation focuses on abstract mathematical structures and their computational properties, but plenty of examples from different natural languages are provided to illustrate the main concepts and results. In contrast to books devoted to so-called formal language theory, languages are seen here as semiotic systems, that is, as systems of signs. A language sign correlates form with meaning. Using the principle of compositionality it is possible to gain substantial insight into the interaction between form and meaning in natural languages.

Optimality Theory, Phonological Acquisition and Disorders


Author: Daniel A. Dinnsen,Judith A. Gierut
Publisher: Equinox Publishing (UK)
ISBN: 9781845531218
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 513
View: 5875
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Focusing on the phonologies of children with functional (non-organic) speech disorders, this volume reports the latest findings in optimality theory, phonological acquisition and disorders. The book is based on typological, cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental evidence from over 200 children. It stands out because of the unique test case that the population offers to optimality theory, particularly with respect to puzzles of opacity, lawful orders of acquisition, and language learnability. Beyond its theoretical significance, this research holds clinical relevance for the assessment and treatment of disordered populations, most notably the systematic prediction of learning outcomes. This volume bridges the gap between theory and application by showing how each informs the other. It is intended for linguists, psychologists, speech pathologists, second-language instructors and those interested in the latest developments in phonological theory and its applied extensions.

Optimality-Theoretic Studies in Spanish Phonology


Author: Fernando Martínez-Gil,Sonia Colina
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027292620
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 564
View: 9438
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This outstanding volume offers the first comprehensive collection of optimality-theoretic studies in Spanish phonology. Bringing together most of the best-known researchers in the field, it presents a state-of-the-art overview of research in Spanish phonology within the non-derivational framework of optimality theory. The book is structured around six major areas of phonological research: phonetics–phonology interface, segmental phonology, syllable structure and stress, morphophonology, language variation and change, and language acquisition, including general as well as more specialized articles. The reader is guided through the volume with the help of the introduction and a detailed index. The book will serve as core reading for advanced graduate-level phonology courses and seminars in Spanish linguistics, and in general linguistics phonology courses. It will also constitute an essential reference for researchers in phonology, phonological theory, and Spanish, and related areas, such as language acquisition, bilingualism, education, and speech and hearing science.

Crosslinguistic Research in Syntax and Semantics

Negation, Tense, and Clausal Architecture
Author: Raffaella Zanuttini,Héctor Campos,Elena Herburger,Paul H. Portner
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 9781589013056
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 254
View: 883
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Presenting cutting-edge research in syntax and semantics, this important volume furthers theoretical claims in generative linguistics and represents a significant addition to present scholarship in the field. Leading scholars present crosslinguistic studies dealing with clausal architecture, negation, and tense and aspect, and the issue of whether a statistical model can by itself capture the richness of human linguistic abilities. Taken together, these contributions elegantly show how theoretical tools can propel our understanding of language beyond pretheoretical descriptions, especially when combined with the insight and skills of linguists who can analyze difficult and complex data. Crosslinguistic Research in Syntax and Semantics covers a range of topics currently at the center of lively debate in the linguistic literature, such as the structure of the left periphery of the clause, the proper treatment of negative polarity items, and the role of statistical learning in building a model of linguistic competence. The ten original contributions offer an excellent balance of novel empirical description and theoretical analysis, applied to a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Irish English, Italian, Malagasy, Malay, and a number of medieval Romance languages. Scholars and students of semantics, syntax, and linguistic theory will find it to be a valuable resource for ongoing scholarship and advanced study.