Optimality Theory and Language Change


Author: D.E. Holt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401001952
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 463
View: 8601
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This work discusses many optimization and linguistic issues in great detail. It treats the history of a variety of languages, including English, French, Germanic, Galician/ Portuguese, Latin, Russian, and Spanish and shows that the application of Optimality Theory allows for innovative and improved analyses. It contains a complete bibliography on OT and language change. It is of interest to historical linguists, researchers into OT and linguistic theory, and phonologists and syntacticians with an interest in historical change.

Markedness and Faithfulness in Vowel Systems


Author: Viola Miglio
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415967808
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 209
View: 8972
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Miglio argues that to assess the relative markedness of a segment, frequency of occurrence in vowel inventories is insufficient when considered on its own. In its analysis of the Great Vowel Shift, this book elaborates a more useful model of a unitary change even in a surface-oriented theory such as optimality theory, with the help of local conjunction. Miglio extends the device of local conjunction to model opaque relations, and calls for reranking and lexicon optimization as the means to capture change within optimality theory.

Optimality-Theoretic Studies in Spanish Phonology


Author: Fernando Martínez-Gil,Sonia Colina
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027292620
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 564
View: 8733
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This outstanding volume offers the first comprehensive collection of optimality-theoretic studies in Spanish phonology. Bringing together most of the best-known researchers in the field, it presents a state-of-the-art overview of research in Spanish phonology within the non-derivational framework of optimality theory. The book is structured around six major areas of phonological research: phonetics–phonology interface, segmental phonology, syllable structure and stress, morphophonology, language variation and change, and language acquisition, including general as well as more specialized articles. The reader is guided through the volume with the help of the introduction and a detailed index. The book will serve as core reading for advanced graduate-level phonology courses and seminars in Spanish linguistics, and in general linguistics phonology courses. It will also constitute an essential reference for researchers in phonology, phonological theory, and Spanish, and related areas, such as language acquisition, bilingualism, education, and speech and hearing science.

Bidirectional Optimality Theory


Author: Anton Benz,Jason Mattausch
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027255636
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 279
View: 8388
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Bidirectional Optimality Theory (BiOT) emerged at the turn of the millennium as a fusion of Radical Pragmatics and Optimality Theoretic Semantics. It stirred a wealth of new research in the pragmatics-semantics interface and heavily influenced e.g. the development of evolutionary and game theoretic approaches. Optimality Theory holds that linguistic output can be understood as the optimized products of ranked constraints. At the centre of BiOT is the insight that this optimisation has to take place both in production and interpretation, and that the production-interpretation cycle has to lead back to the original input. BiOT is now generally interpreted as a description of diachronically stable and cognitively optimal form–meaning pairs. It found applications beyond the semantics-pragmatics interface in language acquisition, historical linguistics, phonology, syntax, and typology. This book provides a state of the art overview of these developments. It collects nine chapters by leading scientists in the field.

Change, Chance, and Optimality


Author: April McMahon
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191583537
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 212
View: 1216
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This book is about how languages change. It is also a devastating critique of a widespread linguistic orthodoxy. April McMahon argues that to provide a convincing explanation of linguistic change the roles of history and contingency must be accommodated in linguistic theory. She also shows that theoretical work in related disciplines can be used to assess the value of such theories. Optimality Theory, or OT as it is usually called, dominates contemporary phonology, especially in the USA, and is becoming increasingly influential in syntax and language acquisition. Having set out its basis principles, Professor McMahon assesses their explanatory power in analysing language change and its residues in current phonological systems. Using cross-linguistic data, and drawing comparisons with other theories inside and outside linguistics, she shows that OT is incapable of accounting for language change, without the addition of rules and an appreciation of chance and historical contingency that would then undermine its theoretical underpinnings. OT relies on innateness and needs to discuss the origins of allegedly genetically-specified features. The author considers the nature and evolution of the human language capacity, and demonstrates a profound mismatch between the predictions of evolutionary biology and the claims for innateness made in OT.

Historical Linguistics, 1997

Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Düsseldorf, 10-17 August 1997
Author: Monika S. Schmid,Jennifer R. Austin,Dieter Stein
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027236690
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 409
View: 6298
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This volume presents a selection from the papers given at the 13th International Conference on Historical Linguistics. It offers a window on the current state of the art in historical linguistics: the papers cover a wide range of different languages, different language families, and different approaches to the study of linguistic change, ranging from optimality theory, theories of grammaticalization and the invisible hand, treatments of language contact and creolization to the linguistic consequences of political correctness. Among the languages under discussion are Akkadian, Catalan, Dutch, Finnish, Japanese, Sranan, Western Malayo-Polynesian, Yiddish, and a variety of Romance and Native American languages.

Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives on Contact Languages


Author: Magnus Huber,Viveka Velupillai
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027252548
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 370
View: 1532
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The Handbook of Historical Sociolinguistics


Author: Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy,Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111825726X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 704
View: 906
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Written by an international team of leading scholars, this groundbreaking reference work explores the nature of language change and diffusion, and paves the way for future research in this rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field. Features 35 newly-written essays from internationally acclaimed experts that reflect the growth and vitality of the burgeoning area of historical sociolinguistics Examines how sociolinguistic theoretical models, methods, findings, and expertise can be used to reconstruct a language's past in order to explain linguistic changes and developments Bridges the gap between the past and the present in linguistic studies Structured thematically into sections exploring: origins and theoretical assumptions; methods for the sociolinguistic study of the history of languages; linguistic and extra-linguistic variables; historical dialectology, language contact and diffusion; and attitudes to language

Survival of the Fittest

Fricative Lenition in English and Spanish from the Perspective of Optimality Theory
Author: Karolina Broś
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Pub
ISBN: 9781443872270
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 173
View: 6684
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Survival of the Fittest provides an in-depth analysis of weakening processes attested in Spanish and English within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). The book examines fricative lenition as an instance of sound change in progress, contributing to the study of phonological change and the notion of strength in phonology. It also provides motivation for the introduction of a derivational stage in OT analysis. A critical discussion of various OT sub-theories presented by the author leads to interesting conclusions concerning the way in which lenition and opacity processes should be addressed in OT. Furthermore, under the assumption that language change should be conceived in evolutionary terms, the book concludes that sounds undergo continuous modification which is not at all accidental. The direction of change tends to be a constant on the temporal axis, and the leniting character of a large portion of phonological processes observed in the world's languages points to the universal tendency for sounds to gradually fade and give way to other, stronger segments, which may be interpreted as an instantiation of "natural selection" within language. In taking a broader perspective on language, the book considers phonological processes to be successors of phonetic innovations, and predecessors of morphological and lexical shifts. Thus, in order to encompass more than just a formal discussion of certain phonological phenomena, this book pursues the more profound question of why and how certain regularities within irregularities are attested across languages. The empirical data from Chilean Spanish and English serve as instantiations of these universal patterns.

Language Change and Linguistic Theory


Author: D. Gary Miller
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Linguistic change
Page: 424
View: 2277
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This v. 1 book investigates a large range of changes and their motivations in all parts of the grammar and lexicon. The core argument is that, in the absence of a Grand Unification Theory in linguistics, a natural language changes. Changes occur in successive formal grammars.

Doing Optimality Theory

Applying Theory to Data
Author: John J. McCarthy
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444358057
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 328
View: 983
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Doing Optimality Theory brings together examples and practical, detailed advice for undergraduates and graduate students working in linguistics. Given that the basic premises of Optimality Theory are markedly different from other linguistic theories, this book presents the analytic techniques and new ways of thinking and theorizing that are required. Explains how to do analysis and research using Optimality Theory (OT) - a branch of phonology that has revolutionized the field since its conception in 1993 Offers practical, in-depth advice for students and researchers in the field, presented in an engaging way Features numerous examples, questions, and exercises throughout, all helping to illustrate the theory and summarize the core concepts of OT Written by John J. McCarthy, one of the theory’s leading proponents and an instrumental figure in the dissemination and use of OT today An ideal guide through the intricacies of linguistic analysis and research for beginning researchers, and, by example, one which will lead the way to future developments in the field.

Paul & Braunes Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur


Author: Helmut de Boor,Ingeborg Schröbler
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: German language
Page: N.A
View: 403
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Understanding Phonology


Author: Carlos Gussenhoven,Haike Jacobs
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134646593
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 336
View: 9474
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This widely acclaimed textbook provides a complete introduction to the phonology of human languages ideal for readers with no prior knowledge of the subject. This skilfully written text provides a broad, yet up-to-date, introduction to phonology. Assuming no previous knowledge of phonology or linguistic theory, the authors introduce the basic concepts and build on these progressively, discussing the main theories and illustrating key points with carefully chosen examples. A wide range of phenomena are covered: speech production, segmental contrasts, tone, quantity, prosodic structure, metrical relations and intonation. The main theories, including feature geometry and optimality theory are introduced, and their contributions to our understanding of phonology, as well as their shortcomings, are discussed objectively. This new edition has been updated and revised to meet the needs of today's students. Difficult points are given fuller explanation, references have been updated, and new exercises have been introduced to enable students to consolidate their learning.

The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis


Author: Bernd Heine,Heiko Narrog
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199677077
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 1180
View: 4077
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This handbook compares the main analytic frameworks and methods of contemporary linguistics. It offers a unique overview of linguistic theory, revealing the common concerns of competing approaches. By showing their current and potential applications it provides the means by which linguists and others can judge what are the most useful models for the task in hand. Distinguished scholars from all over the world explain the rationale and aims of over thirty explanatory approaches to the description, analysis, and understanding of language. Each chapter considers the main goals of the model; the relation it proposes from between lexicon, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and phonology; the way it defines the interactions between cognition and grammar; what it counts as evidence; and how it explains linguistic change and structure. The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis offers an indispensable guide for everyone researching any aspect of language including those in linguistics, comparative philology, cognitive science, developmental philology, cognitive science, developmental psychology, computational science, and artificial intelligence. This second edition has been updated to include seven new chapters looking at linguistic units in language acquisition, conversation analysis, neurolinguistics, experimental phonetics, phonological analysis, experimental semantics, and distributional typology.

Language Change and Language Contact in Pidgins and Creoles


Author: John H. McWhorter
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027252432
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 503
View: 1249
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This book collects a selection of fifteen papers presented at three meetings of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics in 1996 and 1997. The focus is on papers which approach issues in creole studies with novel perspectives, address understudied pidgin and creole varieties, or compellingly argue for controversial positions. The papers demonstrate how pidgins and creoles shed light on issues such as verb movement, contact-induced language change and its gradations, discourse management via tense-aspect particles, language genesis, substratal transfer, and Universal Grammar, and cover a wide range of contact languages, ranging from English- and French-based creoles through Portuguese creoles of Africa and Asia, Sango, Popular Brazilian Portuguese, West African Pidgin Englishes, and Hawaiian Creole English.

Segmental Phonology in Optimality Theory

Constraints and Representations
Author: Linda Lombardi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521790574
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 300
View: 614
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Optimality theory has rapidly become the dominant framework in formal phonological theory. OT fundamentally revises the basic notions of generative grammar, replacing rules and derivations with a system of interacting constraints. Early work in OT tended to concentrate mainly on prosodic phonology and the phonology-morphology interface, and it was not initially clear how the theory could attack the rich range of phenomena found in segmental alterations. However, there is a body of work that concentrates on working out the details of featural phonology with OT, and this work shows that the theory allows superior explanations of the typological possibilities and the underlying motivations for these phenomena. This volume, first published in 2001, brings together work by some of the influential researchers in this area, ranging from the authors of influential dissertations to prominent senior faculty.

Optimality theory and Japanese loanword phonology


Author: Motoko Katayama
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Foreign Language Study
Page: 452
View: 2111
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Diachronic Syntax

Models and Mechanisms
Author: Susan Pintzuk,George Tsoulas,Anthony Warner
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198250272
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 380
View: 2608
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This collection of new writing on grammatical change advances research in the field and shows its breadth and liveliness. The study of how and why syntax changes occupies a pivotal position in research into the nature, use, and acquisition of language. It is responsive to theoretical advancesin linguistic theory, language acquisition, and theories of language use as well as to less adjacent fields such as statistical techniques and evolutionary biology. Chomsky's Minimalist Programme and Kayne's theories of antisymmetry and overt movement have brought into sharper focus questionsconcerning the architecture of linguistic theory, and this has had a direct impact on the understanding of the processes of change. Optimality Theory has also begun to raise new questions as it is applied to syntax and historical change. The sociolinguistic causes and consequences of syntacticchange have also become newly prominent. These are among the many issues and themes discussed and explored by the authors. The book's fourteen chapters exemplify work in a wide range of languages, including Germanic (Icelandic and Swedish, as well as Old and Middle English); Romance (Latin, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish); Slavonic; and Chinese. A substantial introduction provides a critical synthesis of the field andsets the following chapters in context. The book is then divided into parts dealing with theoretical frameworks, comparative change, features and categories, and movement. The single collated bibliography to the entire volume is a valuable research tool in itself.Diachronic Syntax is innovative in both theory and method and makes a substantial contribution to its subject. It will be of interest to all those concerned to understand and explain the internal dynamics of language.

Variation, Change and Phonological Theory


Author: Frans Hinskens,Roeland van Hout,Leo Wetzels
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 902723650X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 314
View: 2954
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There is a growing awareness that a fruitful cooperation between the (diachronic and synchronic) study of language variation and change and work in phonological theory is both possible and desirable. The study of language variation and change would benefit from this kind of cooperation on the conceptual and theoretical levels. Phonological theory may well profit from a greater use of what is commonly called 'external evidence'. This volume contains contributions by outstanding representatives from the more data-oriented fields and phonological theory. They discuss possibilities and problems for a further integration of both areas, by considering questions such as where and to which extent the two may need each other, and whether there is a need for an interdisciplinary conceptual framework and methodology. Attention is also paid to questions regarding the cause and actuation, linguistic constraints and the internal spread of linguistic change, as well as to possible and impossible processes of language change.